Brine shrimp Artemia salina, copyright Hans Hillewaert.

Belongs within: Allotriocarida.
Contains: Calmanostraca, Diplostraca, Anostracina.

The Branchiopoda are a morphologically diverse group of crustaceans with phyllopodous limbs, including the water fleas, fairy shrimp and tadpole shrimp. Within the Branchiopoda, a well-developed carapace is present in members of the clade Phyllopoda but absent in the Anostraca. The Anostraca, brine shrimps, typically inhabit saline habitats such as ephemeral pools and marine lagoons, and swim with their ventral side upwards. Brine shrimps may be divided between the clades Anostracina and Artemiina with the latter being characterised by two rigid wart- or spine-like outgrowths on the inner side of the median article of the second antenna in males, a short brood pouch often with two lateral lobes in females, and the seventh abdominal segment often being fused with the telson (Weekers et al. 2002).

    |--Phyllopoda MD01
    |    |  i. s.: Estheria B66
    |    |           |--E. fukiensis G31
    |    |           |--E. mangaliensis F71
    |    |           |--E. newcombii Baird 1866 B66
    |    |           `--E. striata [incl. E. striata var. tateiana] T64
    |    |         Ozestheria rubra SC17
    |    |--Calmanostraca MD01
    |    `--Diplostraca MD01
    `--Anostraca MD01
         |  i. s.: Prochiracephalus S02
         |         Chirocephalopsis bundyi D56
         |         Siphonophanes grubei [=Chirocephalus grubei] A99
         |--Anostracina WM02
         `--Artemiina WM02
              |--Parartemia [Parartemiidae, Parartemiinae] WM02
              |    `--P. zietziana WM02
              `--Artemia Leach 1819 BWW93 [Artemiidae WM02]
                   |--A. franciscana WM02
                   `--A. salina WM02

Branchiopoda incertae sedis:
  Leptestheriella ineremis T06
  Daphniopsis pusilla TDC06
  Cyclestherioides lenticularis (Mitchell 1927) [=Estheria lenticularis] F71
  Discoleaia discoidalis (Mitchell 1925) [=Leaia discoidea] F71
  Estheriina F71
    |--E. glabra (Mitchell 1927) [=Estheria glabra, Palaeolimnadia glabra] F71
    |--E. glenleensis (Mitchell 1927) [=Estheria glenleensis, Palaeolimnadia glenleensis] F71
    `--E. linguiformis [=Estheria linguiformis, Palaeolimnadia linguiformis] F71
  Estherites wianamattensis (Mitchell 1927) (see below for synonymy) F71
  Trileaia F71
    |--T. belmontensis (Mitchell 1925) [=Leaia belmontensis] F71
    |--T. etheridgei Kobayashi 1954 F71
    |--T. intermedia (Mitchell 1925) [=Leaia intermediata] F71
    |--T. mitchelli (Etheridge 1892) [=Leaia mitchelli] F71
    `--T. sulcata Kobayashi 1954 F71
  Quadrileaia quadricarinata (Mitchell 1925) [=Leaia quadricarinata] F71
  Lioestheria F71
    |--L. bellambiensis (Mitchell 1927) [=Estheria bellambiensis] F71
    `--L. belmontensis (Mitchell 1927) [=Estheria belmontensis, Pseudestheria belmontensis] F71
  Euestheria F71
    |--E. coghlani (Etheridge 1888) [=Estheria coghlani, Palaeolimnadia coghlani] F71
    |--E. harveyi [=Isaura (Euestheria) harveyi] T61
    |    |--E. h. harveyi T61
    |    `--E. h. wellingtoni [=Isaura (Euestheria) harveyi wellingtoni] T61
    |--E. ipsviciensis (Mitchell 1927) [=Estheria ipsviciensis, Pseudestheria ipsviciensis] F71
    |--E. lata (Mitchell 1927) [=Estheria lata, Pseudestheria lata] F71
    |--E. middendorfii K84
    |--E. novocastrensis (Mitchell 1927) [=Estheria novocastrensis, Pseudestheria novocastrensis] F71
    |--E. obliqua (Mitchell 1927) [=Estheria obliqua, Pseudestheria obliqua] F71
    `--E. trigonellaris (Mitchell 1927) [=Estheria trigonellaris, Pseudestheria trigonellaris] F71

Estherites wianamattensis (Mitchell 1927) [=Estheria wianamattensis, Euestheria wianamattensis, Palaeolimnadia wianamattensis] F71

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A99] Ax, P. 1999. Das System der Metazoa II. Ein Lehrbuch der phylogenetischen Systematik. Gustav Fisher Verlag: Stuttgart (transl. 2000. Multicellular Animals: The phylogenetic system of the Metazoa vol. 2. Springer).

[B66] Baird, W. 1866. Descriptions of two new species of phyllopodous crustaceans. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 122–123.

[BWW93] Briggs, D. E. G., M. J. Weedon & M. A. Whyte. 1993. Arthropoda (Crustacea excluding Ostracoda). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 321–342. Chapman & Hall: London.

[D56] Dexter, R. W. 1956. A new fairy shrimp from western United States, with notes on other North American species. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (5): 159–165.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[G31] Grabau, A. W. 1931. The Permian of Mongolia: A report on the Permian fauna of the Jisu Honguer limestone of Mongolia and its relations to the Permian of other parts of the world. American Museum of Natural History: New York.

[K84] Kobayashi, T. 1984. On the non-marine Mesozoic faunas of Asia and their bearing on the historical geology. Fossils 35: 33–37.

[MD01] Martin, J. W., & G. E. Davis. 2001. An updated classification of the Recent Crustacea. Natural History Museum Los Angeles County, Science Series 39: 1–124.

[SC17] Schwentner, M., D. J. Combosch, J. P. Nelson & G. Giribet. 2017. A phylogenomic solution to the origin of insects by resolving crustacean-hexapod relationships. Current Biology 27: 1818–1824.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Ecological history of the aquatic insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 388–426. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[T61] Tasch, P. 1961. Paleolimnology: Part 2—Harvey and Sedgwick counties, Kansas: stratigraphy and biota. Journal of Paleontology 35: 836–865.

[T64] Tate, G. 1864. Description of a sea-star, Cribellites carbonarius, from the Mountain Limestone formation of Northumberland, with a notice of its association with Carboniferous plants. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33 (Notices and Abstracts): 88–89.

[T06] Timms, B. V. 2006. The large branchiopods (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) of gnammas (rock holes) in Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (4): 163–173.

[TDC06] Timms, B. V., B. Datson & M. Coleman. 2006. The wetlands of the Lake Carey catchment, northeast Goldfields of Western Australia, with special reference to large branchiopods. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (4): 175–183.

[WM02] Weekers, P. H. H., G. Murugan, J. R. Vanfleteren, D. Belk & H. J. Dumont. 2002. Phylogenetic analysis of anostracans (Branchiopoda: Anostraca) inferred from nuclear 18S ribosomal DNA (18S rDNA) sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 25: 535–544.

Last updated: 25 December 2021.

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