Vernal pool tadpole shrimp Lepidurus apus packardi, copyright William Leonard.

Belongs within: Pancrustacea.
Contains: Anostraca, Diplostraca.

The Branchiopoda are a morphologically diverse group of crustaceans with phyllopodous limbs, including the water fleas, fairy shrimp and tadpole shrimp. Within the Branchiopoda, a well-developed carapace is present in members of the clade Phyllopoda but absent in the Sarsostraca.

    |--Sarsostraca MD01
    |    |  i. s.: Lepidocaris rhyniensis Scourfield 1925 LSE13, Y86
    |    |--Lipostraca MD01
    |    `--Anostraca MD01
    `--Phyllopoda MD01
         |  i. s.: Estheria B66
         |           |--E. mangaliensis F71
         |           `--E. newcombii Baird 1866 B66
         |--Diplostraca MD01
         `--Calmanostraca MD01
              |--Kazacharthraca MD01
              `--Notostraca [Apusidae] MD01
                   |--Prolepidurus S02
                   |--Lynceites [Lynceitidae] G88
                   |--Triops Schranck 1803 TDC06, P08 (see below for synonymy)
                   |    |--T. australiensis (Spencer & Hall 1896) (see below for synonymy) L55
                   |    |    |--T. a. australiensis L55
                   |    |    `--T. a. sukalavus (Nobili 1905) [=Apus sukalavus] L55
                   |    |--T. cancriformis (Bosc 1801) L55 (see below for synonymy)
                   |    |    |--T. c. cancriformis M79
                   |    |    |--T. c. mauretanicus Ghigi 1921 [=Thriops (l. c.) mauretanicus] L55
                   |    |    |--T. c. minor M79
                   |    |    `--T. c. simplex Ghigi 1921 [=Thriops (l. c.) simplex] L55
                   |    |--T. granarius (Lucas 1864) (see below for synonymy) L55
                   |    |--T. longicaudatus (LeConte 1846) (see below for synonymy) L55
                   |    |    |--T. l. longicaudatus L55
                   |    |    `--T. l. intermedius Longhurst 1955 L55
                   |    `--‘Limulus’ pennigerus [=Binoculus pennigerus] L02b
                   `--Lepidurus Leach 1819 [incl. Bilobus Sidorov 1924; Lepiduridae] L55
                        |--L. angasii Baird 1866 B66
                        |--L. arcticus (Pallas 1793) (see below for synonymy) L55
                        |--L. apus (Linnaeus 1758) (see below for synonymy) L55
                        |    |--L. a. apus T06
                        |    |--L. a. lubbocki Brauer 1873 L55
                        |    |--L. a. packardi Simon 1886 L55
                        |    |--L. a. patagonicus Berg 1900 L55
                        |    `--L. a. viridis Baird 1850 T06, B66
                        |--L. batesoni Longhurst 1955 L55
                        |--L. bilobatus Packard 1883 L55
                        |--L. lemmoni (Holmes 1894) (n. d.) L55
                        |--L. lynchi Linder 1952 [incl. L. lynchi var. echinatus Linder 1952] L55
                        `--L. stormbergensis L55

Branchiopoda incertae sedis:
  Leptestheriella ineremis T06
  Daphniopsis pusilla TDC06
  Cyclestherioides lenticularis (Mitchell 1927) [=Estheria lenticularis] F71
  Discoleaia discoidalis (Mitchell 1925) [=Leaia discoidea] F71
  Estheriina F71
    |--E. glabra (Mitchell 1927) [=Estheria glabra, Palaeolimnadia glabra] F71
    |--E. glenleensis (Mitchell 1927) [=Estheria glenleensis, Palaeolimnadia glenleensis] F71
    `--E. linguiformis [=Estheria linguiformis, Palaeolimnadia linguiformis] F71
  Estherites wianamattensis (Mitchell 1927) (see below for synonymy) F71
  Trileaia F71
    |--T. belmontensis (Mitchell 1925) [=Leaia belmontensis] F71
    |--T. etheridgei Kobayashi 1954 F71
    |--T. intermedia (Mitchell 1925) [=Leaia intermediata] F71
    |--T. mitchelli (Etheridge 1892) [=Leaia mitchelli] F71
    `--T. sulcata Kobayashi 1954 F71
  Leaia F71
    |--L. collinsi Mitchell 1925 F71
    |--L. compta Mitchell 1925 F71
    |--L. elliptica Mitchell 1925 F71
    |--L. latissima Mitchell 1925 F71
    |--L. oblongata Mitchell 1925 F71
    |--L. paraleidyi Mitchell 1925 F71
    |--L. pincombei Mitchell 1925 F71
    `--L. quadrata Mitchell 1925 F71
  Quadrileaia quadricarinata (Mitchell 1925) [=Leaia quadricarinata] F71
  Lioestheria F71
    |--L. bellambiensis (Mitchell 1927) [=Estheria bellambiensis] F71
    `--L. belmontensis (Mitchell 1927) [=Estheria belmontensis, Pseudestheria belmontensis] F71
  Euestheria F71
    |--E. coghlani (Etheridge 1888) [=Estheria coghlani, Palaeolimnadia coghlani] F71
    |--E. ipsviciensis (Mitchell 1927) [=Estheria ipsviciensis, Pseudestheria ipsviciensis] F71
    |--E. lata (Mitchell 1927) [=Estheria lata, Pseudestheria lata] F71
    |--E. middendorfii K84
    |--E. novocastrensis (Mitchell 1927) [=Estheria novocastrensis, Pseudestheria novocastrensis] F71
    |--E. obliqua (Mitchell 1927) [=Estheria obliqua, Pseudestheria obliqua] F71
    `--E. trigonellaris (Mitchell 1927) [=Estheria trigonellaris, Pseudestheria trigonellaris] F71

Estherites wianamattensis (Mitchell 1927) [=Estheria wianamattensis, Euestheria wianamattensis, Palaeolimnadia wianamattensis] F71

Lepidurus apus (Linnaeus 1758) L55 [=Monoculus apus L55, Limulus apus L02a; incl. L. angasi Baird 1866 L55, L. barcaeus Ghigi 1921 L55, L. compressus Thompson 1879 L55, L. couessii Packard 1875 L55, Apus extensus Braem 1893 L55, L. hatcheri Ortmann 1911 L55, L. kirki Thompson 1879 L55, L. macrourus Lilljeborg 1877 L55, Apus productus Bosc 1801 L55, L. productus L55, L. viridulus Tate 1879 L55]

Lepidurus arcticus (Pallas 1793) [=Monoculus arcticus; incl. L. glacialis Packard 1883, Apus productus var. glacialis, L. spitzbergensis Bernard 1893, L. ussuriensis Sidorov 1927] L55

Triops Schranck 1803 TDC06, P08 [incl. Apodis Zaddach 1841 (non-binomial) L55, Apus Schaeffer 1756 (pre-Linnean) non Scopoli 1777 P08, Binoculus Geoffroy 1762 (non-binomial) L55, Proterothriops Ghigi 1921 L55, Thriops (l. c.) L55, Triopes (l. c.) L55; Triopidae, Triopsidae]

Triops australiensis (Spencer & Hall 1896) [=Apus australiensis; incl. T. gracilis Wolf 1911, A. madagassicus Thiele 1907, A. strenuus Wolf 1911] L55

Triops cancriformis (Bosc 1801) L55 [=*Apus cancriformis P08; incl. Thriops (l. c.) apulius Ghigi 1921 L55, A. cancriformis bidens Sidorov 1909 L55, A. haliciensis Fiszera 1885 L55, A. himalayensis Packard 1871 L55, A. lublinensis Fiszera 1885 L55, A. montagui Leach 1816 L55, Triops palustris Schrank 1803 L55, Limulus palustris L02b, Apus cancriformis transcaucasicus Sidorov 1909 L55, A. varsovianus Fiszera 1885 L55, A. viridis Bosc 1801 L55]

Triops granarius (Lucas 1864) [=Apus granarius; incl. A. asiaticus Gurney 1921, A. bottegoi Prato 1886, A. sudanicus var. braueri Braem 1893, A. sudanicus var. chinensis Braem 1893, A. dispar Brauer 1877, A. dukeanus Day 1880, A. numidicus var. dybowskii Braem 1893, A. elongatus Thiele 1907, A. mavliensis Tiwari 1952, A. namaquensis Richters 1886, A. numidicus Grube 1865, A. orientalis Tiwari 1952, A. ovamboensis Barnard 1924, A. sculleyi Sars 1899, A. numidicus var. sinensis Uéno 1928, A. somalicus Wedenissow 1895, A. numidicus var. strauchii Braem 1893, A. sudanicus Brauer 1877, A. trachyaspis Sars 1899, Triops uebensis Colosi 1922, A. zanoni Colosi 1920] L55

Triops longicaudatus (LeConte 1846) [=Apus longicaudatus; incl. A. aequalis Packard 1871, A. biggsi Rosenberg 1947, A. domingensis Baird 1852, A. frenzeli Thiele 1907, A. guildingi Thompson 1834 (n. d.), A. lucasanus Packard 1871, A. newberryi Packard 1871, A. obtusus James 1823 (n. d.), A. oryzaphagus Rosenberg 1947, Triops pampaneus Ringuelet 1944] L55

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B66] Baird, W. 1866. Descriptions of two new species of phyllopodous crustaceans. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 122–123.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[K84] Kobayashi, T. 1984. On the non-marine Mesozoic faunas of Asia and their bearing on the historical geology. Fossils 35: 33–37.

[L02a] Latreille, P. A. 1802a. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L02b] Latreille, P. A. 1802b. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 4. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[LSE13] Legg, D. A., M. D. Sutton & G. D. Edgecombe. 2013. Arthropod fossil data increase congruence of morphological and molecular phylogenies. Nature Communications 4: 2485.

[L55] Longhurst, A. R. 1955. A review of the Notostraca. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Zoology 3 (1): 1–57.

[MD01] Martin, J. W., & G. E. Davis. 2001. An updated classification of the Recent Crustacea. Natural History Museum Los Angeles County, Science Series 39: 1–124.

[M79] Müller, A. H. 1979. Fossilization (taphonomy). In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A2–A78. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[P08] Paclt, J. 2008. On the triple usage of the family name Apodidae in zoology (Aves; Crustacea; Insecta). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (1): 49–52.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Ecological history of the aquatic insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 388–426. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[T06] Timms, B. V. 2006. The large branchiopods (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) of gnammas (rock holes) in Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (4): 163–173.

[TDC06] Timms, B. V., B. Datson & M. Coleman. 2006. The wetlands of the Lake Carey catchment, northeast Goldfields of Western Australia, with special reference to large branchiopods. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (4): 175–183.

[Y86] Yager, J. 1986. Remipedia. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 382–384. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

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