Trogioidea

Cerobasis guestfalica, photographed by Brian Valentine.


Belongs within: Psocoptera.

The Trogioidea is a group of small barklice with wings reduced or absent.

Characters (from Li 2002; translated using Mandarin Tools, all errors my own): Small size, wings (if present) not more than buds. Antennae with more than twenty segments, not annulated. Epicranial sutures complete or lateral arms absent; eyes large and not hairy, ocelli absent or three present, closely placed; lacinia tip not toothed or with only one large tooth, labial palp with four slender segments, terminal segment axe-shaped. Tarsus three-segmented, claw without preapical tooth.

<==Trogioidea [Psoquilloidea]
    |--Archaeatropidae R02
    |--Empheriidae R02
    |--Anomocopeus Badonnel 1967 [Anomocopeidae] L02
    |--Psoquillidae M93
    |    |--Balliella Badonnel 1949 M93
    |    |    `--*B. ealensis Badonnel 1949 M93
    |    |--Psoquilla Hagen 1865 [incl. Heteropsocus Verrill 1902] M93
    |    |    |--*P. marginepunctata Hagen 1865 M93 [incl. Heteropsocus dispar Verrill 1902 M93, P. dispar B49]
    |    |    `--P. infuscata Badonnel 1949 B49
    |    `--Rhyopsocus Hagen 1876 [incl. Deipnopsocus Enderlein 1903, Rhyopsocopsis Pearman 1929] M93
    |         |--*R. eclipticus Hagen 1876 [incl. R. phillipsae Sommerman 1956] M93
    |         |--R. afer (Badonnel 1948) [=Deipnopsocus afer] B49
    |         |--R. bentonae Sommerman 1956 M93
    |         |--R. bicornis Badonnel 1986 B86
    |         |--R. disparilis (Pearman 1931) M93 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |--R. maculosus M93
    |         |--R. micropterus Mockford 1971 M93
    |         |--R. orthatus B86
    |         |--R. pandanicola Thornton, Lee & Chui 1972 S95
    |         |--R. speciophilus MG56
    |         `--R. texanus (Banks 1930) (see below for synonymy) M93
    `--Trogiidae [Atropidae] R02
         |--Myrmicodipnella Enderlein 1909 M93
         |    `--*M. aptera Enderlein 1909 M93
         |--Trogium Iliger 1798 [incl. Atropos Leach 1815, Clothilla Westwood 1841] M93
         |    `--*T. pulsatorium (Linnaeus 1758) (see below for synonymy) M93
         |--Helminotrogia Li 2002 L02
         |    `--*H. bipunctatia Li 2002 L02
         |--Phlebotrogia Li 2002 L02
         |    `--*P. chinensis Li 2002 L02
         |--Lepinotus Heyden 1850 (see below for synonymy) M93
         |    |--*L. inquilinus Heyden 1850 (see below for synonymy) M93
         |    |--L. angolensis Badonnel 1955 B55
         |    |--L. patruelis Pearman 1931 M93
         |    |--L. quadrispinosus [=L. (Heterolepinotus) quadrispinosus] B55
         |    |--L. reticulatus Enderlein 1905 M93
         |    `--L. tasmaniensis Hickman 1934 M93
         `--Cerobasis Kolbe 1882 (see below for synonymy) M93
              |--+--C. caboverdensis M93
              |  |--C. harteni M93
              |  |--C. intermedia M93
              |  |--C. lambda M93
              |  |--C. papillata M93
              |  `--C. treptica M93
              `--+--*C. guestfalica (Kolbe 1880) (see below for synonymy) M93
                 |--C. alfredi M93
                 |--C. annulata (Hagen 1865) [=Clothilla annulata, Atropos annulata, Myopsocnema annulata] M93
                 |--C. bundyi M93
                 |--C. canariensis M93
                 |--C. lapidaria Badonnel 1955 M93, B55 [=C. lapidarius B55]
                 |--C. maculiceps M93
                 |--C. maderensis M93
                 |--C. multispinosa M93
                 `--C. recta M93

Cerobasis Kolbe 1882 [incl. Albardia Jacobson & Bianchi 1904, Hyperetes Kolbe 1880 (preoc.), Myopsocnema Enderlein 1905, Tichobia Kolbe 1882, Zlinia Obr 1948] M93

*Cerobasis guestfalica (Kolbe 1880) [=Hyperetes guestfalicus; incl. Tichobia alternans Kolbe 1882, Albardia alternans, Cerobasis muraria Kolve 1882, Hyperetes pinicola Kolbe 1881, H. tessulatus Hagen 1883] M93

Lepinotus Heyden 1850 [incl. Cuixa Navás 1927, Heterolepinotus Obr 1948, Paradoxenus Molshulsky 1852, Paradoxides Motschulsky 1851] M93

*Lepinotus inquilinus Heyden 1850 [=Clothilla inquilina, Atropos inquilina; incl. Cuixa canaria Navás 1927, A. distincta Kolbe 1888, Clothilla distincta, Cl. picea Hagen 1861, Atropos picea, Lepinotus piceus, Paradoxides psocoides Motschulsky 1851, Paradoxenus psocoides, Termes pulsatorium Scopoli 1763 non Linnaeus 1758, Atropos sericea Kolbe 1883, Lepinotus sericeus] M93

Rhyopsocus disparilis (Pearman 1931) M93 [=Deipnopsocus spheciophilus var. disparilis M93, R. spheciophilus disparilis MG56]

Rhyopsocus texanus (Banks 1930) [=Deipnopsocus texanus; incl. R. pescadori García Aldrete 1984, R. squamosus Mockford & Gurney 1956] M93

*Trogium pulsatorium (Linnaeus 1758) [=Termes pulsatorium, Atropos pulsatoria, Clothilla pulsatoria, Hemerobius pulsatorius Fabricius 1775, Psocus pulsatorius, Psylla pulsatoria Billburg 1820, Troctes pulsatorius; incl. Termes lignarium de Geer 1778, Atropos lignaria, Clothilla ocelloria Weber 1906, C. studiosa Westwood 1841] M93

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B49] Badonnel, A. 1949. Psocoptères de la Cote d'Ivoire. Mission Paulian-Delamare (1945). Revue Française d'Entomologie 16: 20-46.

[B55] Badonnel, A. 1955. Psocoptères de l'Angola. Diamang Publicações Culturais 26: 11-267.

[B86] Badonnel, A. 1986. Psocoptères de Colombie (Insecta, Psocoptera). Spixiana 9 (2): 179-223.

[L02] Li F. 2002. Psocoptera of China vol. 1. Science Press: Beijing.

[M93] Mockford, E. L. 1993. North American Psocoptera (Insecta). Sandhill Crane Press, Inc.

[MG56] Mockford, E. L. & A. B. Gurney. 1956. A review of the psocids, or book-lice and bark-lice, of Texas (Psocoptera). Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (11): 353-368.

[R02] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002. Superorder Psocidea Leach, 1815. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 125-133. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[S95] Smithers, C. N. 1995. Psocoptera (Insecta) of Christmas Island. Invertebrate Taxonomy 9: 529-561.

Caeciliusidae

Xanthocaecilius quillayute, photographed by Dann Thombs.


Belongs within: Caeciliusetae.
Contains: Enderleinella, Paracaecilius, Dypsocus, Caecilius.

The Caeciliusidae are a group of barklice with forewing veins bearing setae on the dorsal surface only.

Characters (from Mockford 1993): Inner clypeal shelf variable. Distal inner labral sensilla five to seven. Lacinial tip variable: broad and flat, broad and denticulate, slender and bicuspid, or slender and bilobed. Labral stylets present or absent. Maxillary palpus with mx4 shorter than mx2. Setae of forewings slanting distad, relatively short, usually in one rank except on costa. Setae on veins in distal half of forewing only on dorsal surface. Hindwing margin mostly ciliated except basal two-thirds of front margin. Spine of free margin of paraproct small or absent. Endophallus with median bulb, usually not divided on midline, ovipositor valvulae with v3 a sclerotic bulge from base of v2.

<==Caeciliusidae [Caeciliidae]
    |  i. s.: Xanthocaecilius Mockford 1989 M93
    |           |--X. quillayute (Chapman 1930) [=Caecilius quillayute] M93
    |           `--X. sommermanae (Mockford 1955) [=Caecilius sommermanae] M93
    |         Orocaecilius Mockford 1999 L02
    |         Asiocaecilius Mockford 1999 L02
    |         Austrocaecilius alettae S95
    |         Valenzuela Navás 1924 SN04
    |           |--*V. marianus Navás 1924 SN04
    |           `--V. impressa (Hagen 1859) [=Elipsocus impressus, Psocus impressus] SN04
    |--Paracaeciliinae L02
    |    |--Enderleinella L02
    |    `--Paracaecilius L02
    |--Amphicaecilius Li 2002 [Amphicaeciliinae] L02
    |    |--*A. pulcherrimus Li 2002 L02
    |    |--A. daqingshanicus Li 2002 L02
    |    |--A. floribundus Li 2002 L02
    |    `--A. pulchellus Li 2002 L02
    |--Dypsocinae L02
    |    |--Stenepipsocus B55
    |    |    |--S. angolensis Badonnel 1955 B55
    |    |    `--S. collarti B55
    |    `--Dypsocus L02
    `--Caeciliusinae L02
         |  i. s.: Disialacaecilia Li 2002 L02
         |           `--*D. ningxiaensis Li 2002 L02
         |         Parvialacaecilia Li 2002 L02
         |           `--*P. hebeiensis Li 2002 L02
         |         Anoculaticaecilius Li 1997 L02
         |           `--*A. chuanshaanicus Li 1997 [=Anoculaticaeca chuanshaanica (l. c.)] L02
         |         ‘Neocaecilius’ Li 2002 non Li 2000 L02
         |           |--*N. triradiatus Li 2002 L02
         |           `--N. mangshiensis Li 2002 L02
         |         Bivalvicaecilia Li 2002 L02
         |           |--*B. longiansa Li 2002 L02
         |           `--B. abbreviata (Li 1993) [=Caecilius abbreviatus, Asiocaecilius abbreviatus] L02
         |         Phymocaecilius Li 2002 L02
         |           |--*P. subulosus Li 2002 L02
         |           |--P. fortis (Li 1995) [=Caecilius fortis, Velenzuala forti] L02
         |           |--P. fuscifascus Li 2002 L02
         |           |--P. guizhouensis Li 2002 L02
         |           `--P. puniceifascus Li 2002 L02
         |         Coryphosmila Enderlein 1925 S95, L02
         |           `--C. dolobrata (Hagen 1858) L02
         |         Maoripsocus S95
         |--Caecilius
         `--Fuellebornelliini B55
              |--Ypsiloneura B55
              |    |--Y. kirkpatricki B55
              |    `--Y. monostyla Badonnel 1955 B55
              `--Fuelleborniella Enderlein 1902 S95, L02
                   |--*F. nyassica Enderlein 1902 B55
                   |--F. anomala B55
                   |--F. atricornis Badonnel 1955 B55
                   |--F. capensis B55
                   |--F. comorensis B55
                   |--F. distincta Badonnel 1955 B55
                   |--F. dubia Badonnel 1955 B55
                   |--F. fulva B55
                   |--F. fusca Badonnel 1955 B55
                   |--F. intermedia Badonnel 1946 B49
                   |--F. narmadus (Thornton 1984) [=Caecilius narmadus] S95
                   |--F. nigricornis Badonnel 1955 B55
                   |--F. nimbensis Badonnel 1948 B55
                   |--F. okanus S95
                   |--F. parva Badonnel 1946 B55
                   `--F. tuberculata Badonnel 1955 B55

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B49] Badonnel, A. 1949. Psocoptères de la Cote d'Ivoire. Mission Paulian-Delamare (1945). Revue Française d'Entomologie 16: 20-46.

[B55] Badonnel, A. 1955. Psocoptères de l'Angola. Diamang Publicações Culturais 26: 11-267.

[L02] Li F. 2002. Psocoptera of China vol. 1. Science Press: Beijing.

[M93] Mockford, E. L. 1993. North American Psocoptera (Insecta). Sandhill Crane Press, Inc.

[SN04] Schmidt, E. R., & T. R. New. 2004. A systematic and phylogenetic revision of the family Elipsocidae (Insecta: Psocoptera), with the erection of two new families: Lesneiidae and Sabulopsocidae. Invertebrate Systematics 18: 157-213.

[S95] Smithers, C. N. 1995. Psocoptera (Insecta) of Christmas Island. Invertebrate Taxonomy 9: 529-561.

Psocomorpha

Archipsocus floridanus, photographed by Ben Van Allen.


Belongs within: Psocoptera.
Contains: Psocetae, Homilopsocidea, Caeciliusetae, Epipsocetae.

The Psocomorpha is a major subgroup of the barklice, characterised by the presence of non-annulated antennae, and in winged forms of a sclerotised pterostigma.

Characters (from Yoshizawa 2002): Head usually with rounded vertex; antennae 13-segmented; flagellomeres never annulated; maxilla without stipito-galeal muscle; hypopharyngeal filaments fused for most of their length; labial palpus 1-segmented. Forewing with nodus and thickened pterostigma; nodulus hook-shaped, formed by truncated spines fused at their base; CuP ending together with A1 at wing margin. Apex of first axillary sclerite usually with minute proximal process. Subgenital plate lacking median sclerite.

<==Psocomorpha [Eupsocida, Psociformia]
    |--Archipsocidae [Archipsocetae, Archipsocoidea] Y02
    |    |--Pararchipsocus pacificus Y02
    |    |--Pseudarchipsocus Mockford 1974 M74
    |    |    `--*P. guajiro Mockford 1974 M74
    |    |--Archipsocopsis Badonnel 1948 M93
    |    |    |--*A. mendax M93
    |    |    |--A. fernandi L02
    |    |    |--A. frater (Mockford 1957) [=Archipsocus frater] M93
    |    |    |--A. inornata M93
    |    |    `--A. parvulus (Mockford 1953) L02, M93 [=Archipsocus (Archipsocopsis) parvulus M93]
    |    `--Archipsocus Hagen 1882 M93
    |         |--*A. puber Hagen 1882 L02
    |         |--A. albofasciatus Badonnel 1949 B55
    |         |--A. aneura Badonnel 1948 B55
    |         |--A. badonneli B86
    |         |--A. bicolor B55
    |         |--A. castrii B86
    |         |--A. floridanus Mockford 1953 M93
    |         |--A. fuscopalpus Badonnel 1955 B55
    |         |--A. ghesquierei Badonnel 1946 (see below for synonymy) B55
    |         |    |--A. g. ghesquierei B55
    |         |    `--A. g. longicornis Badonnel 1955 B55
    |         |--A. gurneyi Mockford 1953 M93
    |         |--A. machadoi Badonnel 1955 B55
    |         |--A. mendax Badonnel 1948 B55
    |         |--A. minutus Badonnel 1955 B55
    |         |--A. modestus B86
    |         |--A. nomas Gurney 1939 M93
    |         |--A. panama Gurney 1939 M74
    |         |--A. polytrichus Li 2002 L02
    |         |--A. recens Enderlein 1903 L02
    |         `--A. sanurensis Thornton 1984 L02
    `--+--+--Psocetae Y02
       |  `--+--Homilopsocidea Y02
       |     `--+--Caeciliusetae Y02
       |        `--Epipsocetae Y02
       `--Hemipsocidae [Hemipsocetae, Hemipsocoidea] Y02
            |--Anopistoscena Y02
            |--Cyclohemipsocus Li 2002 L02
            |    `--*C. chinensis Li 2002 L02
            |--Hemipsocus Selys-Longchamps 1872 M93
            |    |--*H. chloroticus (Hagen 1858) [=Psocus chloroticus; incl. H. hyalinus Enderlein 1906] M93
            |    |--H. africanus Enderlein 1907 E07
            |    |--H. funebris Badonnel 1969 L02
            |    |--H. luridus Enderlein 1903 (see below for synonymy) S95
            |    |--H. maritiensis Turner 1976 L02
            |    |--H. massulatus Li 2002 L02
            |    |--H. parallelicus Li 1996 L02
            |    `--H. pretiosus Banks 1930 M93
            `--Metahemipsocus Li 1995 L02
                 |--*M. longicornis Li 1995 L02
                 |--M. bellatulus Li 2002 L02
                 |--M. bicuspidatus Li 2002 L02
                 |--M. bimaculatus Li 2002 L02
                 |--M. cuneatus Li 1996 L02
                 |--M. flabellatus Li 2002 L02
                 |--M. guangxiensis Li 2002 L02
                 |--M. interaus Li 1995 L02
                 |--M. octofarius Li 1999 L02
                 |--M. recurvicornis (Li 1992) [=Hemipsocus recurvicornis] L02
                 |--M. scitulus Li 2002 L02
                 |--M. spilopterus Li 1996 L02
                 |--M. tenuatus Li 1997 L02
                 |--M. triangularis Li 2002 L02
                 |--M. trimerus Li 2002 L02
                 |--M. vitellinus Li 2002 L02
                 `--M. yunnanicus Li 2002 L02

Archipsocus ghesquierei Badonnel 1946 [incl. A. ghesquierei var. albomaculatus Badonnel 1955, A. neens f. macropterus Badonnel 1946] B55

Hemipsocus luridus Enderlein 1903 [=H. chloroticus var. luridus, H. selysianus luridus; incl. H. selysianus Enderlein 1919, H. luridus selysianus] S95

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B55] Badonnel, A. 1955. Psocoptères de l'Angola. Diamang Publicações Culturais 26: 11-267.

[B86] Badonnel, A. 1986. Psocoptères de Colombie (Insecta, Psocoptera). Spixiana 9 (2): 179-223.

[E07] Enderlein, G. 1907. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Schwedischen Zoologischen Expedition nach dem Kilimandjaro, dem Meru und den Umgebenden Massaisteppen Deutsch-Ostafrikas 1905–1906, vol. 15. Corrodentia, pt 2. Copeognatha. Almqvist & Wiksells Boktryckeri-A. B.: Uppsala.

[L02] Li F. 2002. Psocoptera of China vol. 1. Science Press: Beijing.

[M74] Mockford, E. L. 1974. Records and descriptions of Cuban Psocoptera. Entomologica Americana 48 (2): 103-215.

[M93] Mockford, E. L. 1993. North American Psocoptera (Insecta). Sandhill Crane Press, Inc.

[S95] Smithers, C. N. 1995. Psocoptera (Insecta) of Christmas Island. Invertebrate Taxonomy 9: 529-561.

[Y02] Yoshizawa, K. 2002. Phylogeny and higher classification of suborder Psocomorpha (Insecta: Psocodea: ‘Psocoptera’). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 136: 371-400.

Psocetae

Cluster of a possible Myopsocus, photographed by Steve and Alison.


Belongs within: Psocomorpha.
Contains: Cerastipsocinae, Psocinae, Amphigerontiinae, Lichenomiminae.

The Psocetae is a clade of bark or stone surface dwelling barklice that lack setae on the fore and hind wings (Yoshizawa 2002).

Characters (from Yoshizawa 2002): Medium to large in size, about 3–10 mm. Coloration variable, but usually whitish in ground colour and with dark brown markings. All bark or stone surface dwellers. Head with rounded vertex; postclypeus not strongly bulged; internal ridge of epistomal suture narrow; anteclypeus sclerotized; male eyes usually much larger than female’s; ocelli complete, not clustered on small tubercle; mandible short, outer margin smoothly rounded, posterolateral margin not hollowed; lacinial tip variable; galea flattened; labial palpus rounded. Prothorax less bulged dorsally. Pterothorax greatly bulged dorsally; median part of mesoscutellum pentagonal; mesothorax with narrow precoxal bridge and broad trochantin; membranous region of metaepisternum broad. Forewing often with dark brown markings; posteroproximal corner smoothly rounded; veins and wing margin glabrous; top of CuA1 usually connected with M except free in Psilopsocidae; A2 never present. Hindwing glabrous, posteroproximal corner smoothly rounded; Sc clear; Rs and M + Cu fused for long distance basally; Rs and M fused or connected by crossvein (some genera in Myopsocidae). Hind tarsus with row of broad ctenidia based setae (condition of this character in Psilopsocidae not examined or documented); tarsi 2- or 3-segmented; claws with preapical tooth; pulvillus broad or narrow (Psocidae). Abdomen without eversible vesicles ventrally. Male genitalia: paraproct with process on distal margin. Hypandrium usually with complex distal processes or lobes. Phallosome variable; internal valve present or absent; external valve often absent; endophallus lacking sclerotized portion. Female genitalia: paraproct with cylindrical distal projection. Subgenital plate with 1-lobed egg guide extending from ventral margin; apex of egg guide usually bearing setae. Gonapophyses complete and variable in structure; external valve internally expanded.

<==Psocetae [Psocoidea]
    |--Psilopsocus [Psilopsocidae] Y02
    |    `--P. mimulus Y02
    |--Psocidae Y02
    |    |  i. s.: Barrowia insularis GTM12
    |    |--Cerastipsocinae S95
    |    |--Psocinae M93
    |    |--Amphigerontiinae M93
    |    `--Sigmatoneura Enderlein 1908 [incl. Scaphopsocus Smithers 1960; Sigmatoneurinae] L02
    |         |  i. s.: S. formosa (Banks 1918) L02
    |         |         S. kolbei (Enderlein 1906) L02
    |         |         S. orientalis New 1975 L02
    |         |         S. phaeotherus Smithers 1960 L02
    |         |--S. (Sigmatoneura) L02
    |         |    |--*S. (S.) subcostalis [=Cerastipsocus subcostalis] L02
    |         |    |--S. (S.) antenniflava Li 2002 [=S. antennflava] L02
    |         |    |--S. (S.) baiyunica Li 2002 L02
    |         |    |--S. (S.) brachyura Li 2002 L02
    |         |    |--S. (S.) clara Li & Yang 1988 L02
    |         |    |--S. (S.) coronata Li 2002 [=S. coronatus] L02
    |         |    |--S. (S.) flaviventris Li 2002 L02
    |         |    |--S. (S.) singularis Okamoto 1907 L02
    |         |    `--S. (S.) triaristata Li 2002 L02
    |         `--S. (Longifolia Li 2002) L02
    |              |--S. (*L.) octofasciata Li 2002 L02
    |              |--S. (L.) chinensis Li & Yang 1987 L02
    |              |--S. (L.) ellipsoidalis Li 2002 L02
    |              |--S. (L.) macroloba Li 2002 L02
    |              `--S. (L.) spicata Li 2002 L02
    `--Myopsocidae Y02
         |--Lichenomiminae L02
         `--Myopsocinae L02
              |--Polygonomyus Li 2002 [=Ploygonomyus] L02
              |    |--*P. sinicus Li 2002 L02
              |    |--P. scapiformis Li 2002 L02
              |    `--P. sexangulus Li 2002 L02
              `--Myopsocus Hagen 1866 [incl. Phlotodes Enderlein 1910, Rhaptoneura Enderlein 1910] L02
                   |--*M. unduosus (Hagen 1859) [=Psocus unduosus] L02
                   |--‘Rhaptoneura’ africana Badonnel 1955 B55
                   |--‘Phlotodes’ angolensis Badonnel 1955 B55
                   |--M. angustus S95
                   |--M. antillanus (Mockford 1974) [=Phlotodes antillanus] M93
                   |--‘Phlotodes’ australis GE05
                   |--M. brunneipes Smithers 1995 S95
                   |--M. cameruna Enderlein 1903 M74, B55 [=Lichenomima cameruna B55]
                   |--M. clypeofasciatus Mockford 1974 M74
                   |--‘Phlotodes’ congolensis B55
                   |--‘Phlotodes’ cubanus Mockford 1974 M74
                   |--M. eatoni McLachlan 1880 [=Rhaptoneura eatoni] M93
                   |--M. fasciatus M74
                   |--M. fenestrata [=Phlotodes fenestratus] S95
                   |--M. hermosoides S95
                   |--M. intermedia M74
                   |--M. javensis S95
                   |--M. minutus (Mockford 1974) [=Phlotodes minutus] M93
                   |--M. palauensis Thornton, Lee & Chui 1972 L02
                   |--M. pauliani M74
                   |--M. preclara [=Phlotodes preclarus] S95
                   |--M. schoutedeni M74
                   `--M. yunnanicus Li 2002 L02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B55] Badonnel, A. 1955. Psocoptères de l'Angola. Diamang Publicações Culturais 26: 11-267.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[GTM12] Gunawardene, N. R., C. K. Taylor & J. D. Majer. 2012. Revisiting the Psocoptera (Insecta) of Barrow Island, Western Australia. Australian Entomologist 39 (4): 253-260.

[L02] Li F. 2002. Psocoptera of China vol. 2. Science Press: Beijing.

[M74] Mockford, E. L. 1974. Records and descriptions of Cuban Psocoptera. Entomologica Americana 48 (2): 103-215.

[M93] Mockford, E. L. 1993. North American Psocoptera (Insecta). Sandhill Crane Press, Inc.

[S95] Smithers, C. N. 1995. Psocoptera (Insecta) of Christmas Island. Invertebrate Taxonomy 9: 529-561.

[Y02] Yoshizawa, K. 2002. Phylogeny and higher classification of suborder Psocomorpha (Insecta: Psocodea: ‘Psocoptera’). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 136: 371-400.

Thelebolaceae

Thelebolus stercoreus, photographed by Jens H. Petersen.


Belongs within: Pezizomycotina.

The Thelebolaceae is a family of minute dung-inhabiting fungi.

Characters (from Cannon & Kirk 2007): Stromata absent. Ascomata minute, more or less globose or pulvinate, at least initially cleistothecial, the excipulum hyaline, poorly developed, more or less glabrous. Interascal tissue poorly developed, composed of simple paraphyses. Asci more or less ellipsoidal, often multispored, more or less persistent, opening with a rather irregular vertical split. Ascospores usually small, hyaline, smooth or with ornamentation formed as an elaboration of an initially homogenous secondary wall layer. Anamorphs rarely encountered, where present hyphomycetous, Sporothrix-like.

Thelebolaceae [Thelebolales]
    |--Antarctomyces EB03
    |--Ascozonus woolhopensis EB03, E99
    |--Caccobius minusculus EB03, E99
    |--Coprobolus EB03
    |--Coprotiella EB03
    |--Coprotus EB03
    |--Dennisiopsis EB03
    |--Leptokalpion EB03
    |--Mycoarctium EB03
    |--Ochotrichobolus EB03
    |--Pseudascozonus EB03
    |--Ramgea EB03
    |--Thelebolus stercoreus [incl. Nectria myriospora, Chilonectria myriospora] RS99
    `--Trichobolus EB03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Cannon, P. F., & P. M. Kirk. 2007. Fungal Families of the World. CABI.

[E99] Eriksson, O. E. (ed.) 1999. Notes on ascomycete systematics. Nos 2440-2755. Myconet 2: 1-41.

[EB03] Eriksson, O. E., H. O. Barah, R. S. Currah, K. Hansen, C. P. Kurtzman, G. Rambold & T. Laessøe (eds.) 2003. Outline of Ascomycota—2003. Myconet 9: 1-89.

[RS99] Rossman, A. Y., G. J. Samuels, C. T. Rogerson & R. Lowen. 1999. Genera of Bionectriaceae, Hypocreaceae and Nectriaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycetes). Studies in Mycology 42: 1-248.

Hysteriaceae

Glonium circumserpens, photographed by Eric Boehm.


Belongs within: Dothideomycetes.

The Hysteriaceae are a family of fungi that are mostly saprobic on wood or bark, with some species lichenicolous (Cannon & Kirk 2007).

Characters (from Cannon & Kirk 2007): Ascostromata perithecial, erumpent or superficial, often aggregated, elongated, sometimes branched, wider than tall, opening by a longitudinal split; peridium black, very thick-walled, composed of pseudoparenchymatous cells. Interascal tissue of narrow cellular pseudoparaphyses. Asci cylindrical, fissitunicate, with a distinct ocular chamber. Ascospores hyaline to brown, variously septate, sometimes with a mucous sheath. Anamorphs varied.

Hysteriaceae [Hysteriales]
    |--Farlowiella EB03
    |--Gloniella EB03
    |--Gloniopsis EB03
    |--Hysterium EB03
    |--Hysterocarina EB03
    |--Hysteroglonium EB03
    |--Hysterographium EB03
    |--Hysteropatella EB03
    |--Pseudoscypha EB03
    `--Glonium EB03
         `--‘Melaspilea’ circumserpens E99

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Cannon, P. F., & P. M. Kirk. 2007. Fungal Families of the World. CABI.

[E99] Eriksson, O. E. (ed.) 1999. Notes on ascomycete systematics. Nos 2440-2755. Myconet 2: 1-41.

[EB03] Eriksson, O. E., H. O. Barah, R. S. Currah, K. Hansen, C. P. Kurtzman, G. Rambold & T. Laessøe (eds.) 2003. Outline of Ascomycota—2003. Myconet 9: 1-89.

Lachesilla

Lachesilla pedicularia, photographed by Alby Oakshott.


Belongs within: Lachesilloidea.

Lachesilla is a speciose genus of barklice with very sparse and short ciliation on the forewing and a distally open phallosome in the males (Mockford 1993).

Characters (from Mockford 1993): Ocelli present. In forewing, Rs fork stem only slightly curved; veins Cu1a free from M. Phallosome with base an apodeme or two separate apodemes; aedeagal arch absent, external parameres absent as such. Hypandrium usually bearing pair of lateral processes ('claspers'). Ovipositor valvulae: v3 usually rounded at apex, occasionally pointed but point never spinose.

<==Lachesilla Westwood 1840 SN04 (see below for synonymy)
    |--+--L. corona Chapman 1930 M93
    |  `--L. dividiforceps M93
    |--+--L. delta M93
    |  `--L. texcocana García Aldrete 1972 M93
    |--+--L. sulcata García Aldrete 1986 M93
    |  `--L. tapanatepeca M93
    |--+--L. centralis García Aldrete 1983 M93
    |  |--L. cintalapa García Aldrete 1983 M93
    |  `--L. perezi García Aldrete 1983 M93
    |--+--L. riegeli Sommerman 1946 M93
    |  |--L. tropica García Aldrete 1982 M93
    |  `--L. ultima García Aldrete 1982 M93
    |--+--L. andra Sommerman 1946 M93
    |  |--L. arnae Sommerman 1946 M93
    |  |--L. dona Sommerman 1946 M93
    |  |--L. kerzhneri M93
    |  |--L. kola Sommerman 1946 M93
    |  |--L. nubilis (Aaron 1886) [=Caecilius nubilis] M93
    |  |--L. nubiloides García Aldrete 1975 M93
    |  `--L. punctata (Banks 1905) [=Elipsocus punctatus] M93
    |--+--L. pedicularia (Linnaeus 1758) M93 (see below for synonymy)
    |  |--L. bernardi M93
    |  |--L. dimorpha M93
    |  |--L. greeni (Pearman 1933) [=Terracaecilius greeni] M93
    |  |--L. pacifica Chapman 1930 [incl. L. silvicola Chapman 1930, L. telsa Sommerman 1946] M93
    |  |--L. pallida (Chapman 1930) [=Terracaecilius pallidus] M93
    |  |--L. rena Sommerman 1946 M93
    |  |--L. rossica M93
    |  |--L. tectorum Badonnel 1931 M93
    |  `--+--L. aethiopica (Enderlein 1902) [=Pterodela pedicularia var. aethiopica] M93
    |     `--L. nuptialis M93
    |--+--L. alpejia García Aldrete 1988 M93
    |  |--L. anna Sommerman 1946 M93
    |  |--L. bottimeri Mockford & Gurney 1956 M93
    |  |--L. chapmani Sommerman 1946 M93
    |  |--L. contraforcepeta Chapman 1930 M93
    |  |--L. denticulata García Aldrete 1988 M93
    |  |--L. forcepeta Chapman 1930 M93
    |  |--L. gracilis García Aldrete 1988 M93
    |  |--L. kathrynae Mockford & Gurney 1956 M93
    |  |--L. major Chapman 1930 [=L. forcepeta var. major] M93
    |  |--L. penta Sommerman 1946 M93
    |  `--L. sandersoni Mockford 1974 M74
    `--+--L. fuscipalpis Badonnel 1971 M93
       `--+--L. abiesicola M93
          |--L. arida Chapman 1930 M93
          |--L. broadheadi M93
          |--L. chiricahua García Aldrete 1990 M93
          |--L. cupressicola M93
          |--L. jeanae Sommerman 1946 M93
          |--L. nita Sommerman 1946 M93
          |--L. pinicola M93
          |--L. rufa (Walsh 1863) [=Psocus rufus, Caecilius rufus, Pterodela rufa; incl. C. impacatus Aaron 1886] M93
          |--L. turneri M93
          |--L. yakima Mockford & García Aldrete 1974 M93
          `--L. yuccalnicola M93

Lachesilla incertae sedis:
  L. aldretei Badonnel 1986 B86
  L. anura B55
  L. cameruna B55
  L. cornisterna B86
  L. cornuta Badonnel 1948 B49
  L. crutifurcus Li 2002 L02a
  L. fusca Badonnel 1949 B49
  L. gigantea B55
  L. graminicola Badonnel 1986 B86
  L. juniperana Garcia Aldrete 1991 L02b
  L. latinerva Badonnel 1955 B55
  L. micrura Badonnel 1955 B55
  L. monocera Li 2002 L02b
  L. mucronata Badonnel 1946 B55
  L. pachyura Badonnel 1955 B55
  L. rhizophila Li 2002 L02a
  L. septenaria Li 2002 L02b
  L. ximaensis Li 2002 L02b

Nomen nudum: Lachesilla albertina García Aldrete in Mockford 1993 M93

Lachesilla Westwood 1840 SN04 [incl. Leptopsocus Reuter 1899 M93, Pterodela Kolbe 1880 M93, Terracaecilius Chapman 1930 M93]

Lachesilla pedicularia (Linnaeus 1758) M93 [=Hemerobius pedicularius M93, Caecilius pedicularius M93, Psocus pedicularius M93, C. (Pterodela) pedicularia M93; incl. Hemerobius abdominalis Fabricius 1775 M93, Psocus abdominalis M93, Ps. binotatus Rambur 1842 M93, Pterodela pedicularia var. brevipennis Enderlein 1903 M93, Ps. domesticus Burmeister 1839 M93, Ps. dubius Stephens 1836 M93, Leptopsocus exiguus Reuter 1899 M93, Termes fatidicum Linnaeus 1758 M93, Atropos fatidicus M93, Hemaes fatidicum L02b, Hemerobius fatidicus M93, Hyperetes fatidicus M93, *Lachesilla fatidica L02b, Lachesis fatidica M93, Psocus fatidicus M93, Hemerobius flavicans Linnaeus 1746 (pre-Linnean) L02b, Elipsocus flavicans L02b, Psocus geologus Walsh 1862 M93, Pterodela pedicularia ab. giardi Enderlein 1901 M93, Lachesilla limbata Enderlein 1924 M93, Ps. nigricans Stephens 1836 M93, Caecilius nigrotuberculatus Curran 1925 M93, Hemerobius pusillus Müller 1776 M93, Caecilius pusillus M93, Psocus pusillus M93, Ps. salicis Hagen 1861 M93, Caecilius salicis M93, Lachesilla stigmalis Navás 1932 M93]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B49] Badonnel, A. 1949. Psocoptères de la Cote d'Ivoire. Mission Paulian-Delamare (1945). Revue Française d'Entomologie 16: 20-46.

[B55] Badonnel, A. 1955. Psocoptères de l'Angola. Diamang Publicações Culturais 26: 11-267.

[B86] Badonnel, A. 1986. Psocoptères de Colombie (Insecta, Psocoptera). Spixiana 9 (2): 179-223.

[L02a] Li F. 2002a. Psocoptera of China vol. 1. Science Press: Beijing.

[L02b] Li F. 2002b. Psocoptera of China vol. 2. Science Press: Beijing.

[M74] Mockford, E. L. 1974. Records and descriptions of Cuban Psocoptera. Entomologica Americana 48 (2): 103-215.

[M93] Mockford, E. L. 1993. North American Psocoptera (Insecta). Sandhill Crane Press, Inc.

[SN04] Schmidt, E. R., & T. R. New. 2004. A systematic and phylogenetic revision of the family Elipsocidae (Insecta: Psocoptera), with the erection of two new families: Lesneiidae and Sabulopsocidae. Invertebrate Systematics 18: 157-213.

Lachesilloidea

Anomopsocus amabilis, photographed by Diane Young.


Belongs within: Homilopsocidea.
Contains: Ectopsocus, Ectopsocopsis, Lachesilla.

The Lachesilloidea is a clade of barklice characterised by their bare hindwing margins, and narrowed external valves on the gonapophyses (Yoshizawa 2002).

Characters (from Yoshizawa 2002): Small in size, about 1.5–4 mm in length. Body generally pale brown to blackish-brown. Mostly collected from dead-foliage, ground litter, bird’s nests, and from bark. Head with rounded vertex; postclypeus less bulged; epistomal suture sometimes reduced, always without broad internal ridge; anteclypeus usually not sclerotized. Pre-episternum of prothorax elongate. Metaepimeron of Ectopsocidae with ball-shaped lobe laterally. Forewing hyaline, sometimes with blackish-brown markings; pterostigma usually shallow; areola postica, if present, usually free from M, absent in Ectopsocidae, and fused with M in some Lachesiliidae. Hindwing veins and margin glabrous; Rs and M + Cu fused for long distance basally; Rs and M fused (Lachesillidae) or connected by crossvein (Ectopsocidae). Tarsi 2- or 3-(Eolachesilla) segmented; claws with or without (Ectopsocidae) preapical tooth; pulvillus broad or narrow. Abdomen without eversible vesicles ventrally. Male genitalia: variable; clunium, epiproct, paraproct, and hypandrium often with various processes. Phallosome variable; endophallus usually with sclerites but absent in some genera of Lachesillidae. Female genitalia: subgenital plate with (Ectopsocidae and some genera of Lachesillidae) or without distal projection extended from dorsal margin. Dorsal and ventral valves of gonapophyses often reduced; external valve narrowed, bearing long setae.

<==Lachesilloidea
    |  i. s.: Nadleria Badonnel & Garcia Aldrete 1979 SN04
    |--Ectopsocidae Y02
    |    |--Ectopsocus L02a
    |    |--Ectopsocopsis M93
    |    |--Ectianoculus Li 1995 L02a
    |    |    `--*E. baishanzuicus Li 1995 L02a
    |    |--Ectotrichus Li 2002 L02a
    |    |    |--*E. setulosus (Li 1997) [=Ectopsocus setulosus] L02a
    |    |    |--E. hirsutus (Thornton 1962) [=Ectopsocus hirsutus] L02a
    |    |    |--E. ornatus (Thornton 1962) [=Ectopsocus ornatus] L02a
    |    |    `--E. richardsi (Pearman 1929) L02a [=Chaetopsocus richardsi M93, Ectopsocus richardsi L02a]
    |    `--Estipulaceus Li 2002 L02a
    |         |--*E. baidichengensis (Li 1997) [=Ectopsocopsis baidichengensis, Ectopsocus baidichengensis] L02a
    |         |--E. biuncialis (Li 1995) [=Ectopsocus biuncialis] L02a
    |         |--E. cinctus (Thornton 1962) [=Ectopsocus cinctus] L02a
    |         |--E. comitus (Thornton & Wong 1968) [=Ectopsocus comitus] L02a
    |         |--E. crassiuncatus (Li 1997) [=Ectopsocopsis crassiuncatus] L02a
    |         |--E. daliensis Li 2002 L02a
    |         |--E. longivalvus Li 2002 L02a
    |         |--E. maindroni (Badonnel 1935) [=Ectopsocus maindroni] L02a
    |         |--E. mecophyllus Li 2002 L02a
    |         |--E. multiserratus Li 2002 L02a
    |         |--E. polyspilus Li 2002 L02a
    |         |--E. pseudosalpinx (Li 1993) [=Ectopsocus pseudosalpinx] L02a
    |         |--E. subulifolius Li 2002 L02a
    |         `--E. trimaculatus Li 2002 L02a
    `--Lachesillidae [Pterodelidae] SN04
         |  i. s.: Mesolachesilla Mockford 1986 L02b
         |--Cyclolachesillus Li 2002 [Cyclolachesillinae] L02b
         |    `--*C. ningxiaensis Li 2002 L02b
         |--Eolachesillinae M93
         |    |--Eolachesilla Badonnel 1967 SN04 [Eolachesillini Y02]
         |    |    `--E. chilensis Y02
         |    `--Graphocaeciliini M93
         |         |--Anomopsocus Roesler 1940 (see below for synonymy) M93
         |         |    `--*A. amabilis (Walsh 1862) [=Psocus amabilis, Pseudopsocus amabilis, Amapsocus amabilis] M93
         |         |--Prolachesilla Mockford & Sullivan 1986 M93
         |         |    |--*P. mexicana M93
         |         |    `--P. terricola Mockford & Sullivan 1986 M93
         |         |--Nanolachesilla Mockford & Sullivan 1986 M93
         |         |    |--*N. hirundo Mockford & Sullivan 1986 M93
         |         |    |--N. chelata Mockford & Sullivan 1986 M93
         |         |    |--N. hirundoides M93
         |         |    `--N. nanciae Y02
         |         `--Graphocaecilius Enderlein 1900 SN04
         |              |--G. citramans M74
         |              |--G. enderleini B86
         |              |--G. incertus Badonnel 1986 B86
         |              |--G. interpretatus M74
         |              |--G. luridus M74
         |              |--G. normalis Mockford 1974 M74
         |              `--G. trypetoides M74
         `--Lachesillinae L02b
              |--Lachesilla M93
              |--Ceratolachesillus Li 2002 L02b
              |    `--*C. quinquecornus Li 2002 [=C. quinquecornusus] L02b
              |--Zangilachesilla Li 2002 L02b
              |    `--*Z. apterostigma Li 2002 L02b
              |--Homoeolachesilla Li 1995 L02b
              |    |--*H. tibetana Li 1995 L02b
              |    `--H. pinnulata Li 1995 L02b
              |--Dicrolachesillus Li 2002 L02b
              |    |--*D. qianshanensis Li 2002 L02b
              |    |--D. dichodolichnus Li 2002 L02b
              |    |--D. intrans (Li 1993) [=Lachesilla intrans] L02b
              |    |--D. novemimaculatus (Li 1993) [=Liachesllus novemimaculatus] L02b
              |    |--D. qianshanensis Li 2002 L02b
              |    |--D. quercus (Kolbe 1880) (see below for synonymy) L02b
              |    |--D. sabinae (Li 1993) [=Lachesilla sabinae] L02b
              |    `--D. wutaishanensis Li 2002 L02b
              `--Zonolachesillus Li 2002 L02b
                   |--*Z. preductifascus Li 2002 L02b
                   |--Z. ambipullus Li 2002 L02b
                   |--Z. aterilineus Li 2002 L02b
                   |--Z. bicornis Li 2002 L02b
                   |--Z. crassibasius Li 2002 L02b
                   |--Z. exilicellus Li 2002 L02b
                   |--Z. lomatomelus Li 2002 L02b
                   |--Z. microplatycladae (Li 1995) [=Lachesillus microplatycladae] L02b
                   |--Z. oxyurus Li 2002 L02b
                   |--Z. parvus Li 2002 L02b
                   |--Z. platycladae (Li 1995) [=Lachesillus platycladae] L02b
                   |--Z. retimaculus Li 2002 L02b
                   |--Z. spadiceilabius Li 2002 L02b
                   `--Z. wenxianensis Li 2002 L02b

Anomopsocus Roesler 1940 [incl. Amapsocus Sommerman 1944, Antipsocus Roesler 1940, Pseudopsocus Chapman 1930 non Kolbe 1882] M93

Dicrolachesillus quercus (Kolbe 1880) [=Caecilius (Pterodela) quercus, Lachesilla quercus; incl. L. (Pterodela) machi Navas 1936, L. wittmeri New 1979] L02b

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B86] Badonnel, A. 1986. Psocoptères de Colombie (Insecta, Psocoptera). Spixiana 9 (2): 179-223.

[L02a] Li F. 2002a. Psocoptera of China vol. 1. Science Press: Beijing.

[L02b] Li F. 2002b. Psocoptera of China vol. 2. Science Press: Beijing.

[M74] Mockford, E. L. 1974. Records and descriptions of Cuban Psocoptera. Entomologica Americana 48 (2): 103-215.

[M93] Mockford, E. L. 1993. North American Psocoptera (Insecta). Sandhill Crane Press, Inc.

[SN04] Schmidt, E. R., & T. R. New. 2004. A systematic and phylogenetic revision of the family Elipsocidae (Insecta: Psocoptera), with the erection of two new families: Lesneiidae and Sabulopsocidae. Invertebrate Systematics 18: 157-213.

[Y02] Yoshizawa, K. 2002. Phylogeny and higher classification of suborder Psocomorpha (Insecta: Psocodea: ‘Psocoptera’). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 136: 371-400.

Elipsocidae

Pseudopsocus rostocki, photographed by David Jones.


Belongs within: Homilopsocidea.
Contains: Hemineura.

The Elipsocidae is a clade of barklice with hindwings (when present) lacking setae or having setae present on the margin only within the radial fork.

Characters (from Schmidt & New 2004): Labrum: pair of small styli present; distal inner surface with eleven sensilla (usually in two series), exceptionally fewer, anterior margin of outer surface with distinct row of four sensilla. Epistomal suture present, clypeal shelf usually broad, sometimes rudimentary or absent (Kilauella). Apex of lacinia with lateral tine larger than median, or truncate. Antenna: 13-segmented (fewer in Nepiomorpha and Sandrapsocus); flagellar segments strongly setose, setae of various lengths (both sexes), uniformly short (both sexes) or strongly dimorphic; distribution of placoid sensilla usually as two basally on f1, one at apices of f4, f6 and f10, latter two placoids with short or long slender filaments; apex of distal segment usually mucronate, sometimes rounded or slender, elongated (Reuterella); apex with rosette of four setae (except Nepiomorpha). Wing margins with minute scales (microvestiture) of various forms. Fore wing: with or without pattern; costa with two rows of setae between apex of pterostigma and wing apex (more in Pseudopsocus and Reuterella); posterior margin with single row of setae emerging from inner margin or centre of costa; basal veins with single or two ranks of setae; vein Cu2 usually setose; areola postica free, joined to vein M or absent (Nepiomorpha); veins Rs and M fused for a length, joined by a cross-vein or meet at a point; vein M usually three-branched. Hind wing: veins Rs and M fused for a length (cross-vein in Reuterella, variable in Pseudopsocus); vein Cu1 joining posterior margin at an acute angle, perpendicular or recurved; veins M+Cu and R basally separated, meet at point or fused for a length; setae absent or on margin only between radial fork, single row emerging from inner, centre or outer margin of costa. Tarsi 3- or sometimes 2-segmented, pulvillus of various forms. Subgenital plate: usually apically rounded, exceptionally with a short or long median lobe, transverse or tapering to a blunt apex; apical margin with one or two groups of setae, exceptionally absent; pair of large median or row of preapical setae; region between margin and preapical setae glabrous (except Nepiomorpha annulatus species-group); membrane usually present medially at apex; anteriorly diverging arms apically wide or narrow. Gonapophyses complete: ventral valve slender, elongated, exceptionally reduced; dorsal valve with divided apex, spine and fleshy lobe variously developed, from base apically enlarged or elongated; junction of dorsal and external valves posterior of base; external valve large (except Weddellopsocus), setose, marginal setae entire or absent dorsolaterally. Hypandrium: simple, transverse or laterally lobed; pair of strong median preapical setae present or absent; setae scattered or laterally developed. Phallosome: frame closed, variable in shape; aedeagus usually narrowing to blunt apex, sometimes flattened or membranous (Palistreptus); endophallic lobes spiculate (except Nepiomorpha and Palistreptus); radular sclerites exceptionally present. Polymorphism common, with the expression of neotenic features. Eggs laid in groups, covered with an encrustation.

<==Elipsocidae
    |  i. s.: Metelipsocus Li 2002 SN04
    |           `--*M. qinghaiensis Li 2002 L02
    |--Yuntapsocus Smithers 1997 [Yuntapsocinae] SN04
    |--Elipsocinae [Nepiomorphinae, Pseudopsocinae, Reuterellinae] SN04
    |    |  i. s.: Cretapsocus Vishniakova 1975 SN04
    |    |         Nothopsocus Badonnel 1967 SN04
    |    |           `--*N. oxyurus Badonnel 1967 SN04
    |    |--Sandrapsocus Smithers 1999 SN04
    |    `--+--Roesleria Badonnel 1963 SN04
    |       `--+--+--Hemineura SN04
    |          |  `--Cuneopalpus Badonnel 1943 SN04
    |          |       `--*C. cyanops (Rostock 1876) [=Elipsocus cyanops] M93
    |          `--+--+--Reuterella Enderlein 1903 SN04 [incl. Leptella Enderlein 1901 (preoc.) M93]
    |             |  |    `--*R. helvimacula (Enderlein 1901) (see below for synonymy) M93
    |             |  `--Pseudopsocus Kolbe 1882 SN04
    |             |       |--*P. rostocki Kolbe 1882 L02
    |             |       |--P. acarinatus Li 2002 L02
    |             |       `--P. carinatus Li 1995 L02
    |             `--+--Nepiomorpha Pearman 1936 SN04
    |                |    |--*N. crucifera M93
    |                |    |    |--N. c. crucifera B55
    |                |    |    `--N. c. angolensis Badonnel 1955 B55
    |                |    |--N. annulata Badonnel 1955 B55
    |                |    `--N. peripsocoides Mockford 1955 M93
    |                `--+--+--Ausysium Schmidt & New 2004 SN04
    |                   |  |    `--*A. joyceorum Schmidt & New 2004 SN04
    |                   |  `--Clinopsocus New 1972 SN04
    |                   |       |--*C. smithersi New 1972 SN04
    |                   |       `--C. phragmitellus (Smithers 1972) [=Nepiomorpha phragmitella] SN04
    |                   `--+--Psocophloea Schmidt & New 2004 SN04
    |                      |    `--*P. saharae Schmidt & New 2004 SN04
    |                      `--+--Paedomorpha Smithers 1964 SN04
    |                         |    `--P. gayi M83
    |                         `--Villopsocus Schmidt & New 2004 SN04
    |                              `--*V. tasmaniensis Schmidt & New 2004 SN04
    `--Propsocinae [Propsocini] SN04
         |--+--+--Kilauella Enderlein 1913 SN04
         |  |  `--Palistreptus Enderlein 1920 SN04
         |  `--+--Antarctopsocus Badonnel 1947 SN04
         |     `--+--Pentacladus Enderlein 1906 SN04
         |        `--Propsocus McLachlan 1866 [incl. Tricladellus Enderlein 1909, Tricladus Enderlein 1906] SN04
         |             |--*P. pallipes M93
         |             `--P. pulchripennis (Perkins 1899) (see below for synonymy) M93
         `--+--Weddellopsocus Schmidt & New 2004 SN04
            |    |--*W. valdiviensis (Blanchard 1851) [=Psocus valdiviensis] SN04
            |    |--W. avius (Smithers 1964) [=Spilopsocus avius] SN04
            |    |--W. carrilloi (Thornton & Lyall 1978) [=Drymopsocus carrilloi] SN04
            |    |--W. flavus (Thornton & Lyall 1978) [=Drymopsocus flavus] SN04
            |    `--W. griseus (New & Thornton 1981) [=Drymopsocus griseus] SN04
            `--+--Gondwanapsocus Schmidt & New 2004 SN04
               |    `--*G. australis Schmidt & New 2004 SN04
               `--+--+--Diademadrilus Schmidt & New 2004 SN04
                  |  |    |--*D. annulatus (Smithers 1969) [=Spilopsocus annulatus] SN04
                  |  |    `--D. masseyi (New 1971) [=Spilopsocus masseyi] SN04
                  |  `--+--Onychophallus Schmidt & New 2004 SN04
                  |     |    `--*O. diemenensis Schmidt & New 2004 SN04
                  |     `--Telmopsocus Schmidt & New 2004 SN04
                  |          `--*T. waldheimensis Schmidt & New 2004 SN04
                  `--+--Spilopsocus Smithers 1963 SN04
                     |    |--*S. ruidus Smithers 1963 SN04
                     |    `--S. colliensis Smithers 1977 SN04
                     `--+--Prionotodrilus Schmidt & New 2004 SN04
                        |    |--*P. parvus (Smithers & Thornton 1975) [=Spilopsocus parvus] SN04
                        |    `--P. serratus (Schmidt & Thornton 1992) [=Spilopsocus serratus] SN04
                        `--Euryphallus Schmidt & New 2004 SN04
                             |--*E. stigmaticus (Tillyard 1923) [=Mesopsocus stigmaticus, Spilopsocus stigmaticus] SN04
                             |--E. badonneli (New & Thornton 1981) [=Nothopsocus badonneli] SN04
                             |--E. cinqueportsae (Thornton & New 1981) [=Nothopsocus cinqueportsae] SN04
                             |--E. cooki (Thornton & New 1981) [=Nothopsocus cooki] SN04
                             |--E. defoei (Thornton & New 1981) [=Nothopsocus defoei] SN04
                             |--E. selkirki (Thornton & New 1981) [=Nothopsocus selkirki] SN04
                             `--E. skottsbergi (Thornton & New 1981) [=Nothopsocus skottsbergi] SN04

Propsocus pulchripennis (Perkins 1899) [=Stenopsocus pulchripennis; incl. Tricladellus nitens var. brachypterus Edwards 1950, Myopsocus nitens Hickman 1934, T. nitens] M93

*Reuterella helvimacula (Enderlein 1901) [=Leptella helvimacula; incl. Caecilius corticis Pearman 1924] M93

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B55] Badonnel, A. 1955. Psocoptères de l'Angola. Diamang Publicações Culturais 26: 11-267.

[L02] Li F. 2002. Psocoptera of China vol. 1. Science Press: Beijing.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: An annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1-98.

[M93] Mockford, E. L. 1993. North American Psocoptera (Insecta). Sandhill Crane Press, Inc.

[SN04] Schmidt, E. R., & T. R. New. 2004. A systematic and phylogenetic revision of the family Elipsocidae (Insecta: Psocoptera), with the erection of two new families: Lesneiidae and Sabulopsocidae. Invertebrate Systematics 18: 157-213.