Troidini

Anchises cattleheart Parides anchises, photographed by Kim Garwood.


Belongs within: Papilionidae.

The Troidini are a predominantly tropical group of butterflies, most abundant in Central and South American lowland forests and the Indo-Australian region, with larvae feeding almost exclusively on species of Aristolochia and sequestering toxins from these plants (Silva-Brandão et al. 2005).

Troidini
    |--Battus [Battina] S-BF05
    |    |--+--B. philenor (Linnaeus 1771) S-BF05
    |    |  `--B. polydamas (Linnaeus 1758) S-BF05
    |    `--+--B. polystictus (Butler 1874) S-BF05
    |       `--+--B. belus (Cramer 1777) S-BF05 [incl. B. belus var. cochabamba (Weeks 1901) S55]
    |          `--B. crassus (Cramer 1777) S-BF05
    `--Troidina S-BF05
         |  i. s.: Trogonoptera S-BF05
         |--Pharmacophagus J03
         `--+--+--Losaria neptunus (Guérin-Méneville 1840) [=Pachliopta neptunus] S-BF05
            |  |--Pachliopta palu J03, V-WF03
            |  `--Byasa alcinous (Klug 1836) [=Atrophaneura alcinous] S-BF05
            `--+--+--Troides helena (Linnaeus 1758) S-BF05
               |  `--Ornithoptera J03
               |       |--O. goliath J03
               |       `--O. richmondia NS04
               `--+--+--Atrophaneura J03 [incl. Panosmia S-BF05]
                  |  |    |--A. drucei (Butler 1874) S55
                  |  |    |--A. lysander (Cramer 1775) S55
                  |  |    |--A. neophilus [incl. A. neophilus var. consus (Rothschild & Jordan 1906)] S55
                  |  |    `--A. sesostris (Cramer 1779) S55
                  |  `--+--Cressida cressida J03
                  |     `--Euryades corethrus (Boisduval 1836) S-BF05
                  `--Parides S-BF05
                       |  i. s.: P. alopius S-BF05
                       |         P. gundlachianus S-BF05
                       |         P. montezuma S-BF05
                       |         P. phalaecus S-BF05
                       |--+--P. agavus (Drury 1782) S-BF05
                       |  `--+--P. proneus (Hübner 1831) S-BF05
                       |     `--+--P. ascanius (Cramer 1775) S-BF05
                       |        `--P. bunichus (Hübner 1821) S-BF05
                       |             |--P. b. bunichus S-BF05
                       |             `--P. b. chamissonia S-BF05
                       `--+--+--+--P. chabrias (Hewitson 1852) S-BF05
                          |  |  |--P. hahneli S-BF05
                          |  |  |--P. klagesi S-BF05
                          |  |  |--P. pizarro S-BF05
                          |  |  |--P. quadratus S-BF05
                          |  |  `--P. vercingetorix S-BF05
                          |  `--+--P. childrenae (Gray 1832) S-BF05
                          |     `--+--P. photinus (Doubleday 1844) S-BF05
                          |        `--+--P. sesostris (Cramer 1779) S-BF05
                          |           `--+--P. anchises (Linnaeus 1758) S-BF05
                          |              `--P. vertumnus S-BF05
                          |                   |--P. v. vertumnus S-BF05
                          |                   `--P. v. cutora (Gray 1853) S-BF05
                          `--+--+--P. aeneas S-BF05
                             |  |    |--P. a. aeneas S-BF05
                             |  |    `--P. a. linoides Brown & Lamas 1994 S-BF05
                             |  `--P. tros (Fabricius 1793) S-BF05
                             `--+--+--P. lysander (Cramer 1775) S-BF05
                                |  `--P. panthonus S-BF05
                                |       |--P. p. panthonus S-BF05
                                |       |--P. p. aglaope S-BF05
                                |       |--P. p. callicles S-BF05
                                |       |--P. p. castilhoi S-BF05
                                |       |--P. p. ecaudatus S-BF05
                                |       |--P. p. jaguarae (Foetterle 1902) S-BF05
                                |       `--P. p. lysimachus (Honrath 1888) S-BF05
                                `--+--P. neophilus (Geyer 1837) S-BF05
                                   `--+--P. eurimedes (Stoll 1782) S-BF05
                                      `--P. zacynthus (Fabricius 1793) S-BF05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[J03] Jong, R. de. 2003. Are there butterflies with Gondwanan ancestry in the Australian region? Invertebrate Systematics 17: 143-156.

[NS04] New, T. R., & D. P. A. Sands. 2004. Management of threatened insect species in Australia, with particular reference to butterflies. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 258-270.

[S55] Schröder, H. 1955. Eine Falter-Ausbeute aus dem westlichen Bolivien. (Ins. Lepid. Rhopal.) Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 329-338.

[S-BF05] Silva-Brandão, K. L., A. V. L. Freitas, A. V. Z. Brower & V. N. Solferini. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships of the New World Troidini swallowtails (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) based on COI, COII, and EF-1α genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 468-483.

[V-WF03] Vane-Wright, R. I., & H. Fermon. 2003. Taxonomy and identification of Lohora Moore (Lepidoptera: Satyrinae), the Sulawesi bush browns. Invertebrate Systematics 17: 129-141.

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