Lachesilloidea

Anomopsocus amabilis, photographed by Diane Young.


Belongs within: Homilopsocidea.
Contains: Ectopsocus, Ectopsocopsis, Lachesilla.

The Lachesilloidea is a clade of barklice characterised by their bare hindwing margins, and narrowed external valves on the gonapophyses (Yoshizawa 2002).

Characters (from Yoshizawa 2002): Small in size, about 1.5–4 mm in length. Body generally pale brown to blackish-brown. Mostly collected from dead-foliage, ground litter, bird’s nests, and from bark. Head with rounded vertex; postclypeus less bulged; epistomal suture sometimes reduced, always without broad internal ridge; anteclypeus usually not sclerotized. Pre-episternum of prothorax elongate. Metaepimeron of Ectopsocidae with ball-shaped lobe laterally. Forewing hyaline, sometimes with blackish-brown markings; pterostigma usually shallow; areola postica, if present, usually free from M, absent in Ectopsocidae, and fused with M in some Lachesiliidae. Hindwing veins and margin glabrous; Rs and M + Cu fused for long distance basally; Rs and M fused (Lachesillidae) or connected by crossvein (Ectopsocidae). Tarsi 2- or 3-(Eolachesilla) segmented; claws with or without (Ectopsocidae) preapical tooth; pulvillus broad or narrow. Abdomen without eversible vesicles ventrally. Male genitalia: variable; clunium, epiproct, paraproct, and hypandrium often with various processes. Phallosome variable; endophallus usually with sclerites but absent in some genera of Lachesillidae. Female genitalia: subgenital plate with (Ectopsocidae and some genera of Lachesillidae) or without distal projection extended from dorsal margin. Dorsal and ventral valves of gonapophyses often reduced; external valve narrowed, bearing long setae.

<==Lachesilloidea
    |  i. s.: Nadleria Badonnel & Garcia Aldrete 1979 SN04
    |--Ectopsocidae Y02
    |    |--Ectopsocus L02a
    |    |--Ectopsocopsis M93
    |    |--Ectianoculus Li 1995 L02a
    |    |    `--*E. baishanzuicus Li 1995 L02a
    |    |--Ectotrichus Li 2002 L02a
    |    |    |--*E. setulosus (Li 1997) [=Ectopsocus setulosus] L02a
    |    |    |--E. hirsutus (Thornton 1962) [=Ectopsocus hirsutus] L02a
    |    |    |--E. ornatus (Thornton 1962) [=Ectopsocus ornatus] L02a
    |    |    `--E. richardsi (Pearman 1929) L02a [=Chaetopsocus richardsi M93, Ectopsocus richardsi L02a]
    |    `--Estipulaceus Li 2002 L02a
    |         |--*E. baidichengensis (Li 1997) [=Ectopsocopsis baidichengensis, Ectopsocus baidichengensis] L02a
    |         |--E. biuncialis (Li 1995) [=Ectopsocus biuncialis] L02a
    |         |--E. cinctus (Thornton 1962) [=Ectopsocus cinctus] L02a
    |         |--E. comitus (Thornton & Wong 1968) [=Ectopsocus comitus] L02a
    |         |--E. crassiuncatus (Li 1997) [=Ectopsocopsis crassiuncatus] L02a
    |         |--E. daliensis Li 2002 L02a
    |         |--E. longivalvus Li 2002 L02a
    |         |--E. maindroni (Badonnel 1935) [=Ectopsocus maindroni] L02a
    |         |--E. mecophyllus Li 2002 L02a
    |         |--E. multiserratus Li 2002 L02a
    |         |--E. polyspilus Li 2002 L02a
    |         |--E. pseudosalpinx (Li 1993) [=Ectopsocus pseudosalpinx] L02a
    |         |--E. subulifolius Li 2002 L02a
    |         `--E. trimaculatus Li 2002 L02a
    `--Lachesillidae [Pterodelidae] SN04
         |  i. s.: Mesolachesilla Mockford 1986 L02b
         |--Cyclolachesillus Li 2002 [Cyclolachesillinae] L02b
         |    `--*C. ningxiaensis Li 2002 L02b
         |--Eolachesillinae M93
         |    |--Eolachesilla Badonnel 1967 SN04 [Eolachesillini Y02]
         |    |    `--E. chilensis Y02
         |    `--Graphocaeciliini M93
         |         |--Anomopsocus Roesler 1940 (see below for synonymy) M93
         |         |    `--*A. amabilis (Walsh 1862) [=Psocus amabilis, Pseudopsocus amabilis, Amapsocus amabilis] M93
         |         |--Prolachesilla Mockford & Sullivan 1986 M93
         |         |    |--*P. mexicana M93
         |         |    `--P. terricola Mockford & Sullivan 1986 M93
         |         |--Nanolachesilla Mockford & Sullivan 1986 M93
         |         |    |--*N. hirundo Mockford & Sullivan 1986 M93
         |         |    |--N. chelata Mockford & Sullivan 1986 M93
         |         |    |--N. hirundoides M93
         |         |    `--N. nanciae Y02
         |         `--Graphocaecilius Enderlein 1900 SN04
         |              |--G. citramans M74
         |              |--G. enderleini B86
         |              |--G. incertus Badonnel 1986 B86
         |              |--G. interpretatus M74
         |              |--G. luridus M74
         |              |--G. normalis Mockford 1974 M74
         |              `--G. trypetoides M74
         `--Lachesillinae L02b
              |--Lachesilla M93
              |--Ceratolachesillus Li 2002 L02b
              |    `--*C. quinquecornus Li 2002 [=C. quinquecornusus] L02b
              |--Zangilachesilla Li 2002 L02b
              |    `--*Z. apterostigma Li 2002 L02b
              |--Homoeolachesilla Li 1995 L02b
              |    |--*H. tibetana Li 1995 L02b
              |    `--H. pinnulata Li 1995 L02b
              |--Dicrolachesillus Li 2002 L02b
              |    |--*D. qianshanensis Li 2002 L02b
              |    |--D. dichodolichnus Li 2002 L02b
              |    |--D. intrans (Li 1993) [=Lachesilla intrans] L02b
              |    |--D. novemimaculatus (Li 1993) [=Liachesllus novemimaculatus] L02b
              |    |--D. qianshanensis Li 2002 L02b
              |    |--D. quercus (Kolbe 1880) (see below for synonymy) L02b
              |    |--D. sabinae (Li 1993) [=Lachesilla sabinae] L02b
              |    `--D. wutaishanensis Li 2002 L02b
              `--Zonolachesillus Li 2002 L02b
                   |--*Z. preductifascus Li 2002 L02b
                   |--Z. ambipullus Li 2002 L02b
                   |--Z. aterilineus Li 2002 L02b
                   |--Z. bicornis Li 2002 L02b
                   |--Z. crassibasius Li 2002 L02b
                   |--Z. exilicellus Li 2002 L02b
                   |--Z. lomatomelus Li 2002 L02b
                   |--Z. microplatycladae (Li 1995) [=Lachesillus microplatycladae] L02b
                   |--Z. oxyurus Li 2002 L02b
                   |--Z. parvus Li 2002 L02b
                   |--Z. platycladae (Li 1995) [=Lachesillus platycladae] L02b
                   |--Z. retimaculus Li 2002 L02b
                   |--Z. spadiceilabius Li 2002 L02b
                   `--Z. wenxianensis Li 2002 L02b

Anomopsocus Roesler 1940 [incl. Amapsocus Sommerman 1944, Antipsocus Roesler 1940, Pseudopsocus Chapman 1930 non Kolbe 1882] M93

Dicrolachesillus quercus (Kolbe 1880) [=Caecilius (Pterodela) quercus, Lachesilla quercus; incl. L. (Pterodela) machi Navas 1936, L. wittmeri New 1979] L02b

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B86] Badonnel, A. 1986. Psocoptères de Colombie (Insecta, Psocoptera). Spixiana 9 (2): 179-223.

[L02a] Li F. 2002a. Psocoptera of China vol. 1. Science Press: Beijing.

[L02b] Li F. 2002b. Psocoptera of China vol. 2. Science Press: Beijing.

[M74] Mockford, E. L. 1974. Records and descriptions of Cuban Psocoptera. Entomologica Americana 48 (2): 103-215.

[M93] Mockford, E. L. 1993. North American Psocoptera (Insecta). Sandhill Crane Press, Inc.

[SN04] Schmidt, E. R., & T. R. New. 2004. A systematic and phylogenetic revision of the family Elipsocidae (Insecta: Psocoptera), with the erection of two new families: Lesneiidae and Sabulopsocidae. Invertebrate Systematics 18: 157-213.

[Y02] Yoshizawa, K. 2002. Phylogeny and higher classification of suborder Psocomorpha (Insecta: Psocodea: ‘Psocoptera’). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 136: 371-400.

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