Blue Mountain butterfly Papilio ulysses, photographed by Gary Fortington.

Belongs within: Papilionidae.

Papilio is a large cosmopolitan genus of butterflies, including the swallowtails and related taxa.

Papilio [Papilionini]
    |--P. admetus Esper 1785 B08
    |--P. anchisiades Esper 1788 S55
    |--P. andraemon USDI77
    |    |--P. a. andraemon USDI77
    |    `--P. a. bonhotei USDI77
    |--P. androgeus [incl. P. a. androgeus f. piranthus Cramer 1779] S55
    |--P. argentus B66
    |--P. aristodemus USDI77
    |    |--P. a. aristodemus USDI77
    |    `--P. a. ponceanus USDI77
    |--P. bianor TYM08
    |    |--P. b. bianor TYM08
    |    `--P. b. kawauchii Nakamura 1932 TYM08
    |--P. brucei P27
    |--P. caudius B66
    |--P. ceronus Esper 1793 B08
    |--P. dardanus C96
    |--P. dasarada DS73
    |--P. demetrius TYM08
    |    |--P. d. demetrius TYM08
    |    `--P. d. kariyai Nakamura 1934 TYM08
    |--P. demolion Cramer 1776 BF08
    |--P. diphilus [incl. P. polydorus] WM66
    |--P. epidaus Doubleday 1846 FS54
    |--P. erithonius WM66
    |--P. eurybia Ochsenheimer 1808 B08
    |--P. garleppi Staudinger 1892 S55
    |--P. glaucus Linnaeus 1758 S-BF05
    |--P. helenus TYM08
    |    |--P. h. helenus TYM08
    |    `--P. h. nicconicolens [incl. P. helenus nicconicolens ab. kiiensis Nakamura 1936] TYM08
    |--P. homerus HT01
    |--P. laglaizei DS73
    |--P. machaon Linnaeus 1758 S-BF05
    |--P. macleayanus P27
    |--P. pammon WM66
    |--P. philolaus Boisduval 1836 FS54
    |--P. philoxenus DS73
    |--P. photinus Doubleday 1844 FS54
    |--P. polydamas Linnaeus 1758 FS54
    |--P. polyxenes FS54
    |    |--P. p. polyxenes FS54
    |    `--P. p. stabilis Rothschild & Jordan 1906 FS54
    |--P. rhetenor DS73
    |--P. schmeltzi PP02
    |--P. thoas [incl. P. thoas var. cinyras Ménétriés 1857] S55
    |    |--P. t. thoas FS54
    |    |--P. t. autocles Rothschild & Jordan 1906 FS54
    |    `--P. t. nealces Rothschild & Jordan 1906 FS54
    |--P. torquatus B66
    `--P. ulysses G32

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B08] Bálint, Z. 2008. Lepidoptera collections of historical importance in the Hungarian Natural History Museum. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 100 (17-35).

[BF08] Bálint, Z. & C. Faynel. 2008. Review of the genus Brangas Hübner, 1819 (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with description of a new genus. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 100: 271-306.

[B66] Butler, A. G. 1866. Corrections and addenda to certain papers on Lepidoptera published during the years 1865-66; with additional notes on some of the species described. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 451-458.

[C96] Campbell, N. A. 1996. Biology (4th ed.) The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc.: Menlo Park (California).

[DS73] Dickens, M., & E. Storey. 1973. The World of Moths. Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.: New York.

[FS54] Franz, E., & H. Schröder. 1954. Tagfalter (Lep. Rhopalocera) aus El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 75-87.

[G32] Girault, A. A. 1932. New lower Hymenoptera from Australia and India. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 293-298).

[HT01] Hedges, S. B., & R. Thomas. 2001. At the lower size limit in amniote vertebrates: A new diminutive lizard from the West Indies. Caribbean Journal of Science 37 (3-4): 168-173.

[PP02] Patrick, B., & H. Patrick. 2002. Butterflies of Fiji. Weta 24: 5-12.

[P27] Philpott, A. 1927. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721-746.

[S55] Schröder, H. 1955. Eine Falter-Ausbeute aus dem westlichen Bolivien. (Ins. Lepid. Rhopal.) Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 329-338.

[S-BF05] Silva-Brandão, K. L., A. V. L. Freitas, A. V. Z. Brower & V. N. Solferini. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships of the New World Troidini swallowtails (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) based on COI, COII, and EF-1α genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 468-483.

[TYM08] Tennent, W. J., M. Yasuda & K. Morimoto. 2008. Lansania Journal of arachnology and zoology—a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal. Archives of Natural History 35 (2): 252-280.

[USDI77] USDI (United States Department of the Interior). 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants—republication of list of species. Federal Register 42: 36420-36431.

[WM66] Wallace, A. R., & F. Moore. 1866. List of lepidopterous insects collected at Takow, Formosa, by Mr. R. Swinhoe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 355-365.

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