Papilio

Blue Mountain butterfly Papilio ulysses, photographed by Gary Fortington.


Belongs within: Papilionidae.

Papilio is a large cosmopolitan genus of butterflies, including the swallowtails and related taxa. Over 200 species are currently recognised; a number of authors have attempted to divide Papilio into smaller genera but these systems have not become widely recognised.

<==Papilio Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. acastus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. acesta Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. achates L02
    |--P. achilles Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. adippe L02
    |--P. admetus Esper 1785 B08
    |--P. aegeria Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. aegeus Donovan 1805 B00a
    |    |--P. a. aegeus B00a
    |    `--P. a. ormenus Guérin-Méneville 1830 B00a
    |--P. aeneas Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. aeropa Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. agamemnon Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. agenor Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. aglaja Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. ajax Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. alexanor P93
    |--P. alimena Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. almana Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. amathea Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. ambrax Boisduval 1832 B00a
    |    |--P. a. ambrax B00a
    |    `--P. a. egipius Miskin 1876 B00a
    |--P. amphion Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. amynthor Boisduval 1859 B00b
    |    |--P. a. amynthor B00b
    |    `--P. a. amphiaraus Felder & Felder 1864 B00b
    |--P. anacardii Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. anactus Macleay 1826 [=Eleppone anactus] B00a
    |--P. ancaeus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. anchises Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. anchisiades Esper 1788 S55
    |--P. andraemon USDI77
    |    |--P. a. andraemon USDI77
    |    `--P. a. bonhotei USDI77
    |--P. androgeus [incl. P. a. androgeus f. piranthus Cramer 1779] S55
    |--P. antilochus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. antiopa Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. aonis Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. apollo Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. arethusus L02
    |--P. argentus B66
    |--P. argiolus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. argus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. arion Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. aristodemus USDI77
    |    |--P. a. aristodemus USDI77
    |    `--P. a. ponceanus USDI77
    |--P. arsalte Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. assimilis Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. asterie Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. atalanta Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. athemon Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. bates Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. betulae Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. bianor TYM08
    |    |--P. b. bianor TYM08
    |    `--P. b. kawauchii Nakamura 1932 TYM08
    |--P. bixae Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. bolina Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. brassicae Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. brevicauda P93
    |--P. brucei P27
    |--P. cadmus L02
    |--P. c-album Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. calliope Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. cardamines Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. cardui Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. caricae Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. cassiae Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. castor L02
    |--P. caudius B66
    |--P. c-aureum Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. ceneus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. cepheus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. ceres L02
    |--P. ceronus Esper 1793 B08
    |--P. charitonia L02
    |--P. cinxia Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. clio Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. clytia Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. comma Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. crataegi Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. crisia L02
    |--P. cupido Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. cyrene Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. cytherea Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. damone Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. daplidice Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. dardanus C96
    |--P. dasarada DS73
    |--P. deiphobus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. demetrius TYM08
    |    |--P. d. demetrius TYM08
    |    `--P. d. kariyai Nakamura 1934 TYM08
    |--P. demoleus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |    |--P. d. demoleus B12
    |    |--P. d. malayanus B00a
    |    `--P. d. sthenelus Macleay 1826 B12
    |--P. demolion Cramer 1776 BF08
    |--P. demophon Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. dia L02
    |--P. diomedes Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. diphilus [incl. P. polydorus] WM66
    |--P. dirce Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. dissimilis Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. eleus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. encedon Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. enceladus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. epidaus Doubleday 1846 FS54
    |--P. erato Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. eribotes Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. erithonius WM66
    |--P. euippe Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. euphrosyne Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. eurybia Ochsenheimer 1808 B08
    |--P. eurypylus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. euterpe Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. feronia Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. fuscus Goeze 1779 B00a
    |    |--P. f. fuscus B00a
    |    |--P. f. canopus Westwood 1842 B00a
    |    |--P. f. capaneus Westwood 1843 B00a
    |    `--P. f. indicatus Butler 1876 B00a
    |--P. galathea Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. garleppi Staudinger 1892 S55
    |--P. glaucippe Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. glaucus Linnaeus 1758 S-BF05 [=Pterourus glaucus P93]
    |--P. hecabe Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. hector Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. helena Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. helenus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |    |--P. h. helenus TYM08
    |    `--P. h. nicconicolens [incl. P. helenus nicconicolens ab. kiiensis Nakamura 1936] TYM08
    |--P. helie Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. homerus HT01
    |--P. hospiton P93
    |--P. hyale Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. hylas Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. hyparete Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. hyperantus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. hypsipyle L02
    |--P. idas Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. idmon Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. idomeneus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. indra P93
    |--P. io Linnaeus 17568 L58
    |--P. iphiclus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. iris Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. ixilion Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. janira Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. jasius L02
    |--P. jason Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. jatrophae L02
    |--P. joanae P93
    |--P. juno L02
    |--P. jurtina Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. laglaizei DS73
    |--P. lampetia Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. laomedia L02
    |--P. lathonia Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. leda Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. levana Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. leilus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. lemonias Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. leucothoe Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. ligea Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. lucina Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. lysippus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. machaon Linnaeus 1758 S-BF05
    |    |--P. m. machaon P93
    |    |--P. m. bairdii P93
    |    `--P. m. oregonius P93
    |--P. macleayanus P27
    |--P. maera Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. malvae Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. martyas Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. maturna Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. melpomene Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. memnon Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. menelaus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. mineus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. mnemosyne Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. mopsus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. napi Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. nauplius Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. neaerea Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. neleus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. nestor Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. niobe Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. nireus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. obrinus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. oenone Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. orithya Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. pammon Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. pamphilus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. pandarus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. panope Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. panthous Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. paphia Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. paris Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. passisflorae L02
    |--P. patroclus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. perius Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. petreus L02
    |--P. phaetusa Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. phereclus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. phidias Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. philocles Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. philoctetes Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. philolaus Boisduval 1836 FS54
    |--P. philoxenus DS73
    |--P. photinus Doubleday 1844 FS54
    |--P. piera Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. pinthous Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. pipleis Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. podalirius L02
    |--P. polychloros Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. polycletus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. polydamas Linnaeus 1758 FS54
    |--P. polymnia Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. polytes Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. polyxenes FS54
    |    |--P. p. polyxenes FS54
    |    `--P. p. stabilis Rothschild & Jordan 1906 FS54
    |--P. populi Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. priamus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. priassus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. prorsa Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. protesilaus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. proteus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. pruni Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. psidii Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. pyranthe Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. pyrrhus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. quercus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. rapae Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. rhamni Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. rhetenor DS73
    |--P. ricini Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. rubi Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. rumina Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. saharae P93
    |--P. sarpedon Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. schmeltzi PP02
    |--P. semele Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. sennae Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. sinapis Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. sophorae Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. stelenes Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. tages Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. telamon Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. telemachus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. terpsicore Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. teucer Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. thalia Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. thamyras Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. thoas [incl. P. thoas var. cinyras Ménétriés 1857] S55
    |    |--P. t. thoas FS54
    |    |--P. t. autocles Rothschild & Jordan 1906 FS54
    |    `--P. t. nealces Rothschild & Jordan 1906 FS54
    |--P. timantes Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. tiphus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. torquatus B66
    |--P. trite Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. troilus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. ulysses Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |    |--P. u. ulysses B00a
    |    `--P. u. joesa Butler 1869 B00a
    |--P. urania Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. urticae Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. vanillae Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. venilia Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. violae L02
    |--P. virgaureae Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. xanthus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--P. xuthus P01
    |--P. zelicaon P93
    `--P. zetes Linnaeus 1758 L58

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B08] Bálint, Z. 2008. Lepidoptera collections of historical importance in the Hungarian Natural History Museum. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 100: 17–35.

[BF08] Bálint, Z., & C. Faynel. 2008. Review of the genus Brangas Hübner, 1819 (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with description of a new genus. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 100: 271–306.

[B00a] Braby, M. F. 2000a. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 1. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[B00b] Braby, M. F. 2000b. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[B12] Braby, M. F. 2012. The butterflies of El Questro Wilderness Park, with remarks on the taxonomy of the Kimberley fauna, Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (2): 161–175.

[B66] Butler, A. G. 1866. Corrections and addenda to certain papers on Lepidoptera published during the years 1865–66; with additional notes on some of the species described. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 451–458.

[C96] Campbell, N. A. 1996. Biology 4th ed. The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc.: Menlo Park (California).

[DS73] Dickens, M., & E. Storey. 1973. The World of Moths. Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.: New York.

[FS54] Franz, E., & H. Schröder. 1954. Tagfalter (Lep. Rhopalocera) aus El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 75–87.

[HT01] Hedges, S. B., & R. Thomas. 2001. At the lower size limit in amniote vertebrates: a new diminutive lizard from the West Indies. Caribbean Journal of Science 37 (3–4): 168–173.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[PP02] Patrick, B., & H. Patrick. 2002. Butterflies of Fiji. Weta 24: 5–12.

[P01] Pável, J. 1901. Lepkék [Lepidopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 171–177. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[P27] Philpott, A. 1927. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721–746.

[P93] Pittaway, A. R. 1993. The Hawkmoths of the Western Palaearctic. Harley Books: Colchester.

[S55] Schröder, H. 1955. Eine Falter-Ausbeute aus dem westlichen Bolivien. (Ins. Lepid. Rhopal.) Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 329–338.

[S-BF05] Silva-Brandão, K. L., A. V. L. Freitas, A. V. Z. Brower & V. N. Solferini. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships of the New World Troidini swallowtails (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) based on COI, COII, and EF-1α genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 468–483.

[TYM08] Tennent, W. J., M. Yasuda & K. Morimoto. 2008. Lansania Journal of arachnology and zoology—a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal. Archives of Natural History 35 (2): 252–280.

[USDI77] USDI (United States Department of the Interior). 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants—republication of list of species. Federal Register 42: 36420–36431.

[WM66] Wallace, A. R., & F. Moore. 1866. List of lepidopterous insects collected at Takow, Formosa, by Mr. R. Swinhoe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 355–365.
Last updated: 22 August 2017.

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