Male apricot sulphur Phoebis argante, copyright Charles J. Sharp.

Belongs within: Obtectomera.
Contains: Euchloe, Pareronia, Colias, Terias, Catopsilia, Eurema, Appias, Belenois, Cepora, Pieris, Delias, Leptosia, Mylothris, Aporia, Anthocharis, Hebomoia.

The Pieridae, whites and yellows, are a cosmopolitan family of butterflies with their vernacular names referring to the predominant coloration of most species. Members of the subfamily Coliadinae have the humeral vein in the hind wing greatly reduced or absent and larvae that feed mostly on legumes whereas species of Pierinae have the humeral vein long and their larvae feed primarily on Brassicales, Santalales and Euphorbiaceae (Nielsen & Common 1991). Elodina, the pearl-whites, is an Australasian genus of Pierinae with white wings bearing a black apical patch on the upper side of the fore wing (Braby 2000). The Dismorphiinae, mimic sulphurs, are a primarily Neotropical group of butterflies that commonly mimic other, toxic butterflies such as Heliconius species. Pseudopontia paradoxa is a species found in central and western Africa that lacks the clubbed antennae of other butterflies and has been placed in its own subfamily.

Characters (from Nielsen & Common 1991): Medium sized; maxillary palps absent; labial palps ascending, appressed to frons; epiphysis absent, fore leg fully developed, tibiae spined, spurs 0-2-2, tarsal claws bifid; fore wing usually lacking at least one branch of R, one anal vein; hind wing with humeral vein present, vestigial, or absent, Sc+R1 diverging from Rs at base, two anal veins, wing scales containing pterin pigments. Egg vertically fusiform, with vertical and horizontal ribs; laid singly or in groups. Larva cylindrical, with numerous short, fine secondary setae; crochets bi- or triordinal; sometimes gregarious. Pupa angular, often with spines or ridges; attached by cremaster and central silken girdle.

    |--Pseudopontia Plötz 1870 F55 [Pseudopontiinae NC91]
    |    `--P. paradoxa (Felder 1870) F55
    |--Dismorphia [Dismorphiinae] GE05
    |    |--D. albania (Bates 1846) FS54
    |    |--D. amphiona GE05
    |    |--D. fortunata (Lucas 1854) FS54
    |    `--D. nemesis (Latreille 1813) S55
    |--Coliadinae NC91
    |    |--Colias F55
    |    |--Terias FS54
    |    |--Catopsilia NC91
    |    |--Eurema NC91
    |    |--Phoebis KP19
    |    |    |--P. argante (Fabricius 1775) S55
    |    |    |--P. philea (Linnaeus 1767) S55
    |    |    |--P. sennae FS54
    |    |    |    |--P. s. sennae FS54
    |    |    |    `--P. s. eubule (Linnaeus 1767) FS54
    |    |    `--P. statira (Cramer 1777) [=Aphrissa statira] S55
    |    |--Gonepteryx rhamni S72, F92
    |    |--Nathalis iole S72
    |    `--Zerene eurydice S72
    `--Pierinae J03
         |  i. s.: Appias PP02
         |         Belenois PP02
         |         Cepora PP02
         |         Leuciacria J03
         |         Pieris NC91
         |         Delias NC91
         |         Leptosia B00
         |         Pereute Herrich-Schäffer 1867 B00
         |         Leodonta Butler 1870 B00
         |         Catasticta Butler 1870 B00
         |           `--C. teutamis (Hewitson 1860) F55
         |         Archonias Hübner 1827–1831 B00
         |           `--A. bellona S55
         |                |--A. b. bellona S55
         |                `--A. b. phaloreia Fruhstorfer 1907 S55
         |         Elodina Felder & Felder 1865 B00
         |           |--E. angulipennis (Lucas 1852) B00
         |           |--E. claudia De Baar & Hancock 1993 B00
         |           |--E. padusa (Hewitson 1853) B12
         |           |--E. parthia (Hewitson 1853) B00
         |           |--E. perdita Miskin 1889 B00
         |           |--E. queenslandica De Baar & Hancock 1993 B00
         |           `--E. walkeri Butler 1898 [=E. perdita walkeri; incl. E. perdita tongura Tindlae 1923] B00
         |         Mylothris B00
         |         Aporia S72
         |         Neophasia menapia S72
         |         Prioneris sita S72
         |--Ascia monuste (Linné 1764) KP19, FS54
         `--+--Anthocharis KP19
            `--Hebomoia KP19

Pieridae incertae sedis:
  Artogeia rapae BWT03
  Melete isandra Boisduval 1836 FS54
  Hesperocharis S55
    |--‘Pieris’ avivolans Butler 1865 B66
    |--H. graphites B66
    |--H. hirlanda [=Cunizza hirlanda] S55
    |    |--H. h. hirlanda S55
    |    `--H. h. ninguida Fruhstorfer 1907 S55
    `--H. marchalii S55
         |--H. m. marchalii S55
         `--H. m. coloe Fruhstorfer 1907 S55
  Anteos menippe (Hübner 1806) S55
  Baltia Moore 1878 F55
    `--B. shawi [incl. B. shawi ab. melanotica Bang-Haas 1937] F55
  Mesapia Gray 1856 F55
    `--M. peloria F55
         |--M. p. peloria F55
         `--M. p. grayi Bang-Haas 1934 F55
  Phrissura Butler 1870 F55
    |--P. aegis (Felder 1861) [=Pieris aegis, Tachyris aegis] F55
    |    |--P. a. aegis F55
    |    |--P. a. caepia Fruhstorfer 1910 F55
    |    `--P. a. illana (Felder 1862) F55
    `--P. phoebe B01b
  Saletara Distant 1885 F55
    |--S. liberia F55
    |    |--S. l. liberia F55
    |    `--S. l. eliada Hewitson 1861 [=Tachyris eliada] F55
    `--S. panda F55
         |--S. p. panda F55
         |--S. p. distanti Butler 1898 F55
         |--S. p. erebina Fruhstorfer 1900 F55
         |--S. p. martia Fruhstorfer 1910 F55
         `--S. p. nathalia (Felder 1862) [=Pieris nathalia] F55
  Dixeia Talbot 1932 F55
    |--D. capricornus (Ward 1871) [=Pieris capricornus] F55
    |--D. cebron (Ward 1871) [=Pieris cebron] F55
    `--D. rubrobasalis F55
         |--D. r. rubrobasalis F55
         `--D. r. nitida (Aurivillius 1898) [=Pieris rubrobasalis var. nitida] F55
  Synchloe Hübner 1818 F55
    |--S. distorta B01a
    |--S. dubernardi F55
    |    |--S. d. dubernardi F55
    |    `--S. d. bromkampi Bang-Haas 1938 F55
    |--S. glauconome B01b
    `--S. johnstoni B01a
  Pontia Fabricius 1807 F55
    |--P. daplidice (Linnaeus 1758) [=Leucochloe daplidice] F55
    |--P. freyeri GE05
    |--P. glauconome Klug 1829 [=Leucochloe glauconome] F55
    |--P. nina WM66
    `--P. niobe Wallace & Moore 1866 WM66
  Euchloe F55
  Colotis Hübner 1820 F55
    |  i. s.: C. daira F55
    |           |--C. d. daira F55
    |           `--C. d. nouna (see below for synonymy) F55
    |         C. evippe (Linnaeus 1758) [=Teracolus evippe] F55
    `--C. (Madais Swinhoe 1910) F55
         `--C. (M.) fausta [incl. Teracolus fausta f. beckeri Bang-Haas 1927, C. fausta f. beckeri] F55
  Nepheronia Butler 1870 F55
    `--N. argia (Fabricius 1775) (see below for synonymy) F55
  Pareronia F55
  Gandaca Moore 1906 F55
    `--G. harina [=Terias harina] F55
         |--G. h. harina F55
         |--G. h. batanea Fruhstorfer 1911 F55
         |--G. h. gardineri Fruhstorfer 1910 F55
         |--G. h. mindanaensis Fruhstorfer 1910 F55
         `--G. h. palawanica Fruhstorfer 1910 F55
  Stolopsyche libytheoides GE05
  Oligodonta florissantensis GE05
  Coliates proserpina GE05
  Mylothrites pluto GE05
  Eucheira socialis GE05
  Leptidea reali Reisinger 1989 JP05
  Leucophasia sinapis [incl. L. sinapis var. amurensis] P01
  Rhodocera P01
    |--R. rhamni P01
    `--R. wallichii (Doubleday 1848) [=Gonepteryx wallichii; incl. G. urania Butler 1866] B66

Colotis daira nouna [incl. Teracolus daira nouna auresiaca Stauder 1913, C. daira nouna f. biskrensis Blachier 1908, T. daira nouna pyroleuca Stauder 1913, C. daira nouna f. pyroleuca] F55

Nepheronia argia (Fabricius 1775) [=Eronia argia; incl. N. argia f. poppea (Donovan 1824), E. argia ab. poppea] F55

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BWT03] Bowie, M., S. Wratten & J. Tylianakis. 2003. An introduction to entomological research on Kowhai Farm—the Heinz Wattie’s Organic Farm at Lincoln University. Weta 25: 18–23.

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 1. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[B12] Braby, M. F. 2012. The butterflies of El Questro Wilderness Park, with remarks on the taxonomy of the Kimberley fauna, Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (2): 161–175.

[B66] Butler, A. G. 1866. Corrections and addenda to certain papers on Lepidoptera published during the years 1865–66; with additional notes on some of the species described. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 451–458.

[B01a] Butler, A. G. 1901a. An account of a collection of butterflies obtained by Lord Delamere, chiefly at Munisu, near Mount Kenya. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 197–203.

[B01b] Butler, A. G. 1901b. On a collection of butterflies from the Uganda Protectorate, forwarded by C. Steuart Betton, Esq., in 1900. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 562.

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[F55] Franz, E. 1955. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Senckenberg, 16). Insecta, Lepidoptera, Pieridae. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 339–367.

[FS54] Franz, E., & H. Schröder. 1954. Tagfalter (Lep. Rhopalocera) aus El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 75–87.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[J03] Jong, R. de. 2003. Are there butterflies with Gondwanan ancestry in the Australian region? Invertebrate Systematics 17: 143–156.

[JP05] Jungmann, E., & U. Poller. 2005. Neunachweise und Wiederfunde für die Schmetterlingsfauna (Insecta; Lepidoptera) des Altenburger Landes. Mauritiana 19 (2): 317–326.

[KP19] Kawahara, A. Y., D. Plotkin, M. Espeland, K. Meusemann, E. F. A. Toussaint, A. Donath, F. Gimnich, P. B. Frandsen, A. Zwick, M. dos Reis, J. R. Barber, R. S. Peters, S. Liu, X. Zhou, C. Mayer, L. Podsiadlowski, C. Storer, J. E. Yack, B. Misof & J. W. Breinholt. 2019. Phylogenomics reveals the evolutionary timing and pattern of butterflies and moths. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 116 (45): 22657–22663.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[PP02] Patrick, B., & H. Patrick. 2002. Butterflies of Fiji. Weta 24: 5–12.

[P01] Pável, J. 1901. Lepkék [Lepidopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 171–177. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[S55] Schröder, H. 1955. Eine Falter-Ausbeute aus dem westlichen Bolivien. (Ins. Lepid. Rhopal.) Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 329–338.

[S72] Shields, O. 1972. Flower visitation records for butterflies (Lepidoptera). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 48 (3): 189–203.

[WM66] Wallace, A. R., & F. Moore. 1866. List of lepidopterous insects collected at Takow, Formosa, by Mr. R. Swinhoe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 355–365.

Last updated: 24 April 2022.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="http://www.fieldofscience.com/">FoS</a> = FoS