Pseudocaecilioidea

Trichopsocus clarus, photographed by Alby Oakshott.


Belongs within: Homilopsocidea.
Contains: Trichocaeciliinae, Pseudocaeciliinae.

The Pseudocaecilioidea are a clade of bark lice usually found on living foliage.

Characters (from Yoshizawa 2002): Small to middle in size, about 2–4 mm. Coloration variable. Usually living-foliage dwellers, except for some genera of Pseudocaeciliidae (e.g. Ophiodopelma). Vertex generally rounded but strongly angled in Calopsocidae; postclypeus not strongly bulged; epistomal suture faint dorsally, without broad internal ridge; anteclypeus sclerotized. Forewing veins with more than one row of setae; marginal setae crossing on anterior margin or not (Trichopsocidae). Apex of first axillary sclerite broadened. Hindwing veins and margins setose; Rs and M + Cu separate or fused for short distance basally; Rs and M fused. Tarsi usually 2-segmented; claws with or without preapical tooth; pulvillus broad. Abdomen with eversible vesicles ventrally except some dead-foliage dwelling taxa in Pseudocaeciliidae. Male genitalia: hypandrium articulated laterally with clunium or not (Trichopsocidae); with or without (Trichopsocidae) lateral projection and lateral bristle. Phallosome: aedeagus pointed apically; parameres long, extending far beyond aedeagus; endophallus with or without (Trichopsocidae and some genera of Pseudocaeciliidae) rod-like sclerites. Female genitalia: subgenital plate with well-developed egg guide extending from dorsal margin; egg guide 2-lobed, each bearing 1 or 2 apical setae. Gonapophyses complete; ventral valve usually with dorsal lobe apically; dorsal valve with dorsal lobe and subapical process; external valve variable, bearing many long bristles.

<==Pseudocaecilioidea
    |--Trichopsocus Kolbe 1882 M93 [Trichopsocidae Y02]
    |    |--*T. dalii (McLachlan 1867) (see below for synonymy) M93
    |    `--‘Caecilius’ clarus Banks 1908 [=Pseudocaecilius clarus; incl. Trichopsocus acuminatus Badonnel 1943] M93
    `--+--Calopsocus [Calopsocidae] Y02
       |    |--C. infelix Y02
       |    |--C. reticulatus S95
       |    |--C. reticuloides S95
       |    `--C. yatesi Smithers 1995 S95
       `--Pseudocaeciliidae Y02
            |  i. s.: Howeanum Smithers 1995 SN04
            |         Trimerocaecilius Meinander 1978 SN04
            |         Zelandopsocus Tillyard 1923 SN04
            |         Levucaecilius Smithers 1995 S95
            |           |--*L. greenwoodi [=Pseudocaecilius greenwoodi] S95
            |           |--L. albicrus (Thornton 1981) [=Heterocaecilius albicrus] S95
            |           |--L. apicalis (Thornton 1981) [=Heterocaecilius apicalis] S95
            |           |--L. dardanus (Lee & Thornton 1967) [=Heterocaecilius dardanus] S95
            |           |--L. hilli Smithers 1995 S95
            |           |--L. panicus (Lee & Thornton 1967) [=Heterocaecilius panicus] S95
            |           |--L. pictus (Thornton 1981) [=Heterocaecilius pictus] S95
            |           |--L. veitchi [=Heterocaecilius veitchi] S95
            |           `--L. volatus (Lee & Thornton 1967) [=Heterocaecilius volatus] S95
            |         Cladioneura M74
            |           |  i. s.: C. foliata GTM12
            |           `--C. (Scytopsocus) M74
            |                |--C. (S.) coriacea (Roesler 1940) [=Scytopsocus coriaceus] M74
            |                `--C. (S.) difficilis M74
            |--Trichocaeciliinae L02
            |--Pseudocaeciliinae L02
            |--Mesocaecilius Okamoto 1910 [Mesocaeciliinae] L02
            |    |--*M. quadrimaculatus Okamoto 1910 L02
            |    |--M. bellus Li 2002 L02
            |    |--M. decorosus Li 2002 L02
            |    |--M. elegans Li 1997 L02
            |    |--M. euryopterus Li 2002 L02
            |    |--M. lepidus Li 2002 L02
            |    `--M. paraornatus (New 1977) [=Pseudocaecilius paraornatus] L02
            `--Meplerinae [Pseudoscottiinae] L02
                 |--Scottiella L02
                 `--Mepleres Enderlein 1926 [incl. Meniscopsocus Li 1993, Pseudoscottiella Badonnel 1946] L02
                      |--*M. maeandricus Enderlein 1926 L02
                      |--‘Pseudoscottiella’ decolor Badonnel 1955 B55
                      |--‘Pseudoscottiella’ hyalina Badonnel 1955 B55
                      |--‘Pseudoscottiella’ immaculata Badonnel 1955 B55
                      |--M. limbatus (Enderlein 1908) L02
                      |--M. longicellus Li 2002 L02
                      |--M. longitudinalis Li 2002 L02
                      |--‘Pseudoscottiella’ maculatus Broadhead & Richards 1982 L02
                      |--‘Pseudoscottiella’ megops B55
                      |--‘Pseudoscottiella’ nigroguttatus (Karny 1925) L02
                      |--M. ocellatus Li 2002 L02
                      |--M. oresbius Li 2002 L02
                      |--M. parvicellus Li 2002 L02
                      |--M. plenimacularis Li 2002 [=Pseudoscottiella plenimacularis] L02
                      |--M. proboscideus Li 2002 L02
                      |--M. procurrens Li 2002 L02
                      |--M. sinicus (Li 1993) [=Meniscopsocus sinicus] L02
                      |--‘Pseudoscottiella’ suellus Thornton 1984 L02
                      |--‘Pseudoscottiella’ tanei Smither 1977 L02
                      |--‘Pseudoscottiella’ tuberculata Badonnel 1955 B55
                      |--M. ulterior Li 2002 L02
                      |--M. unitus Li 2002 L02
                      |--‘Pseudoscottiella’ yeni New 1974 L02
                      `--M. yunnanicus Li 2002 L02

*Trichopsocus dalii (McLachlan 1867) [=Caecilius dalii; incl. T. hirtellus var. angulata Navás 1916, C. hirtellus McLachlan 1877, T. hirtellus] M93

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B55] Badonnel, A. 1955. Psocoptères de l'Angola. Diamang Publicações Culturais 26: 11-267.

[GTM12] Gunawardene, N. R., C. K. Taylor & J. D. Majer. 2012. Revisiting the Psocoptera (Insecta) of Barrow Island, Western Australia. Australian Entomologist 39 (4): 253-260.

[L02] Li F. 2002. Psocoptera of China vol. 1. Science Press: Beijing.

[M74] Mockford, E. L. 1974. Records and descriptions of Cuban Psocoptera. Entomologica Americana 48 (2): 103-215.

[M93] Mockford, E. L. 1993. North American Psocoptera (Insecta). Sandhill Crane Press, Inc.

[SN04] Schmidt, E. R., & T. R. New. 2004. A systematic and phylogenetic revision of the family Elipsocidae (Insecta: Psocoptera), with the erection of two new families: Lesneiidae and Sabulopsocidae. Invertebrate Systematics 18: 157-213.

[S95] Smithers, C. N. 1995. Psocoptera (Insecta) of Christmas Island. Invertebrate Taxonomy 9: 529-561.

[Y02] Yoshizawa, K. 2002. Phylogeny and higher classification of suborder Psocomorpha (Insecta: Psocodea: ‘Psocoptera’). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 136: 371-400.

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