Psocetae

Cluster of a possible Myopsocus, photographed by Steve and Alison.


Belongs within: Psocomorpha.
Contains: Cerastipsocinae, Psocinae, Amphigerontiinae, Lichenomiminae.

The Psocetae is a clade of bark or stone surface dwelling barklice that lack setae on the fore and hind wings (Yoshizawa 2002).

Characters (from Yoshizawa 2002): Medium to large in size, about 3–10 mm. Coloration variable, but usually whitish in ground colour and with dark brown markings. All bark or stone surface dwellers. Head with rounded vertex; postclypeus not strongly bulged; internal ridge of epistomal suture narrow; anteclypeus sclerotized; male eyes usually much larger than female’s; ocelli complete, not clustered on small tubercle; mandible short, outer margin smoothly rounded, posterolateral margin not hollowed; lacinial tip variable; galea flattened; labial palpus rounded. Prothorax less bulged dorsally. Pterothorax greatly bulged dorsally; median part of mesoscutellum pentagonal; mesothorax with narrow precoxal bridge and broad trochantin; membranous region of metaepisternum broad. Forewing often with dark brown markings; posteroproximal corner smoothly rounded; veins and wing margin glabrous; top of CuA1 usually connected with M except free in Psilopsocidae; A2 never present. Hindwing glabrous, posteroproximal corner smoothly rounded; Sc clear; Rs and M + Cu fused for long distance basally; Rs and M fused or connected by crossvein (some genera in Myopsocidae). Hind tarsus with row of broad ctenidia based setae (condition of this character in Psilopsocidae not examined or documented); tarsi 2- or 3-segmented; claws with preapical tooth; pulvillus broad or narrow (Psocidae). Abdomen without eversible vesicles ventrally. Male genitalia: paraproct with process on distal margin. Hypandrium usually with complex distal processes or lobes. Phallosome variable; internal valve present or absent; external valve often absent; endophallus lacking sclerotized portion. Female genitalia: paraproct with cylindrical distal projection. Subgenital plate with 1-lobed egg guide extending from ventral margin; apex of egg guide usually bearing setae. Gonapophyses complete and variable in structure; external valve internally expanded.

<==Psocetae [Psocoidea]
    |--Psilopsocus [Psilopsocidae] Y02
    |    `--P. mimulus Y02
    |--Psocidae Y02
    |    |  i. s.: Barrowia insularis GTM12
    |    |--Cerastipsocinae S95
    |    |--Psocinae M93
    |    |--Amphigerontiinae M93
    |    `--Sigmatoneura Enderlein 1908 [incl. Scaphopsocus Smithers 1960; Sigmatoneurinae] L02
    |         |  i. s.: S. formosa (Banks 1918) L02
    |         |         S. kolbei (Enderlein 1906) L02
    |         |         S. orientalis New 1975 L02
    |         |         S. phaeotherus Smithers 1960 L02
    |         |--S. (Sigmatoneura) L02
    |         |    |--*S. (S.) subcostalis [=Cerastipsocus subcostalis] L02
    |         |    |--S. (S.) antenniflava Li 2002 [=S. antennflava] L02
    |         |    |--S. (S.) baiyunica Li 2002 L02
    |         |    |--S. (S.) brachyura Li 2002 L02
    |         |    |--S. (S.) clara Li & Yang 1988 L02
    |         |    |--S. (S.) coronata Li 2002 [=S. coronatus] L02
    |         |    |--S. (S.) flaviventris Li 2002 L02
    |         |    |--S. (S.) singularis Okamoto 1907 L02
    |         |    `--S. (S.) triaristata Li 2002 L02
    |         `--S. (Longifolia Li 2002) L02
    |              |--S. (*L.) octofasciata Li 2002 L02
    |              |--S. (L.) chinensis Li & Yang 1987 L02
    |              |--S. (L.) ellipsoidalis Li 2002 L02
    |              |--S. (L.) macroloba Li 2002 L02
    |              `--S. (L.) spicata Li 2002 L02
    `--Myopsocidae Y02
         |--Lichenomiminae L02
         `--Myopsocinae L02
              |--Polygonomyus Li 2002 [=Ploygonomyus] L02
              |    |--*P. sinicus Li 2002 L02
              |    |--P. scapiformis Li 2002 L02
              |    `--P. sexangulus Li 2002 L02
              `--Myopsocus Hagen 1866 [incl. Phlotodes Enderlein 1910, Rhaptoneura Enderlein 1910] L02
                   |--*M. unduosus (Hagen 1859) [=Psocus unduosus] L02
                   |--‘Rhaptoneura’ africana Badonnel 1955 B55
                   |--‘Phlotodes’ angolensis Badonnel 1955 B55
                   |--M. angustus S95
                   |--M. antillanus (Mockford 1974) [=Phlotodes antillanus] M93
                   |--‘Phlotodes’ australis GE05
                   |--M. brunneipes Smithers 1995 S95
                   |--M. cameruna Enderlein 1903 M74, B55 [=Lichenomima cameruna B55]
                   |--M. clypeofasciatus Mockford 1974 M74
                   |--‘Phlotodes’ congolensis B55
                   |--‘Phlotodes’ cubanus Mockford 1974 M74
                   |--M. eatoni McLachlan 1880 [=Rhaptoneura eatoni] M93
                   |--M. fasciatus M74
                   |--M. fenestrata [=Phlotodes fenestratus] S95
                   |--M. hermosoides S95
                   |--M. intermedia M74
                   |--M. javensis S95
                   |--M. minutus (Mockford 1974) [=Phlotodes minutus] M93
                   |--M. palauensis Thornton, Lee & Chui 1972 L02
                   |--M. pauliani M74
                   |--M. preclara [=Phlotodes preclarus] S95
                   |--M. schoutedeni M74
                   `--M. yunnanicus Li 2002 L02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B55] Badonnel, A. 1955. Psocoptères de l'Angola. Diamang Publicações Culturais 26: 11-267.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[GTM12] Gunawardene, N. R., C. K. Taylor & J. D. Majer. 2012. Revisiting the Psocoptera (Insecta) of Barrow Island, Western Australia. Australian Entomologist 39 (4): 253-260.

[L02] Li F. 2002. Psocoptera of China vol. 2. Science Press: Beijing.

[M74] Mockford, E. L. 1974. Records and descriptions of Cuban Psocoptera. Entomologica Americana 48 (2): 103-215.

[M93] Mockford, E. L. 1993. North American Psocoptera (Insecta). Sandhill Crane Press, Inc.

[S95] Smithers, C. N. 1995. Psocoptera (Insecta) of Christmas Island. Invertebrate Taxonomy 9: 529-561.

[Y02] Yoshizawa, K. 2002. Phylogeny and higher classification of suborder Psocomorpha (Insecta: Psocodea: ‘Psocoptera’). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 136: 371-400.

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