Big-eyed toad bug Gelastocoris sp., copyright Gail Hampshire.

Belongs within: Heteroptera.
Contains: Nepoidea, Corixidae, Naucoroidea, Notonectoidea, Leptopodomorpha, Cimicomorpha, Coreoidea, Aradoidea, Pentatomoidea, Lygaeidae, Rhyparochromidae, Pyrrhocoroidea.

The Panheteroptera are a major clade of true bugs characterised by the division of the forewings between a sclerotised proximal corium and non-sclerotised distal membrane. Panheteropterans can be divided between three major clades, the mostly water-associated Nepomorpha and Leptopodomorpha and the more strongly terrestrial Geocorisae. The Geocorisae are in turn divided between the Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha, the latter group lacking a costal fracture in the fore wing and having the R and M veins in the hind wing distally separated with the subcostal vein poorly developed (Carver et al. 1991).

The Nepomorpha are one of the few groups of insects including species that are aquatic through their entire life cycle. Members of the Ochteroidea are found mostly along margins of water bodies and differ from other nepomorphs in possessing ocelli. The Gelastocoridae, toad bugs, have raptorial fore legs with a broadened femur (Carver et al. 1991).

    |--Nepomorpha [Cryptocerata, Hydrocorisiae] GE05
    |    |--Nepoidea GE05
    |    `--+--+--Corixidae GE05
    |       |  `--+--Naucoroidea SP02
    |       |     `--+--Apnopidae G75
    |       |        `--Notonectoidea GE05
    |       `--Ochteroidea [Gelastocoroidea] SP02
    |            |  i. s.: Heterochterus SP02
    |            |--Propreocoris [Propreocoridae, Propreocorinae] GE05
    |            `--+--Ochteridae [Pelogonidae] GE05
    |               |    |--Megochterus nasutus CGW91
    |               |    `--Ochterus YS01
    |               |         |--O. australicus CGW91
    |               |         `--O. marginatus WEE70 [=Pelogonus marginatus G20]
    |               `--Gelastocoridae [Mononychidae] GE05
    |                    |--Nerthra [Nerthrinae] T61b
    |                    |    |--N. asiatica (Horvarth 1892) [=Mononyx asiaticus; incl. M. grossus Montandon 1899] T61b
    |                    |    |--N. indica (Atkinson 1888) (see below for synonymy) T61b
    |                    |    |--N. nudata CGW91
    |                    |    |--N. plauta CGW91
    |                    |    `--N. tuberculata T61a
    |                    `--Gelastocoris [incl. Montandonius Melin 1929; Gelastocorinae] T61a
    |                         |--G. angulatus (see below for synonymy) T61a
    |                         |--G. flavus T61a
    |                         |--G. fuscus [incl. G. martinezi] T61a
    |                         |--G. major T61a
    |                         |--G. nebulosus (see below for synonymy) T61a
    |                         |--G. quadrimaculatus T61a
    |                         `--G. vicinus T61a
    `--+--Leptopodomorpha GE05
       `--Geocorisae [Corisiae] GE05
            |--Cimicomorpha GE05
            `--Pentatomomorpha GE05
                 |--Coreoidea GE05
                 |--Aradoidea GE05
                 |--Pentatomoidea GE05
                 |--Lygaeoidea CGW91
                 |    |--Lygaeidae GE05
                 |    |--Malcidae CGW91
                 |    |--Rhyparochromidae CGW91
                 |    `--Artheneidae [Artheneinae] CGW91
                 |         |--Nothochromus maoricus Slater, Woodward & Sweet 1962 L02
                 |         `--Dilompus robustus CGW91
                 `--Pyrrhocoroidea GE05

Gelastocoris angulatus [=Montandonius angulatus; incl. M. bridarollii, M. mansosotoi, M. willineri] T61a

Gelastocoris nebulosus [incl. G. bergi De Carlo 1954, G. bolivianus De Carlo 1954, G. monrosi De Carlo 1959, G. paraguayensis De Carlo 1954, G. vianai De Carlo 1954] T61a

Nerthra indica (Atkinson 1888) [=Mononyx indicus; incl. M. projectus Distant 1906, M. turgidulus Distant 1906, Nerthra turgidula] T61b

*Type species of generic name indicated


[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[G75] Gross, G. F. 1975. Plant-feeding and Other Bugs (Hemiptera) of South Australia. Heteroptera—Part I. Handbook of the Flora and Fauna of South Australia.

[L02] Larivière, M.-C. 2002. Primary types of Heteroptera in the New Zealand Arthropod Collection: Pentatomomorpha described from New Zealand before the year 2000. New Zealand Entomologist 25: 79–85.

[SP02] Shcherbakov, D. E., & Yu. A. Popov. 2002. Superorder Cimicidea Laicharting, 1781: Order Hemiptera Linné, 1758. The bugs, cicadas, plantlice, scale insects, etc. [=Cimicida Laicharting, 1781, =Homoptera Leach, 1815+Heteroptera Latreille, 1810). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 143–157. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[T61a] Todd, E. L. 1961a. Synonymical notes on some South American species of Gelastocoris Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Gelastocoridae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 57–64.

[T61b] Todd, E. L. 1961b. Notes on some toad bugs (Hemiptera: Gelastocoridae) from India. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 93–94.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

[YS01] Yoshizawa, K., & T. Saigusa. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of paraneopteran orders (Insecta: Neoptera) based on forewing base structure with comments on monophyly of Auchenorrhycha (Hemiptera). Systematic Entomology 26: 1–13.

Last updated: 15 May 2022.

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