Pale cotton stainer bug Dysdercus sidae, from here.

Belongs within: Heteroptera.
Contains: Nepoidea, Corixidae, Naucoroidea, Notonectoidea, Leptopodomorpha, Cimicomorpha, Coreoidea, Aradoidea, Pentatomoidea, Lygaeidae, Rhyparochromidae.

The Panheteroptera is a major clade of true bugs, characterised by the division of the forewings between a sclerotised proximal corium and non-sclerotised distal membrane. Panheteropterans can be divided between three major clades, the mostly water-associated Nepomorpha and Leptopodomorpha, and the more strongly terrestrial Geocorisae. The Geocorisae are in turn divided between the Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha, the latter group lacking a costal fracture in the fore wing and having the R and M veins in the hind wing distally separated with the subcostal vein poorly developed (Carver et al. 1991).

The Nepomorpha are one of the few groups of insects including species that are aquatic through their entire life cycle. Members of the Nepomorpha include the Ochteroidea, predatory bugs found mostly along margins of water bodies (Carver et al. 1991).

    |--Nepomorpha [Cryptocerata, Hydrocorisiae] GE05
    |    |--Nepoidea GE05
    |    `--+--+--Corixidae GE05
    |       |  `--+--Naucoroidea SP02
    |       |     `--+--Apnopidae G75
    |       |        `--Notonectoidea GE05
    |       `--Ochteroidea [Gelastocoroidea] SP02
    |            |  i. s.: Heterochterus SP02
    |            |--Propreocoris [Propreocoridae, Propreocorinae] GE05
    |            `--+--Ochteridae [Pelogonidae] GE05
    |               |    |--Megochterus nasutus CGW91
    |               |    `--Ochterus CGW91
    |               |         |--O. australicus CGW91
    |               |         `--O. marginatus WEE70 [=Pelogonus marginatus G20]
    |               `--Gelastocoridae [Mononychidae] GE05
    |                    |--Nerthra [Nerthrinae] T61b
    |                    |    |--N. asiatica (Horvarth 1892) [=Mononyx asiaticus; incl. M. grossus Montandon 1899] T61b
    |                    |    |--N. indica (Atkinson 1888) (see below for synonymy) T61b
    |                    |    |--N. nudata CGW91
    |                    |    |--N. plauta CGW91
    |                    |    `--N. tuberculata T61a
    |                    `--Gelastocoris [incl. Montandonius Melin 1929; Gelastocorinae] T61a
    |                         |--G. angulatus (see below for synonymy) T61a
    |                         |--G. flavus T61a
    |                         |--G. fuscus [incl. G. martinezi] T61a
    |                         |--G. major T61a
    |                         |--G. nebulosus (see below for synonymy) T61a
    |                         |--G. quadrimaculatus T61a
    |                         `--G. vicinus T61a
    `--+--Leptopodomorpha GE05
       `--Geocorisae [Corisiae] GE05
            |--Cimicomorpha GE05
            `--Pentatomomorpha GE05
                 |--Coreoidea GE05
                 |--Aradoidea GE05
                 |--Pentatomoidea GE05
                 |--Lygaeoidea CGW91
                 |    |--Lygaeidae GE05
                 |    |--Malcidae CGW91
                 |    |--Rhyparochromidae CGW91
                 |    `--Artheneidae [Artheneinae] CGW91
                 |         |--Nothochromus maoricus Slater, Woodward & Sweet 1962 L02
                 |         `--Dilompus robustus CGW91
                 `--Pyrrhocoroidea GE05
                      |--Largidae O06
                      |    |--Lohita grandis RD77
                      |    |--Largus RD77
                      |    |--Iphita RD77
                      |    |--Japetus Distant 1883 O06
                      |    |    `--*J. sphaeroides Distant 1883 O06
                      |    |--Delacampius CGW91
                      |    |    |--D. lateralis CGW91
                      |    |    `--D. militaris WEE70
                      |    `--Physopelta YS01
                      |         |--P. australis CGW91
                      |         |--P. famelica C70
                      |         `--P. gutta ZS10
                      `--Pyrrhocoridae GE05
                           |--Mesopyrrhocoris fasciata Hong & Wang 1990 RJ93
                           |--Dindymus CGW91
                           |    |--D. sanguineus RD77
                           |    `--D. versicolor CGW91
                           |--Pyrrhocoris S54
                           |    |--P. apterus S54
                           |    `--P. sibiricus H01
                           `--Dysdercus WS04
                                |--D. cingulatus C91
                                |--D. decussatus Boisduval 1835 B35
                                |--D. impictiventris Stal 1870 K08
                                |--D. insularis Stal 1870 K08
                                |--D. intermedius WEE74
                                |--D. koenigii WS04
                                |--D. oceanicus Boisduval 1835 B35
                                |--D. pyrochroa Boisduval 1835 B35
                                |--D. remotus Distant 1914 D14
                                |--D. sidae Montr. 1861 [=Disdercus sidae] D14
                                `--D. sulphurellus RD77

Gelastocoris angulatus [=Montandonius angulatus; incl. M. bridarollii, M. mansosotoi, M. willineri] T61a

Gelastocoris nebulosus [incl. G. bergi De Carlo 1954, G. bolivianus De Carlo 1954, G. monrosi De Carlo 1959, G. paraguayensis De Carlo 1954, G. vianai De Carlo 1954] T61a

Nerthra indica (Atkinson 1888) [=Mononyx indicus; incl. M. projectus Distant 1906, M. turgidulus Distant 1906, Nerthra turgidula] T61b

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B35] Boisduval, J. B. 1835. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d'Urville. Faune entomologique de l'océan Pacifique, avec l'illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage vol. 2. Coléoptères et autres ordres. J. Tastu: Paris.

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[C70] CSIRO. 1970. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Melbourne University Press.

[C91] CSIRO. 1991. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[D14] Distant, W. L. 1914. Rhynchota from New Caledonia and the surrounding islands. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 4 pp. 369–390, pls 11–12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[G75] Gross, G. F. 1975. Plant-feeding and Other Bugs (Hemiptera) of South Australia. Heteroptera—Part I. Handbook of the Flora and Fauna of South Australia.

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[K08] Kirkaldy, G. W. 1908. A catalogue of the Hemiptera of Fiji. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 345–391, pl. 4.

[L02] Larivière, M.-C. 2002. Primary types of Heteroptera in the New Zealand Arthropod Collection: Pentatomomorpha described from New Zealand before the year 2000. New Zealand Entomologist 25: 79–85.

[O06] Özdikmen, H. 2006. Nomenclatural changes for some Laniatores (Opiliones) genera: new substitute names and new combinations. Mun. Ent. Zool. 1 (1): 63–68.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S54] Seidenstücker, G. 1954. Gulde’s “forma alpina” von Trapezonotus arenarius (Ins. Het. Lygaeidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 101–102.

[SP02] Shcherbakov, D. E., & Yu. A. Popov. 2002. Superorder Cimicidea Laicharting, 1781: Order Hemiptera Linné, 1758. The bugs, cicadas, plantlice, scale insects, etc. [=Cimicida Laicharting, 1781, =Homoptera Leach, 1815+Heteroptera Latreille, 1810). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 143–157. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[T61a] Todd, E. L. 1961a. Synonymical notes on some South American species of Gelastocoris Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Gelastocoridae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 57–64.

[T61b] Todd, E. L. 1961b. Notes on some toad bugs (Hemiptera: Gelastocoridae) from India. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 93–94.

[WS04] Wang, Q., & G. L. Shi. 2004. Mating frequency, duration, and circadian mating rhythm of New Zealand wheat bug Nysius huttoni White (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). New Zealand Entomologist 27: 113–117.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

[WEE74] Woodward, T. E., V. F. Eastop & J. W. Evans. 1974. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 52–57. Melbourne University Press.

[YS01] Yoshizawa, K., & T. Saigusa. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of paraneopteran orders (Insecta: Neoptera) based on forewing base structure with comments on monophyly of Auchenorrhycha (Hemiptera). Systematic Entomology 26: 1–13.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

Last updated: 26 July 2020.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="">FoS</a> = FoS