Pale cotton stainer bug Dysdercus sidae, from here.

Belongs within: Heteroptera.
Contains: Corixidae, Naucoroidea, Notonectoidea, Leptopodomorpha, Cimicomorpha, Rhyparochromidae, Coreoidea, Aradoidea, Pentatomoidea, Lygaeidae.

The Panheteroptera is a major clade of true bugs, characterised by the division of the forewings between a sclerotised proximal corium and non-sclerotised distal membrane. They include the Nepomorpha, one of the few groups of insects including species that are aquatic through their entire life cycle. The Leptopodomorpha are also associated with water, while the Geocorisae are more strongly terrestrial.

    |--Nepomorpha GE05
    |    |--+--Ochteroidea SP02
    |    |  |    |  i. s.: Heterochterus SP02
    |    |  |    |--Propreocoris [Propreocorinae] GE05
    |    |  |    `--+--Gelastocoridae GE05
    |    |  |       `--Ochterus YS01 [Ochteridae GE05]
    |    |  `--+--Corixidae GE05
    |    |     `--+--Naucoroidea SP02
    |    |        `--+--Notonectoidea GE05
    |    |           `--+--Helotrephidae GE05
    |    |              `--Plea D14 [Pleidae GE05, Pleinae]
    |    |                   `--P. rufonotata Distant 1914 D14
    |    `--Nepoidea SP02
    |         |--Nepidae GE05
    |         |    |--Laccotrephes SP02
    |         |    |--Ranatra TW05
    |         |    |--Nepa cinerea Im92
    |         |    `--Curicta Im92
    |         `--Belostomatidae GE05
    |              |--Mesobelostomum deperditum S02
    |              |--Odrowasicoris polonicus S02
    |              |--Iberonepa romerali GE05, S02
    |              |--Diplonychus YS01
    |              |--Lethonectes GE05
    |              |--Tarsabedus GE05
    |              |--Nettelstedtia GE05
    |              |--Mesonepa GE05
    |              |--Scarabeides GE05
    |              |--Stygeonepa GE05
    |              |--Lethopterus GE05
    |              `--Lethocerus S02
    |                   |--L. deyrollei (Vuillefroy 1864) Iw92
    |                   `--L. turgaicus S02
    `--+--Leptopodomorpha GE05
       `--Geocorisae GE05
            |--Cimicomorpha GE05
            `--Pentatomomorpha GE05
                 |  i. s.: Nothochromus [Artheneidae] L02
                 |           `--N. maoricus Slater, Woodward & Sweet 1962 L02
                 |         Phloeidae GE05
                 |         Geocoridae [Geocorinae] GE05
                 |           |--Neocypus Distant 1914 [=Ocypus Montr. 1861 (preoc.)] D14
                 |           |    `--N. variegatus (Montr. 1861) [=Ocypus variegatus] D14
                 |           `--Geocoris G89
                 |                |--G. pallens WT91
                 |                |--G. punctipes WT91
                 |                `--G. thoracicus G89
                 |         Rhyparochromidae GE05
                 |--Coreoidea GE05
                 |--Aradoidea GE05
                 |--Pentatomoidea GE05
                 |--Lygaeidae GE05
                 `--Pyrrhocoroidea GE05
                      |--Largidae O06
                      |    |--Physopelta gutta ZS10
                      |    `--Japetus Distant 1883 O06
                      |         `--*J. sphaeroides Distant 1883 O06
                      `--Pyrrhocoridae GE05
                           |--Pyrrhocoris apterus S54
                           `--Dysdercus WS04
                                |--D. koenigii WS04
                                |--D. remotus Distant 1914 D14
                                `--D. sidae Montr. 1861 [=Disdercus sidae] D14

*Type species of generic name indicated


[D14] Distant, W. L. 1914. Rhynchota from New Caledonia and the surrounding islands. In Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1, Heft IV (F. Sarasin & J. Roux, eds) pp. 369-390, pl. 11-12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso «Esploratore» dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880. – IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 5-72.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[Im92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[Iw92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[L02] Larivière, M.-C. 2002. Primary types of Heteroptera in the New Zealand Arthropod Collection: Pentatomomorpha described from New Zealand before the year 2000. New Zealand Entomologist 25: 79-85.

[O06] Özdikmen, H. 2006. Nomenclatural changes for some Laniatores (Opiliones) genera: New substitute names and new combinations. Mun. Ent. Zool. 1 (1): 63-68.

[S54] Seidenstücker, G. 1954. Gulde’s “forma alpina” von Trapezonotus arenarius (Ins. Het. Lygaeidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 101-102.

[SP02] Shcherbakov, D. E., & Yu. A. Popov. 2002. Superorder Cimicidea Laicharting, 1781: Order Hemiptera Linné, 1758. The bugs, cicadas, plantlice, scale insects, etc. [=Cimicida Laicharting, 1781, =Homoptera Leach, 1815 + Heteroptera Latreille, 1810). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 143-157. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Ecological history of the aquatic insects. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 388-426. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240-257.

[WS04] Wang, Q., & G. L. Shi. 2004. Mating frequency, duration, and circadian mating rhythm of New Zealand wheat bug Nysius huttoni White (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). New Zealand Entomologist 27: 113-117.

[WT91] Wilson, L. T., P. J. Trichilo, D. L. Flaherty, R. Hanna & A. Corbett. 1991. Natural enemy-spider mite interactions: comments on implications for population assessment. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 167-173. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[YS01] Yoshizawa, K., & T. Saigusa. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of paraneopteran orders (Insecta: Neoptera) based on forewing base structure with comments on monophyly of Auchenorrhycha (Hemiptera). Systematic Entomology 26: 1-13.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P. & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

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