Euoscines

Brown treecreeper Climacteris picumnus, photographed by Fir0002.


Belongs within: Passeriformes.
Contains: Meliphagoidea, Corvoidea, Passerida, Ptilonorhynchidae.

The Euoscines comprise the songbirds, a major and diverse grouping within the Passeriformes. Euoscines are characterised by the presence of four pairs of intrinsic muscles associated with the syrinx; other Passeriformes have less (Ericson et al. 2002). A number of basal lineages within the Euoscines are concentrated in the Australasian region; the sister group to all other Euoscines is a clade uniting the bowerbirds (Ptilonorhynchidae) with the Australasian treecreepers (Climacteridae), a group of small, stout insectivorous birds with slightly down-curved bills and short, robust legs with long toes and claws (Internet Bird Collection) that feed by foraging along bark and on the ground.

<==Euoscines [Accentorinae, Corvida, Liotrichidae, Phyllorninae, Phyllornithidae, Polymyodi, Rhipiduridae]
    |--+--Meliphagoidea JF07
    |  `--+--Orthonychidae [Ornythoncidae] JF11
    |     |    |--Sphenostoma Gould 1838 [Sphenostomidae] B94
    |     |    |    `--S. cristatum Gould 1838 [incl. S. cristatum occidentale Mathews 1912] WS48
    |     |    `--Orthonyx Temminck 1820 [=Ornythoncus (l. c.)] B94
    |     |         |  i. s.: O. spinicauda R66
    |     |         |--O. novaeguineae JT12
    |     |         `--+--O. spaldingii JT12
    |     |            `--O. temminckii JT12
    |     `--+--+--Corvoidea JF11
    |        |  `--Passerida JF11
    |        `--Pomatostomus Cabanis 1851 JF11, B94 [Pomatostomidae, Pomatostominae]
    |             |--P. isidorei JT12
    |             `--+--+--P. halli JT12
    |                |  `--P. temporalis (Vigors & Horsfield 1827) JT12, WS48 [=Pomatorhinus temporalis WS48]
    |                |       |--P. t. temporalis WS48
    |                |       `--P. t. rubeculus (Gould 1839) (see below for synonymy) WS48
    |                `--+--P. ruficeps JT12
    |                   `--P. superciliosus (Vigors & Horsfield 1827) JT12, WS48 (see below for synonymy)
    `--+--+--Ptilonorhynchidae JF06
       |  `--Turnagra Lesson 1837 JF06, B94 [incl. Keropia Gray 1840 B94; Keropiidae, Turnagridae]
       |       |--T. capensis (Sparrman 1787) WH02
       |       `--T. tanagra (Schlegel 1865) WH02 [=T. capensis tanagra GM91]
       `--Climacteridae BB05
            |--Cormobates placens JT12
            `--+--Cormobates leucophaea JT12
               |    |--C. l. leucophaea [incl. C. l. grisescens, C. l. metastasis] M03
               |    |--C. l. intermedius M03
               |    `--C. l. minor M03
               `--Climacteris Temminck 1820 JT12, B94
                    |  i. s.: C. affinis Blyth 1864 WS48
                    |           |--C. a. affinis WS48
                    |           `--C. a. superciliosa North 1895 [incl. C. erythrops neositta Mathews 1912] WS48
                    |         C. melanurus Gould 1842 JT12, WS48
                    |           |--C. m. melanurus WS48
                    |           `--C. m. wellsi Ogilvie-Grant 1909 [incl. Whitlocka wellsi straita Mathews 1923] WS48
                    |--C. erythrops JT12
                    `--+--C. picumnus JT12
                       |    |--C. p. picumnus M03
                       |    `--C. p. melanota M03
                       `--C. rufus Gould 1840 JT12, WS48 [incl. C. rufa obscura Carter 1910 WS48]

Pomatostomus superciliosus (Vigors & Horsfield 1827) JT12, WS48 [=Pomatorhinus superciliosus WS48; incl. Pomatorhinus superciliosus ashbyi Mathews 1911 WS48, Pomatorhinus superciliosus gwendolenae Mathews 1912 WS48]

Pomatostomus temporalis rubeculus (Gould 1839) [=Pomatorhinus rubeculus; incl. Pomatorhinus temporalis nigrescens Mathews 1912] WS48

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BB05] Beresford, P., F. K. Barker, P. G. Ryan & T. M. Crowe. 2005. African endemics span the tree of songbirds (Passeri): Molecular systematics of several evolutionary ‘enigmas’. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 272: 849-858.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

Ericson, P. G. P., L. Christidis, M. Irestedt & J. A. Norman. 2002. Systematic affinities of the lyrebirds (Passeriformes: Menura), with a novel classification of the major groups of passerine birds. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 25: 53-62.

[GM91] Gill, B., & P. Martinson. 1991. New Zealand’s Extinct Birds. Random Century: Auckland (New Zealand).

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444-448.

[JF11] Jønsson, K. A., P.-H. Fabre, R. E. Ricklefs & J. Fjeldså. 2011. Major global radiation of corvoid birds originated in the proto-Papuan archipelago. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (6): 2328-2333.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149-186.

[JF07] Jønsson, K. A., J. Fjeldså, P. G. P. Ericson & M. Irestedt. 2007. Systematic placement of an enigmatic southeast Asian taxon Eupetes macrocerus and implications for the biogeography of a main songbird radiation, the Passerida. Biology Letters 3 (3): 323-326.

[M03] Morcombe, M. 2003. Field Guide to Australian Birds, 2nd ed. Steve Parish Publishing.

[R66] Ramsay, E. P. 1866. Remarks upon the new species of Atrichia and on A. clamosa of the west coast. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 439-440.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M. & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1-126.

[WH02] Worthy, T. H., & R. N. Holdaway. 2002. The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press: Bloomington (Indiana).

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