Graphosoma italicum, photographed by Alvesgaspar.

Belongs within: Panheteroptera.
Contains: Pentatominae.

The Pentatomoidea include the stink bugs and related taxa. Many pentatomoids have an enlarged scutellum, which in extreme cases may cover the entire abdomen.

Synapomorphies (from Shcherbakov & Popov 2002): Antennae 5-segmented; only two lateral trichobothria per abdominal segment; genital aperture directed caudally; egg barrel-shaped with circular eclosion rent.

    |--Tessaratomidae ZS10
    |--Brachyplatys D14 [Plataspidae GE05, Plataspidinae]
    |    `--B. pacificus Wall. 1851 D14
    |--Acanthosomatidae SP02
    |    |--Sastragala YS01
    |    `--Elasmostethus interstinctus I92
    |--Scutelleridae [Scutellerinae] GE05
    |    |--Calliphara praslinia (Guér. 1838) [=Scutellera praslinia] D14
    |    |--Tectocoris lineola (Fabr. 1781) (see below for synonymy) D14
    |    |--Philia elegans (Montrouz. 1861) [=Callidea elegans] D14
    |    |--Chrysocoris sexmaculatus (Leach 1815) [=Scutellera sexmaculata] D14
    |    `--Agonoscelis rutila ZS10
    |--Cydnidae GE05
    |    |  i. s.: Chilocoris L02
    |    |           |--C. neozealandicus Larivière & Froeschner 1994 L02
    |    |           `--C. similis G17
    |    |         Macroscytus brunneus YS01, G89
    |    |         Microporus obliquus C90
    |    |         Melanaethus noctivagus C90
    |    |--Thaumastellinae SP02
    |    |---Amnestinae SP02
    |    |    |--Clavicoris GE05 [Clavicorinae SP02]
    |    |    |--Latiscutella GE05 [Latiscutellidae SP02]
    |    |    `--Pricecoris GE05 [Pricecoridae SP02]
    |    `--Cydninae D14
    |         |--Cydnus flavicornis G89
    |         |--Adrisa numeensis (Montr. 1858) [=Geobia numeensis] D14
    |         `--Teabooma Distant 1914 D14
    |              `--*T. princeps Distant 1914 D14
    `--Pentatomidae GE05
         |  i. s.: Cuspicona simplex WFS04
         |         Dictyotus caenosus WFS04
         |         Glaucias amyoti WFS04
         |         Monteithiella humeralis WFS04
         |         Oechalia shellenbergi WFS04
         |         Thyanta pallidovirens WS04
         |         Coleotichus blackburniae H91
         |         Erthesina YS01
         |         Nezara YS01
         |           |--N. heegeri G89
         |           `--N. viridula (Linnaeus 1758) L-SSY04
         |         Poecilometis AY04
         |         Biprorulus bibax B88
         |         Carpocoris Kolenati 1846 L-SSY04
         |         Dolycoris Mulsant & Rey 1866 L-SSY04
         |         Eurydema oleraceum (Linnaeus 1758) L-SSY04
         |         Rhaphigaster nebulosa (Poda 1761) L-SSY04
         |         Mormidea integella [=Euschistus (Paraschistus) integellus] R74
         |         Hyrmine ZS10
         |--Sciocorinae B27
         |--Myrocheinae B27
         |--Trincavellius [Discocephalinae] B27
         |--Pentatominae B27
         |--Graphosomatinae D14
         |    |--Scotinophara geophila (Montr. 1858) [=Scutellera geophila] D14
         |    `--Graphosoma italicum I92
         `--Asopinae GE05
              |--Ealda minax Walk. 1867 D14
              `--Platynopus melacanthus (Boisd. 1835) [=Pentatoma melacanthum] D14

Tectocoris lineola (Fabr. 1781) [=Cimex lineola; incl. T. lineola var. banksi Don 1805, T. lineola var. cyanipes Fabr. 1803, T. diophthalma Kirk 1908, T. lineola var. obliquus Walk. 1867, T. lineola var. tongae Boisd. 1832] D14

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects 'Down Under' - diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216-234.

[B27] Bergroth, E. 1927. Hemiptera Heteroptera from New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 671-684.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[C90] Crawford, C. S. 1990. Scorpiones, Solifugae, and associated desert taxa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 421-475. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[D14] Distant, W. L. 1914. Rhynchota from New Caledonia and the surrounding islands. In Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1, Heft IV (F. Sarasin & J. Roux, eds) pp. 369-390, pl. 11-12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso «Esploratore» dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880. – IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 5-72.

[G17] Girault, A. A. 1917. Descriptiones hymenopterorum chalcidoidicarum variorum cum observationibus. V. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 116-131).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H91] Howarth, F. G. 1991. Environmental impacts of classical biological control. Annual Review of Entomology 36: 485-509.

[I92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[L02] Larivière, M.-C. 2002. Primary types of Heteroptera in the New Zealand Arthropod Collection: Pentatomomorpha described from New Zealand before the year 2000. New Zealand Entomologist 25: 79-85.

[L-SSY04] López-Sebastián, E., J. Selfa & J. Ylla. 2004. Primeros datos del parasitismo de Ooencyrtus pityocampae (Mercet, 1921) sobre Graellsia isabelae (Graells, 1849) en condiciones de laboratorio. Graellsia 60 (1): 121-123.

[R74] Rolston, L. H. 1974. Revision of the genus Euschistus in Middle America (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae, Pentatomini). Entomologica Americana 48 (1): 1-102.

[SP02] Shcherbakov, D. E., & Yu. A. Popov. 2002. Superorder Cimicidea Laicharting, 1781: Order Hemiptera Linné, 1758. The bugs, cicadas, plantlice, scale insects, etc. [=Cimicida Laicharting, 1781, =Homoptera Leach, 1815 + Heteroptera Latreille, 1810). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 143-157. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[WS04] Wang, Q., & G. L. Shi. 2004. Mating frequency, duration, and circadian mating rhythm of New Zealand wheat bug Nysius huttoni White (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). New Zealand Entomologist 27: 113-117.

[WFS04] Winks, C. J., S. V. Fowler & L. A. Smith. 2004. Invertebrate fauna of boneseed, Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera (L.) T. Norl. (Asteraceae: Calenduleae), an invasive weed in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 61-72.

[YS01] Yoshizawa, K., & T. Saigusa. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of paraneopteran orders (Insecta: Neoptera) based on forewing base structure with comments on monophyly of Auchenorrhycha (Hemiptera). Systematic Entomology 26: 1-13.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P. & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="">FoS</a> = FoS