Aphylum syntheticum, from here.

Belongs within: Panheteroptera.
Contains: Scutelleridae, Tessaratomidae, Cydnidae, Pentatominae.

The Pentatomoidea include the stink bugs and related taxa. Many pentatomoids have an enlarged scutellum, which in extreme cases may cover the entire abdomen. Such examples include the Plataspididae, in which the hemelytra are much longer than the body but folding to fit under the scutellum at rest (Carver et al. 1991). Most pentatomoids are plant-feeders but members of the pentatomoid subfamily Asopinae are predators, and have a thick rostrum associated with bucculae that are shorted to allow greater flexibility of the labium for predation (Sweet & Schaefer 2002).

Synapomorphies (from Shcherbakov & Popov 2002): Antennae 5-segmented; only two lateral trichobothria per abdominal segment; genital aperture directed caudally; egg barrel-shaped with circular eclosion rent.

<==Pentatomoidea GE05
    |--+--Lestonia China 1955 [Lestoniidae] G75
    |  |    |--*L. haustorifera China 1955 G75
    |  |    `--L. grossi CGW91
    |  `--Plataspididae [Brachyplatidae, Coptosomatidae, Plataspidinae] G75
    |       |--Brachyplatys D14
    |       |    |--B. pacificus Wall. 1851 D14
    |       |    `--B. vanikorensis Boisduval 1835 B35
    |       `--Coptosoma S07
    |            |--C. ostensum S07
    |            `--C. scutellatum H01
    `--+--Cydnidae G75
       `--+--Phloeidae G75
          `--Pentatomidae G75
               |  i. s.: Thyanta pallidovirens WS04
               |         Erthesina fullo YS01, H01
               |         Rhaphigaster nebulosa (Poda 1761) H01, L-SSY04 [incl. R. grisea H01]
               |         Mormidea integella [=Euschistus (Paraschistus) integellus] R74
               |         Irochrotus caspius H01
               |         Odontoscelis fuliginosa H01
               |         Phimodera collina H01
               |         Masthletinus abbreviatus H01
               |         Neottiglossa pusilla [incl. N. inflexa] H01
               |         Eusarcoris aeneus H01
               |         Rubiconia intermedia H01
               |         Peribalus vernalis H01
               |         Palomena prasina H01
               |         Picromerus bidens H01
               |         Elasmucha grisea [incl. E. betulae] H01
               |         Commius elegans C91
               |--Trincavellius [Discocephalinae] B27
               |--Pentatominae SS02
               |--Aphylum Bergroth 1906 [Aphylidae, Aphylinae] G75
               |    |--*A. syntheticum Bergroth 1906 G75
               |    `--A. bergrothi G75
               `--Asopinae [Asopidae] SS02
                    |--Ealda minax Walk. 1867 D14
                    |--Zicrona coerulea G76, H01
                    |--Stiretrus G75
                    `--Eocanthocona MC13

Pentatomoidea incertae sedis:
  Acanthosomatidae SS02
    |  i. s.: Sastragala YS01
    |         Duadicus pallidus G75
    |         Stauralia chloracantha C91
    |         Amphaces CGW91
    |         Anischys luteovaria WEE70
    |         Hiarchas CGW91
    |         Elasmostethus interstinctus CGW91, H01 [incl. E. dentatus H01]
    |         Eupolemus CGW91
    |         Andriscus WEE70
    |         Stictocarenus WEE70
    |--Ditomotarsinae CGW91
    |--Blaudusinae CGW91
    `--Acanthosoma H01 [Acanthosomatinae CGW91]
         `--A. haemorrhoidale H01
  Parastrachia Distant 1883 SDT88 [Parastrachiaria, Parastrachiidae SS02, Parastrachiinae]
    |--P. japonensis (Scott 1880) (see below for synonymy) SDT88
    `--P. nagaensis Distant 1908 SS02
  Dinidoridae SS02
    |--Coridius janus SS02
    |--Eumenotes obscurus CGW91
    `--Megymenum SS02
         |--M. affine Boisduval 1835 B35
         |--M. dentatum Boisduval 1835 B35
         |--M. gracilicorne SS02
         `--M. insulare CGW91
  Thyreocoridae SS02
    |--Thyreocoris SS02
    `--Corimelaena [Corimelaeninae] SS02
  Scutelleridae GE05
  Tessaratomidae SS02
  Megaris [Megarididae] SDT88
  Canopidae CGW91
  Urolabida [Urostylinae] SDT88
    `--U. nilgirica SDT88
  Dismegistus SDT88
  Serbana SDT88
  Cyrtocoridae SDT88
  Ruckesona [Saileriolinae] SDT88
    `--R. vitrella SDT88
  Tahitocoris SDT88

Parastrachia japonensis (Scott 1880) [=Asopus japonensis, P. japonica (l. c.); incl. *P. fulgens Distant 1883] SDT88

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B27] Bergroth, E. 1927. Hemiptera Heteroptera from New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 671–684.

[B35] Boisduval, J. B. 1835. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d'Urville. Faune entomologique de l'océan Pacifique, avec l'illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage vol. 2. Coléoptères et autres ordres. J. Tastu: Paris.

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[C91] CSIRO. 1991. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[D14] Distant, W. L. 1914. Rhynchota from New Caledonia and the surrounding islands. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 4 pp. 369–390, pls 11–12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[G75] Gross, G. F. 1975. Plant-feeding and Other Bugs (Hemiptera) of South Australia. Heteroptera—Part I. Handbook of the Flora and Fauna of South Australia.

[G76] Gross, G. F. 1976. Plant-feeding and Other Bugs (Hemiptera) of South Australia. Heteroptera—Part II. Handbook of the Flora and Fauna of South Australia.

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[L-SSY04] López-Sebastián, E., J. Selfa & J. Ylla. 2004. Primeros datos del parasitismo de Ooencyrtus pityocampae (Mercet, 1921) sobre Graellsia isabelae (Graells, 1849) en condiciones de laboratorio. Graellsia 60 (1): 121–123.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[R74] Rolston, L. H. 1974. Revision of the genus Euschistus in Middle America (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae, Pentatomini). Entomologica Americana 48 (1): 1–102.

[SDT88] Schaefer, C. W., W. R. Dolling & S. Tachikawa. 1988. The shieldbug genus Parastrachia and its position within the Pentatomoidea (Insecta: Hemiptera). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 93: 283–311.

[S07] Ślipiński, A. 2007. Australian Ladybird Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): Their biology and classification. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[SS02] Sweet, M. H., & C. W. Schaefer. 2002. Parastrachiinae (Hemiptera: Cydnidae) raised to family level. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 95: 441–448.

[WS04] Wang, Q., & G. L. Shi. 2004. Mating frequency, duration, and circadian mating rhythm of New Zealand wheat bug Nysius huttoni White (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). New Zealand Entomologist 27: 113–117.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

[YS01] Yoshizawa, K., & T. Saigusa. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of paraneopteran orders (Insecta: Neoptera) based on forewing base structure with comments on monophyly of Auchenorrhycha (Hemiptera). Systematic Entomology 26: 1–13.

Last updated: 10 November 2018.

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