African paradise flycatcher Terpsiphone viridis, photographed by L. Harding.

Belongs within: Corvoidea.
Contains: Myiagra, Monarcha.

The Monarchidae include the monarch flycatchers, insectivorous birds found in Africa, southern Asia and Australasia. In its current sense, the group is primarily supported by molecular data, but most species have broad, flat, ridged bills, relatively long wings, and small legs and feet. The Australasian mudlarks of the genus Grallina are longer-legged birds with contrasting black and white plumage whose vernacular name refers to their construction of nests from mud.

<==Monarchidae [Monarchinae, Myiagridae]
    |  i. s.: Eutrichomyias rowleyi JT12
    |--+--Trochocercus JT12
    |  |    |--T. cyanomelas JT12
    |  |    `--T. nitens JT12
    |  `--+--Hypothymis BKB15
    |     |    |--H. azurea BKB15
    |     |    |--H. coelestis JT12
    |     |    `--H. helenae BKB15
    |     `--Terpsiphone Gloger 1827 BKB15, B94 (see below for synonymy)
    |          |  i. s.: T. affinis M01
    |          |         T. atrocaudata JT12
    |          |         T. atrochalybeia JT12
    |          |         T. bedfrordi JT12
    |          |         T. bourbonnensis JT12 [=Tschitraea borbonica S66]
    |          |         T. corvina JT12
    |          |         T. cyanescens JT12
    |          |         T. cyanomelas JT12
    |          |         T. incii (Gould 1852) M01 (see below for synonymy)
    |          |         T. mutata JT12 [=Tschitraea mutata S66]
    |          |         T. rufiventer JT12
    |          |         T. rufocinerea JT12
    |          |         T. smithii JT12
    |          |--T. cinnamomea JT12
    |          `--+--T. paradisi JT12
    |             `--T. viridis JT12
    `--+--+--Myiagra BKB15
       |  `--Grallina Vieillot 1816 BKB15, B94 [Grallinidae]
       |       |--G. bruijni JT12
       |       `--G. cyanoleuca (Latham 1802) CC10 (see below for synonymy)
       `--+--Arses BKB15
          |    |--A. insularis JT12
          |    |--A. kaupi JT12
          |    `--A. telescophthalmus JT12
          `--+--Symposiachrus BKB15
             |    |--+--S. manadensis BKB15 [=Monarcha manadensis JT12]
             |    |  `--+--S. axillaris BKB15 [=Monarcha axillaris BKB15]
             |    |     `--‘Monarcha’ rubiensis JT12
             |    `--+--S. barbatus BKB15 [=Monarcha barbatus JT12]
             |       `--+--‘Monarcha’ mundus JT12
             |          `--+--S. guttula BKB15 [=Monarcha guttula JT12]
             |             `--S. trivirgatus BKB15 [=Monarcha trivirgatus JT12, Piezorhynchus trivirgata R87]
             |                  |--S. t. trivirgatus M03
             |                  `--‘Monarcha’ t. gouldii M03 [=Piezorhynchus gouldii R87]
             `--+--Carterornis BKB15
                |    |--C. chrysomela BKB15 [=Monarcha chrysomela JT12]
                |    `--C. leucotis BKB15 [=Monarcha leucotis JT12]
                `--+--‘Pomarea’ nigra BKB15
                   |    |--P. n. nigra FP64
                   |    `--P. n. tabuensis FP64
                   `--+--‘Pomarea’ dimidiata BKB15
                      `--+--Chasiempis BKB15
                         |    |--C. ibidis HSS13
                         |    `--C. sandwichensis JT12
                         `--+--Monarcha BKB15
                            `--+--Pomarea BKB15
                               |    |  i. s.: P. fluxa HSS13
                               |    |         P. mira HSS13
                               |    |         P. nukuhivae HSS13
                               |    |         P. pomarea HSS13 [=P. nigra pomarea FP64]
                               |    |--P. mendozae JT12
                               |    |    |--P. m. mendozae HSS13
                               |    |    `--P. motanensis HSS13
                               |    `--+--P. iphis JT12
                               |       `--P. whitneyi JT12
                               `--+--Neolalage banksiana JT12
                                  `--+--Mayrornis JT12
                                     |    |--M. lessoni JT12
                                     |    |--M. schistaceus JT12
                                     |    `--M. versicolor JT12
                                     `--Clytorhynchus JT12
                                          |--C. hamlini JT12
                                          |--C. nigrogularis JT12
                                          |--C. pachycephaloides JT12
                                          |--C. sanctaecrucis JT12
                                          `--C. vitiensis JT12

Inorganic: Terpsiphone atrocaudata minilorientalis Okamura 1987 O87

Grallina cyanoleuca (Latham 1802) CC10 [=Corvus cyanoleucus CC10; incl. Tanypus australis Oppel 1812 CC10, Grallina australis CC10, G. cyanoleuca neglecta Mathews 1912 WS48]

Terpsiphone Gloger 1827 BKB15, B94 [incl. Muscipeta Cuvier 1817 B94, Tchitrea Lesson 1830 B94; Muscipetidae, Tchitreidae, Terpsiphonidae]

Terpsiphone incii (Gould 1852) M01 [=Muscipeta incii M01, Tchitrea incei M01, Terpsiphone paradisi incei VP89]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[HSS13] Hirschfeld, E., A. Swash & R. Still. 2013. The World's Rarest Birds. Princeton University Press: Princeton (New Jersey).

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[M01] Madarász, J. 1901. Madarak [Vögel]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 21–39. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[M03] Morcombe, M. 2003. Field Guide to Australian Birds 2nd ed. Steve Parish Publishing.

[O87] Okamura, C. 1987. New facts: Homo and all Vertebrata were born simultaneously in the former Paleozoic in Japan. Original Report of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory 15: 347–573.

[R87] Ramsay, E. P. 1887. Descriptions of Australian birds' eggs. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1141–1152, pl. 19.

[S66] Schlegel, H. 1866. Communication from, on mammals and birds collected in Madagascar. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 419–426.

[VP89] Viney, C., & K. Phillipps. 1989. Birds of Hong Kong 5th ed. Government Printer: Hong Kong.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M., & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1–126.

Last updated: 24 July 2019.

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