Lygaeidae

Lygaeus equestris, photographed by Hectonichus.


Belongs within: Panheteroptera.
Contains: Rhypodes, Geocoris.

The Lygaeidae are a large family of bugs that mostly feed on seeds. Members of the subfamilies Lygaeinae, Ischnorhynchinae and Orsillinae have the spiracles located dorsally on each segment of the abdomen; in members of the other subfamilies, at least some are located ventrally (Carver et al. 1991).

<==Lygaeidae
    |--Henicocoris [Henicocorinae] CGW91
    |    `--H. monteithi CGW91
    |--Cryptorhamphinae CGW91
    |    |--Cryptorhamphus orbus G75
    |    `--Gonystus CGW91
    |--Crompus [Ischnorhynchinae] CGW91
    |    |--C. oculatus CGW91
    |    `--C. opacus CGW91
    |--Bledionotinae L88
    |    |--Abpamphantus L88
    |    |--Neopamphantus L88
    |    |--Pamphantus L88
    |    `--Austropamphantus woodwardi CGW91
    |--Blissinae CGW91
    |    |--Slaterellus [Slaterellinae] CGW91
    |    |    `--S. hackeri WEE70
    |    |--Australodemus CGW91
    |    |--Heinsius CGW91
    |    |--Archaeodemus CGW91
    |    `--Blissus WEE70
    |--Oxycareninae D14
    |    |--Maruthas bicolor Distant 1914 D14
    |    `--Oxycarenus D14
    |         |--O. arctatus ZS10
    |         |--O. hyalinipennis G89
    |         `--O. luctuosus (Montr. 1861) [=Macroplax luctuosus] D14
    |--Pachygronthinae [Pachygronthidae] CGW91
    |    |--Stenophyella macreta MC13
    |    |--Darwinocoris australicus CGW91
    |    |--Pachygrontha CGW91
    |    |    |--P. austrina CGW91
    |    |    `--P. singularis L88
    |    `--Opistholeptus vulturnus WEE70
    |--Cyminae CGW91
    |    |--Ontiscus CGW91
    |    |    |--O. australis K08
    |    |    `--O. vitiensis Kirkaldy 1908 K08
    |    `--Cymus H01
    |         |--C. glandicolor H01
    |         `--C. novaezelandiae M83
    |--Geocorinae [Geocoridae] CGW91
    |    |--Geocoris G89
    |    |--Neocypus Distant 1914 [=Ocypus Montr. 1861 (preoc.)] D14
    |    |    `--N. variegatus (Montr. 1861) [=Ocypus variegatus] D14
    |    `--Germalus CGW91
    |         |--G. elegantulus CGW91
    |         |--G. oceanicus Kirkaldy 1908 [incl. G. oceanicus var. interrupta Kirkaldy 1908] K08
    |         `--G. pacificus Kirkaldy 1908 K08
    |--Nysius MC13 [Orsillidae, Orsillinae GE05]
    |    |--N. clevelandensis W01
    |    |--N. ericae [incl. N. maculatus] H01
    |    |--N. huttoni WS04
    |    |--N. jacobeae H01
    |    |--N. liliputanus Eyles & Ashlock 1969 Lar02
    |    |--N. punctipennis H01
    |    |--N. thymi H01
    |    |--N. turneri WEE70
    |    `--N. vinitor W01
    |--Aphaninae D14
    |    |--Mizaldus D14
    |    |--Baladeana Distant 1914 D14
    |    |    `--*B. macularia Distant 1914 D14
    |    |--Lachnophoroides Distant 1914 D14
    |    |    `--*L. ornatipennis Distant 1914 D14
    |    |--Pamera D14
    |    |    |--P. flavonotata Distant 1914 D14
    |    |    |--P. fracticollis H01
    |    |    |--P. pacifica D14 [=Orthoea pacifica K08]
    |    |    `--P. vincta Say 1831 D14 [=Orthoea vincta K08; incl. O. periplanios Kirkaldy 1907 K08]
    |    `--Aphanus BM76
    |         |--A. adspersus H01
    |         |--A. alboacuminatus H01
    |         |--A. lynceus H01
    |         |--A. pineti BM76
    |         `--A. vulgaris H01
    `--Lygaeinae G75
         |--Melanerythrus mactans G75
         |--Graptostethus CGW91
         |    |--G. servus CGW91
         |    `--G. vitiensis Kirkaldy 1908 K08
         |--Oncopeltus G75
         |    |--O. cingulifer WS04
         |    |--O. fasciatus WS04
         |    |--O. sandarachatus WS04
         |    `--O. sordidus G75
         |--Arocatus WEE70
         |    |--A. roeselii H01
         |    `--A. rusticus WEE70
         |--Astacops WEE70
         |--Scopiastes WEE70
         |--Spilostethus WEE70
         |    |--S. hospes C91
         |    |--S. macilentus G89
         |    `--S. militaris G89
         |--Caenocoris WEE70
         `--Lygaeus WS04
              |--L. albomaculatus [incl. L. apuanus] H01
              |--L. apterus (Linnaeus 1758) Lat02, L58 [=Cimex apterus Lat02]
              |--L. crassicornis Lucas 1847 E12
              |--L. equestris (Linnaeus 1758) Lat02, L58 [=Cimex equestris Lat02]
              |--L. kalmii WS04
              |--L. pacificus Boisd. 1835 D14
              |--L. sardous Lucas 1847 E12
              `--L. tristrami H01

Lygaeidae incertae sedis:
  Lepiorsillus tekapoensis Malipatil 1979 Lar02
  Rhypodes Lar02
  Trapezonotus S54
    |--T. agrestis H01
    |--T. arenarius S54
    |--T. convivus H01
    |--T. desertus S54
    `--T. dispar S54
  Hunanilarva micra Lin 1986 K00
  Neseis O94
  Oceanides O94
  Trypetocoris C88
  Raglius alboacuminatus V09
  Sphagisticus nebrilosus BM76
  Emblethis BM76
    |--E. brachynotus H01
    |--E. ciliatus H01
    |--E. denticollis [incl. E. denticollis var. anodon] H01
    |--E. verbasci G89
    `--E. vicarius BM76
  Sphaerobius insignis BM76
  Apterola pedestris BM76
  Tropidothorax elegans H01
  Philomyrmex viduus H01
  Metopoplax origani H01
  Ligyrocoris sylvestris H01
  Lamprodema H01
    |--L. maurum H01
    `--L. rufipes [incl. L. rufipes var. femoratum Horváth 1901] H01
  Acompus rufipes H01
  Peritrechus H01
    |--P. ambiguus H01
    |--P. geniculatus H01
    `--P. nubilus H01
  Sphragisticus nebulosus H01
  Calyptonotus rolandri H01
  Diomphalus hispidulus H01
  Brachylygaeus mutilatus G75
  Tasmanicola CGW91
  Brachylybas variegatus (Le Guillou 1841) [=Gonocerus variegatus] K08
  Theognis australis K08
  Noteolethaeus WEE74
  Ethaltomarus WEE74

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[C88] Craw, R. 1988. Continuing the synthesis between panbiogeography, phylogenetic systematics and geology as illustrated by empirical studies on the biogeography of New Zealand and the Chatham Islands. Systematic Zoology 37 (3): 291–310.

[C91] CSIRO. 1991. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[D14] Distant, W. L. 1914. Rhynchota from New Caledonia and the surrounding islands. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 Heft IV pp. 369–390, pls 11–12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso «Esploratore» dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 5–72.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[G75] Gross, G. F. 1975. Plant-feeding and Other Bugs (Hemiptera) of South Australia. Heteroptera—Part I. Handbook of the Flora and Fauna of South Australia.

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[K08] Kirkaldy, G. W. 1908. A catalogue of the Hemiptera of Fiji. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 345–391, pl. 4.

[K00] Koteja, J. 2000. Advances in the study of fossil coccids (Hemiptera: Coccinea). Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 69: 187–218.

[Lar02] Larivière, M.-C. 2002. Primary types of Heteroptera in the New Zealand Arthropod Collection: Pentatomomorpha described from New Zealand before the year 2000. New Zealand Entomologist 25: 79–85.

[Lat02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L88] Liebherr, J. K. 1988. General patterns in West Indian insects, and graphical biogeographic analysis of some circum-Caribbean Platynus beetles (Carabidae). Systematic Zoology 37 (4): 385–409.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[O94] Otte, D. 1994. The Crickets of Hawaii: origin, systematics and evolution. The Orthopterists' Society: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

[S54] Seidenstücker, G. 1954. Gulde’s “forma alpina” von Trapezonotus arenarius (Ins. Het. Lygaeidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 101–102.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

[W01] Waite, G. K. 2001. Managing spider mites in field-grown strawberries using Phytoseiulus persimilis and the ‘pest-in-first’ technique. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 381–386. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[WS04] Wang, Q., & G. L. Shi. 2004. Mating frequency, duration, and circadian mating rhythm of New Zealand wheat bug Nysius huttoni White (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). New Zealand Entomologist 27: 113–117.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

[WEE74] Woodward, T. E., V. F. Eastop & J. W. Evans. 1974. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 52–57. Melbourne University Press.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

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