Lygaeidae

Mating pair of Nysius ericae, copyright AfroBrazilian.


Belongs within: Panheteroptera.
Contains: Rhypodes, Geocoris, Blissus, Astacops, Oncopeltus, Lygaeus.

The Lygaeidae are a large family of bugs that mostly feed on seeds. The Blissinae, chinch bugs, are exceptional in feeding on sap from monocotyledonous plants. Members of the subfamilies Lygaeinae, Ischnorhynchinae and Orsillinae have the spiracles located dorsally on each segment of the abdomen; in members of the other subfamilies, at least some are located ventrally. The clavus is at least partially punctate in Ischnorhynchinae but impunctate in Lygaeinae and Orsillinae (Carver et al. 1991).

<==Lygaeidae
    |--Henicocoris [Henicocorinae] CGW91
    |    `--H. monteithi CGW91
    |--Cryptorhamphinae CGW91
    |    |--Cryptorhamphus orbus G75
    |    `--Gonystus CGW91
    |--Crompus [Ischnorhynchinae] CGW91
    |    |--C. oculatus CGW91
    |    `--C. opacus CGW91
    |--Bledionotinae L88
    |    |--Abpamphantus L88
    |    |--Neopamphantus L88
    |    |--Pamphantus L88
    |    `--Austropamphantus woodwardi CGW91
    |--Oxycareninae D14
    |    |--Maruthas bicolor Distant 1914 D14
    |    `--Oxycarenus D14
    |         |--O. arctatus ZS10
    |         |--O. hyalinipennis G89
    |         `--O. luctuosus (Montr. 1861) [=Macroplax luctuosus] D14
    |--Pachygronthinae [Pachygronthidae] CGW91
    |    |--Stenophyella macreta MC13
    |    |--Darwinocoris australicus CGW91
    |    |--Opistholeptus vulturnus WEE70
    |    `--Pachygrontha CGW91
    |         |--P. austrina CGW91
    |         `--P. singularis L88
    |--Cyminae CGW91
    |    |--Ontiscus CGW91
    |    |    |--O. australis K08
    |    |    `--O. vitiensis Kirkaldy 1908 K08
    |    `--Cymus H01
    |         |--C. glandicolor H01
    |         `--C. novaezelandiae M83
    |--Geocorinae [Geocoridae] CGW91
    |    |--Geocoris H01
    |    |--Neocypus Distant 1914 [=Ocypus Montr. 1861 non Leach 1819] D14
    |    |    `--N. variegatus (Montr. 1861) [=Ocypus variegatus] D14
    |    `--Germalus CGW91
    |         |--G. elegantulus CGW91
    |         |--G. oceanicus Kirkaldy 1908 [incl. G. oceanicus var. interrupta Kirkaldy 1908] K08
    |         `--G. pacificus Kirkaldy 1908 K08
    |--Blissinae CGW91
    |    |--Australodemus CGW91
    |    |--Heinsius CGW91
    |    |--Archaeodemus CGW91
    |    |--Blissus WEE70
    |    |--Slaterellus [Slaterellinae] CGW91
    |    |    `--S. hackeri WEE70
    |    `--Ischnodemus W96
    |         |--I. falicus W96
    |         `--I. quadrispinosus W96
    |--Nysius MC13 [Orsillidae, Orsillinae GE05]
    |    |--N. clevelandensis W01
    |    |--N. contiguus Walker 1872 [incl. N. proximus Walker 1872] D01b
    |    |--N. ericae [incl. N. maculatus] H01
    |    |--N. huttoni WS04
    |    |--N. jacobeae H01
    |    |--N. jamaicensis Dall. 1852 [incl. N. providus Uhler 1894] D01b
    |    |--N. liliputanus Eyles & Ashlock 1969 L02
    |    |--N. mundus Walker 1872 (n. d.) D01b
    |    |--N. pallipennis Walker 1872 (n. d.) D01b
    |    |--N. punctipennis H01
    |    |--N. scolopax (Say 1831) [=Lygaeus scolopax, Belonochilus scolopax] D01b
    |    |--N. subcinctus Walker 1872 (n. d.) D01b
    |    |--N. thymi H01
    |    |--N. turneri WEE70
    |    `--N. vinitor G75
    |--Aphaninae D14
    |    |--Mizaldus D14
    |    |--Baladeana Distant 1914 D14
    |    |    `--*B. macularia Distant 1914 D14
    |    |--Lachnophoroides Distant 1914 D14
    |    |    `--*L. ornatipennis Distant 1914 D14
    |    |--Pamera D14
    |    |    |--P. flavonotata Distant 1914 D14
    |    |    |--P. fracticollis H01
    |    |    |--P. pacifica D14 [=Orthoea pacifica K08]
    |    |    `--P. vincta Say 1831 D14 [=Orthoea vincta K08; incl. O. periplanios Kirkaldy 1907 K08]
    |    `--Aphanus BM76
    |         |--A. adspersus H01
    |         |--A. alboacuminatus H01
    |         |--A. lynceus H01
    |         |--A. pineti BM76
    |         `--A. vulgaris H01
    `--Lygaeinae GE05
         |--Melanerythrus mactans G75
         |--Caenocoris nerii [=Lygaeus nerii; incl. L. semirubes Walker 1872] D01b
         |--Astacops WEE70
         |--Oncopeltus G75
         |--Lygaeus WS04
         |--Arocatus WEE70
         |    |--A. roeselii H01
         |    `--A. rusticus (Stål 1866) (see below for synonymy) D01b
         |--Tropidothorax Bergr. 1894 [=Melanospilus Stål 1868 (preoc.)] D01b
         |    |--T. concisus (Walker 1872) [=Lygaeus concisus] D01b
         |    `--T. elegans H01
         |--Nicuesa D01b
         |    |--N. affinis Distant 1901 D01b
         |    `--N. speciosus D01b
         |--Spilostethus WEE70
         |    |--S. hospes C91
         |    |--S. macilentus G89
         |    |--S. militaris G89
         |    `--S. saxatilis R13
         |--Scopiastes WEE70
         |    |--S. affinis Distant 1901 D01b
         |    |--S. bicolor Distant 1901 D01b
         |    |--S. degeeri D01b
         |    |--S. militaris Distant 1901 D01b
         |    `--S. nigripes Distant 1901 D01b
         `--Graptostethus CGW91
              |--G. diffusus (Walker 1872) [=Lygaeus diffusus] D01b
              |--G. grandis Distant 1901 D01b
              |--G. maculatus D01b
              |--G. quadratomaculatus (Kirby 1891) [=Lygaeus quadratomaculatus] D01b
              |--G. rufifemoratus D01b
              |--G. pictus Distant 1901 D01b
              |--G. servus (Fabr. 1787) [=Cimex servus] D01b
              |--G. verticalis (Dall. 1852) [=Lygaeus verticalis] D01b
              `--G. vitiensis Kirkaldy 1908 K08

Lygaeidae incertae sedis:
  Lepiorsillus tekapoensis Malipatil 1979 L02
  Rhypodes L02
  Trapezonotus S54
    |--T. agrestis H01
    |--T. arenarius S54
    |--T. convivus H01
    |--T. desertus S54
    `--T. dispar S54
  Hunanilarva micra Lin 1986 K00
  Neseis O94
  Oceanides O94
  Trypetocoris C88
  Raglius alboacuminatus V09
  Sphagisticus nebrilosus BM76
  Emblethis BM76
    |--E. brachynotus H01
    |--E. ciliatus H01
    |--E. denticollis [incl. E. denticollis var. anodon] H01
    |--E. verbasci H01
    `--E. vicarius BM76
  Sphaerobius insignis BM76
  Apterola pedestris BM76
  Philomyrmex viduus H01
  Metopoplax origani H01
  Ligyrocoris sylvestris H01
  Lamprodema H01
    |--L. maurum H01
    `--L. rufipes [incl. L. rufipes var. femoratum Horváth 1901] H01
  Acompus rufipes H01
  Peritrechus H01
    |--P. ambiguus H01
    |--P. geniculatus H01
    `--P. nubilus H01
  Calyptonotus rolandri H01
  Diomphalus hispidulus H01
  Brachylygaeus mutilatus G75
  Tasmanicola CGW91
  Theognis australis K08
  Noteolethaeus WEE74
  Ethaltomarus WEE74
  Cistalia B38
    |--C. explanata Barber 1938 B38
    `--C. signoreti B38
  Leipolygaeus similis Lin 1985 RJ93
  ‘Noliphus’ biplagiatus Walker 1871 D01a
  ‘Noliphus’ distinctus Walker 1871 D01a
  Oedancala dorsalis RD77
  Stilbocoris natalensis RD77
  Gastrodes grossipes RD77

Arocatus rusticus (Stål 1866) [=Tetralaccus rusticus; incl. Astacops caligatus Walker 1872, Lygaeus ruficollis Walker 1872, L. subjectus Walker 1872] D01b

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B38] Barber, H. G. 1938. A new species of Cistalia (Hemiptera-Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 40 (3): 87–88.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[C88] Craw, R. 1988. Continuing the synthesis between panbiogeography, phylogenetic systematics and geology as illustrated by empirical studies on the biogeography of New Zealand and the Chatham Islands. Systematic Zoology 37 (3): 291–310.

[C91] CSIRO. 1991. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[D01a] Distant, W. L. 1901a. Rhynchotal notes.—IX. Heteroptera: fam. Coreidae. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 416–432.

[D01b] Distant, W. L. 1901b. Rhynchotal notes.—X. Heteroptera: fam. Lygaeidae. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 531–541.

[D14] Distant, W. L. 1914. Rhynchota from New Caledonia and the surrounding islands. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 4 pp. 369–390, pls 11–12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso «Esploratore» dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 5–72.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[G75] Gross, G. F. 1975. Plant-feeding and Other Bugs (Hemiptera) of South Australia. Heteroptera—Part I. Handbook of the Flora and Fauna of South Australia.

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[K08] Kirkaldy, G. W. 1908. A catalogue of the Hemiptera of Fiji. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 345–391, pl. 4.

[K00] Koteja, J. 2000. Advances in the study of fossil coccids (Hemiptera: Coccinea). Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 69: 187–218.

[L02] Larivière, M.-C. 2002. Primary types of Heteroptera in the New Zealand Arthropod Collection: Pentatomomorpha described from New Zealand before the year 2000. New Zealand Entomologist 25: 79–85.

[L88] Liebherr, J. K. 1988. General patterns in West Indian insects, and graphical biogeographic analysis of some circum-Caribbean Platynus beetles (Carabidae). Systematic Zoology 37 (4): 385–409.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[O94] Otte, D. 1994. The Crickets of Hawaii: origin, systematics and evolution. The Orthopterists' Society: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S54] Seidenstücker, G. 1954. Gulde’s “forma alpina” von Trapezonotus arenarius (Ins. Het. Lygaeidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 101–102.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

[W01] Waite, G. K. 2001. Managing spider mites in field-grown strawberries using Phytoseiulus persimilis and the ‘pest-in-first’ technique. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 381–386. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[WS04] Wang, Q., & G. L. Shi. 2004. Mating frequency, duration, and circadian mating rhythm of New Zealand wheat bug Nysius huttoni White (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). New Zealand Entomologist 27: 113–117.

[W96] Wheeler, A. G., Jr. 1996. Ischnodemus falicus (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae): first record from ornamental grasses, and seasonality on prairie cordgrass in Pennsylvania. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (2): 195–198.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

[WEE74] Woodward, T. E., V. F. Eastop & J. W. Evans. 1974. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 52–57. Melbourne University Press.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

Last updated: 16 July 2020.

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