Heteroptera

Gamostolus subantarcticus, from Michigan Science Art.


Belongs within: Heteropteroidea.
Contains: Panheteroptera, Gerromorpha.

The Heteroptera include the so-called 'true bugs'. The name 'Heteroptera' derives from the differentiated wings of many true bugs, but this feature is actually characteristic of a derived subgroup of the Heteroptera (the Panheteroptera) while other basal lineages retain undifferentiated wings.

Synapomorphies (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Tentorium reduced; nymphs with scent glands present on tergites 3 to 7.

<==Heteroptera [Cimicina, Hydrocorisae]
    |  i. s.: Malacocoris chlorizans HS01
    |         Notostira elongata K09
    |         Trigonotylus ruficornis K09
    |         Leptoterna dolabrata K09
    |--+--+--Panheteroptera GE05
    |  |  `--+--Ceresopseidae SP02
    |  |     `--Gerromorpha GE05
    |  `--Dipsocoromorpha GE05
    |       |  i. s.: Boreostolus SP02
    |       |--Stemmocryptidae [Stemmocryptoidea] SP02
    |       `--Dipsocoroidea SP02
    |            |--Cuneocoridae GE05
    |            |--Schizopteridae SP02
    |            |--Ceratocombus GE05 [Ceratocombidae SP02]
    |            `--Hypsipterygidae SP02
    `--Enicocephalidae [Enicocephaloidea, Enicocephalomorpha] GE05
         |--Sphigmocephalus MW01
         |--Hoplitocoris YS01
         |--Systelloderes GE05
         |--Enicocephalinus acragrimaldii GE05
         |--Disphaerocephalus constrictus GE05
         |--Paenicotechys fossilis GE05
         |--Enicocephalus [Enicocephalinae] GE05
         |    `--E. maclachlani B27
         |--Aerorchestes Bergroth 1927 B27
         |    `--*A. alluaudi [=Aenictopechys alluaudi] B27
         |--Aenictopechys [Aenictopecheidae, Aenictopecheinae] B27
         |    `--A. necopinatus B27
         `--Gamostolus Bergroth 1927 B27
              |--*G. subantarcticus [=Henicocephalus subantarcticus] B27
              `--G. tonnoiri Bergroth 1927 B27

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B27] Bergroth, E. 1927. Hemiptera Heteroptera from New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 671-684.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HS01] Hossain, M. S., & T. Solhøy. 2001. Densities of Panonychus ulmi (Acari: Tetranychidae) and Aculus schlechtendali (Acari: Eriophyidae) on three apple cultivars in western Norway. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 300-305. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[K09] Köhler, G. 2009. Heuschrecken (Saltatoria) und Ohrwürmner (Dermaptera) im Immissionsgebiet des Düngemittelwerkes Steudnitz/Thüringen—eine Langzeitstudie (1978–2001). Mauritiana 20 (3): 601-646.

[MW01] Molleman, F., & D. E. Walter. 2001. Niche segregation and can-openers: Scydmaenid beetles as predators of armoured mites in Australia. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 283-288 Publishing: Melbourne.

[SP02] Shcherbakov, D. E., & Yu. A. Popov. 2002. Superorder Cimicidea Laicharting, 1781: Order Hemiptera Linné, 1758. The bugs, cicadas, plantlice, scale insects, etc. [=Cimicida Laicharting, 1781, =Homoptera Leach, 1815 + Heteroptera Latreille, 1810). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 143-157. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[YS01] Yoshizawa, K., & T. Saigusa. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of paraneopteran orders (Insecta: Neoptera) based on forewing base structure with comments on monophyly of Auchenorrhycha (Hemiptera). Systematic Entomology 26: 1-13.

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