Left dentary of Shuotherium dongi in lingual view, from Kielan-Jaworowska et al. (2002).

Belongs within: Mammaliaformes.
Contains: Prototheria, Eutriconodonta, Multituberculata, Trechnotheria.

The name 'Mammalia' has generally been restricted in recent years to the crown-group of mammals, i. e. the smallest possible clade including monotremes, marsupials and placentals. Mammals are distinguished from other living vertebrates by their covering of hair and the production of milk, but these features probably evolved some time before the appearance of the crown group (exactly when being uncertain). Among living mammals, modern authors universally agree on a basal division between monotremes and the remaining taxa (therians). The name Prototheria has been applied to the monotreme total group (all species closer to Ornithorhynchus anatinus than Elephas maximus; O'Leary et al. 2013). Analyses disagree whether the Jurassic Shuotheriidae belong to this clade. The Shuotheriidae possessed a crushing heel, the pseudotalonid, on their molars that differed from the talonid of modern therians in being anterior rather than posterior to the trigonid (Kielan-Jaworowska et al. 2006).

Early members of the lineage leading to modern therians include Fruitafossor windsheffeli, a late Jurassic species from Colorado that is the earliest known mammal specialised for a fossorial (digging) lifestyle. Volaticotherium antiquum of the Chinese Daohugou formation (between middle Jurassic and early Cretaceous in age) bore a large patagium and represents the earliest known gliding mammal (Meng et al. 2006). The Tinodontidae are a Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous group with lower jaws bearing three premolars and four molars with reduced talonids, and a relatively small and triangular pterygoid fossa (Averianov 2002).

Synapomorphies (from Luo et al. 2002): Occlusal surfaces matching precisely between upper and lower molars upon eruption. Distinctive masseteric fossa present on mandible with a well−defined ventral margin, occupying entire mandibular angle region. Cochlear canal more elongate than in outgroups (although not always coiled). Ossified pila antotica absent between cavum epiptericum and braincase (except in multituberculates). Astragalus and calcaneus usually in partial superposition. Gyrencephalic cerebral hemispheres greatly enlarged (with external gyri and sulci on surface of endocast), at least in living taxa.

<==Mammalia [Holotheria, Marsupionta, Symmetrodonta, Tribosphenida]
    |--+--Prototheria OB13
    |  `--Shuotheriidae [Shuotheridia, Yinotheria] LJY07
    |       |--Pseudotribos Luo, Ji & Yuan 2007 LJY07
    |       |    `--*P. robustus Luo, Ji & Yuan 2007 LJY07
    |       `--Shuotherium Chow & Rich 1982 SK20, K-JCL02
    |            |--*S. dongi Chow & Rich 1982 K-JCL02
    |            |--S. kermacki Sigogneau-Russell 1998 K-JCL02
    |            `--S. shilongi Wang et al. 1998 K-JCL02
    `--Theriimorpha OB13
         |--Fruitafossor Luo & Wible 2005 BW14, D07
         |    `--*F. windsheffeli Luo & Wible 2005 LW05
         |--Volaticotherium Meng, Hu et al. 2006 [Volaticotheria, Volaticotheriidae] MH06
         |    `--*V. antiquum Meng, Hu et al. 2006 MH06, MH07, MH06 [=V. antiquus MH06]
         `--+--Eutriconodonta BW14
            `--Theriiformes LK-JC02
                 |--Multituberculata BW14
                 |--Trechnotheria BW14
                 `--Tinodontidae A02
                      |--Gobiotheriodon Trofimov 1997 A02
                      |    `--G. infinitus (Trofimov 1980) [=Gobiodon infinitus, Gobiondon (l. c.) infinitus] A02
                      `--Tinodon Marsh 1879 SK20, A02 [incl. Eurylambda Simpson 1929 A02, Menacodon Marsh 1887 A02]
                           |--T. bellus Marsh 1879 [incl. T. lepidus Marsh 1879] A02
                           `--T. micron Ensom & Sigogneau-Russell 2000 A02

Mammalia incertae sedis:
  Hypomylos LCK-J01
    |--H. micros H98
    `--H. phelizioni H98
  Hohomys lii Hu 1995 MHL03
  Motheretus telhebresus MHL03
  Untermannerix copiosus MHL03
  Dzungariotherium orgosense DW04
  Alloptox minor DW04
  Megacricetodon M-SA09
    |--M. ibericus M-SA09
    |--M. minor M-SK04
    |    |--M. m. minor M-SK04
    |    `--M. m. debruijni M-SK04
    `--M. sinensis DW04
  Sayimys obliquidens DW04
  Hispanotherium DW04
    |--H. matritense DW04
    `--H. tungurense DW04
  Dinocrocuta gigantea DW04
  Acerorhinus DW04
    |--A. fuguensis DW04
    |--A. hezhengensis DW04
    |--A. palaeosinensis DW04
    `--A. tsaidamensis DW04
  Pararhizomys hipparionum DW04
  Iranotherium morgani DW04
  Honanotherium schlosseri DW04
  Parataxidea sinensis DW04
  Eotheomys imaizumii (Jameson 1961) I92
  Acanthonotus Goldfuss 1809 C92
  Paraglirulus werenfelsi M-SK04
  Glirudinus undosus M-SK04
  Albanensia albanensis M-SK04
  Tapiravus polkensis WW04
  Wanotherium xuanchengensis HC97
  Pseudostoma Say 1823 [=Pseudotoma (l. c.) non Bellardi 1875] BR05
  Spinigera Lesson 1842 BR05
  Nothodectes gidleyi Matthew 1917 S35a
  Megopterna minuta Douglass 1908 S35b
  Cuscus G66
    |--C. brevicaudatus G66
    `--C. maculatus [incl. C. m. var. ochropus] G66
  Liaotherium Zhou et al. 1991 A02
    `--L. gracile Zhou et al. 1991 A02
  Sciuropterus W69
    |--S. horsfieldi T00
    |--S. hosei Thomas 1900 T00
    |--S. platyurus T00
    |--S. setosus T00
    |--S. thomsoni Thomas 1900 T00
    `--S. uphami W69
  Metacervulus astylodon AC98
  ‘Liops’ Gidley 1906 non Fieber 1870 KA-Z11
  Nakunodon Yadagiri 1985 A02
  Dinocyon thenardi V67
  Isodon Say 1822 CW92
  ‘Cynocephalus’ Geoffroy & Cuvier 1795 non Boddaërt 1768 C84
  Rhizoprion Jourdan 1861 C84
  Hapalotis R87
    |--H. apicalis R87
    |--H. boweri Ramsay 1887 R87
    `--H. hemileucura R87
  Sipalus Fischer 1813 Z93
  Thylacodictis Mercerat 1891 (see below for synonymy) V65
  Viscacia viscacia O05
  Platatherium pampaeum O05
  Pseudolestodon miloides O05
  Chlamydotherium typum O05
  Kuehneotheriidae A02
    |--Delsatia Sigogneau-Russell & Godefroit 1997 A02
    |--Kuehneotherium Kermack, Kermack & Mussett 1968 RW12, A02 [incl. Kuehneon Kretzoi 1960 (n. d.) A02]
    |    `--K. praecursoris Kermack, Kermack & Mussett 1968 S05
    `--Kotatherium Datta 1981 A02
         `--K. haldanei Datta 1981 A02
  Tribotherium africanum H98
  Meemannodon lujiatunensis MWL11
  Tapomys tapensis W96
  Shunkahetanka geringensis TS96
  Hitonkala andersontau TS96
  Alwoodia harkseni TS96
  Xenostephanus Simpson, Minoprio & Paterson 1962 EH19

Thylacodictis Mercerat 1891 [incl. Amphiproviverra Ameghino 1891, Protoproviverra Ameghino 1891 non Lemoine 1891] V65

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AC98] Alcover, J. A., X. Campillo, M. Macias & A. Sans. 1998. Mammal species of the world: additional data on insular mammals. American Museum Novitates 3248: 1–29.

[A02] Averianov, A. O. 2002. Early Cretaceous “symmetrodont” mammal Gobiotheriodon from Mongolia and the classification of “Symmetrodonta”. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 47 (4): 705–716.

[BW14] Bi, S., Y. Wang, J. Guan, X. Sheng & J. Meng. 2014. Three new Jurassic euharamiyidan species reinforce early divergence of mammals. Nature 514: 579–584.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[CW92] Cassis, G., & T. A. Weir. 1992. Dynastinae. In: Houston, W. W. K. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 9. Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea pp. 383–425. AGPS Press: Canberra.

[C84] Compagno, L. J. V. 1984. FAO Species Catalogue vol. 4. Sharks of the World: An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2—Carcharhiniformes. United Nations Development Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Rome.

[C92] Crawford, R. L. 1992. Catalogue of the genera and type species of the harvestman superfamily Phalangioidea (Arachnida). Burke Museum Contributions in Anthropology and Natural History 8: 1–60.

[DW04] Deng T., Wang X., Ni X. & Liu L. 2004. Sequence of the Cenozoic mammalian faunas of the Linxia Basin in Gansu, China. Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition) 78 (1): 8–14.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[EH19] Énay, R., & M. K. Howarth. 2019. Part L, revised, volume 3B, chapter 7: Systematic descriptions of the Perisphinctoidea. Treatise Online 120: 1–184.

[G66] Gray, J. E. 1866. Notes on some Mammalia from Port Albany (Cape York Peninsula), North Australia, with the descriptions of some new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 219–221.

[H98] Heinrich, W.-D. 1998. Late Jurassic mammals from Tendaguru, Tanzania, east Africa. Journal of Mammalian Evolution 5 (4): 269–290.

[HC97] Huang X. & Chen L. 1997. Mammalian remains from the Late Paleocene of Guichi, Anhui. Vertebrata PalAsiatica 35 (1): 49–67.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[K-JCL02] Kielan-Jaworowska, Z., R. L. Cifelli & Z.-X. Luo. 2002. Dentition and relationships of the Jurassic mammal Shuotherium. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 47 (3): 479–486.

[KA-Z11] Kury, A. B., & M. A. Alonso-Zarazaga. 2011. Addenda and corrigenda to the “Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones)”. Zootaxa 3034: 47–68.

[LCK-J01] Luo, Z.-X., R. L. Cifelli & Z. Kielan-Jaworowska. 2001. Dual origin of tribosphenic mammals. Nature 409: 53–57.

[LJY07] Luo, Z.-X., Q. Ji & C.-X. Yuan. 2007. Convergent dental adaptations in pseudo-tribosphenic and tribosphenic mammals. Nature 450: 93–97.

[LK-JC02] Luo, Z.-X., Z. Kielan-Jaworowska & R. L. Cifelli. 2002. In quest for a phylogeny of Mesozoic mammals. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 47: 1–78.

[LW05] Luo, Z.-X., & J. R. Wible. 2005. A Late Jurassic digging mammal and early mammalian diversification. Science 308: 103–107.

[MHL03] Meng, J., Y. Hu & C. Li. 2003. The osteology of Rhombomylus (Mammalia, Glires): implications for phylogeny and evolution of Glires. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 275: 1–247.

[MH06] Meng, J., Y. Hu, Y. Wang, X. Wang & C. Li. 2006. A Mesozoic gliding mammal from northeast China. Nature 444 (7121): 889–893.

[MH07] Meng, J., Y. Hu, Y. Wang, X. Wang & C. Li. 2007. Corrigendum: A Mesozoic gliding mammal from northeastern China. Nature 446: 102.

[MWL11] Meng, J., Y. Wang & C. Li. 2011. Transitional mammalian middle ear from a new Cretaceous Jehol eutriconodont. Nature 472: 181–185.

[M-SA09] Moyà-Solà, S., D. M. Alba, S. Almécija, I. Casanovas-Vilar, M. Köhler, S. De Esteban-Trivigno, J. M. Robles, J. Galindo & J. Fortuny. 2009. A unique Middle Miocene European hominoid and the origins of the great ape and human clade. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (24): 9601–9606.

[M-SK04] Moyà-Solà, S., M. Köhler, D. M. Alba, I. Casanovas-Vilar & J. Galindo. 2004. Pierolapithecus catalaunicus, a new Middle Miocene great ape from Spain. Science 306: 1339–1344.

[OB13] O'Leary, M. A., J. I. Bloch, J. J. Flynn, T. J. Gaudin, A. Giallombardo, N. P. Giannini, S. L. Goldberg, B. P. Kraatz, Z.-X. Luo, J. Meng, X. Ni, M. J. Novacek, F. A. Perini, Z. S. Randall, G. W. Rougier, E. J. Sargis, M. T. Silcox, N. B. Simmons, M. Spaulding, P. M. Velazco, M. Weksler, J. R. Wible & A. L. Cirranello. 2013. The placental mammal ancestor and the post-K–Pg radiation of placentals. Science 339: 662–667.

[O05] Outes, F. F. 1905. Sobre un instrumento paleolítico de Luján (Provincia de Buenos Aires). Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires, serie 3, 6: 169–173.

[R87] Ramsay, E. P. 1887. Description of a new species of Hapalotis, (H. boweri) from north west Australia. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1153–1154, pl. 18.

[S05] Säilä, L. K. 2005. A new species of the sphenodontian reptile Clevosaurus from the Lower Jurassic of south Wales. Palaeontology 48 (4): 817–831.

[S35a] Simpson, G. G. 1935a. The Tiffany fauna, Upper Paleocene. I.–Multituberculata, Marsupialia, Insectivora, and ?Chiroptera. American Museum Novitates 795: 1–19.

[S35b] Simpson, G. G. 1935b. New Paleocene mammals from the Fort Union of Montana. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 83 (2981): 221–244.

[SK20] Sulej, T., G. Krzesiński, M. Tałanda, A. S. Wolniewicz, B. Błażejowski, N. Bonde, P. Gutowski, M. Sienkiewicz & G. Niedźwiedzki. 2020. The earliest-known mammaliaform fossil from Greenland sheds light on origin of mammals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 117 (43): 26861–26867.

[TS96] Tedford, R. H., J. B. Swinehart, C. C. Swisher III, D. R. Prothero, S. A. King & T. E. Tierney. 1996. The Whitneyan-Arikareean transition in the High Plains. In: Prothero, D. R., & R. J. Emry (eds) The Terrestrial Eocene–Oligocene Transition in North America pp. 312–334. Cambridge University Press.

[T00] Thomas, O. 1900. Descriptions of two new Sciuropteri discovered by Mr. Charles Hose in Borneo. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 5: 275–276.

[V65] Van Valen, L. 1965. Some European Proviverrini (Mammalia, Deltatheridia). Palaeontology 8 (4): 638–665.

[V67] Van Valen, L. 1967. New Paleocene insectivores and insectivore classification. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 135 (5): 217–284.

[WW04] Wallace, S. C., & X. Wang. 2004. Two new carnivores from an unusual late Tertiary forest biota in eastern North America. Nature 431: 556–559.

[W96] Walsh, S. L. 1996. S. Middle Eocene mammal faunas of San Diego County, California. In: Prothero, D. R., & R. J. Emry (eds) The Terrestrial Eocene–Oligocene Transition in North America pp. 75–119. Cambridge University Press.

[W69] Woodburne, M. O. 1969. Systematics, biogeography, and evolution of Cynorca and Dyseohyus (Tayassuidae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 141 (2): 271–356.

[Z93] Zimmerman, E. C. 1993. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 3. Nanophyidae, Rhynchophoridae, Erirhinidae, Curculionidae: Amycterinae, literature consulted. CSIRO Australia.

Last updated: 19 March 2022.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="">FoS</a> = FoS