Mammalia

Lower jaw of Ausktribosphenos nyktos, from Kielan-Jaworowska et al. (2002).


Belongs within: Mammaliaformes.
Contains: Eutriconodonta, Allotheria, Trechnotheria, Monotremata.

The name 'Mammalia' has generally been restricted in recent years to the crown-group of mammals, i. e. the smallest possible clade including monotremes, marsupials and placentals. Mammals are distinguished from other living vertebrates by their covering of hair and the production of milk, but these features probably evolved some time before the appearance of the crown group (exactly when being uncertain). Among living mammals, modern authors universally agree on a basal division between monotremes and the remaining taxa (therians). The name Prototheria has been applied to the monotreme total group (all species closer to Ornithorhynchus anatinus than Elephas maximus; O'Leary et al. 2013). Non-monotreme prototherians likely include the Ausktribosphenidae, known from the early Cretaceous of Australia. Basal members of this clade are united by molars with multiple ridges within the talonid basin, as well as a hypertrophied and transverse prevallum/postvallid shearing and rectangular crowns (Bi et al. 2014).

Early members of the lineage leading to modern therians include Fruitafossor windsheffeli, a late Jurassic species from Colorado that is the earliest known mammal specialised for a fossorial (digging) lifestyle.

Synapomorphies (from Luo et al. 2002): Occlusal surfaces matching precisely between upper and lower molars upon eruption. Distinctive masseteric fossa present on mandible with a well−defined ventral margin, occupying entire mandibular angle region. Cochlear canal more elongate than in outgroups (although not always coiled). Ossified pila antotica absent between cavum epiptericum and braincase (except in multituberculates). Astragalus and calcaneus usually in partial superposition. Gyrencephalic cerebral hemispheres greatly enlarged (with external gyri and sulci on surface of endocast), at least in living taxa.

<==Mammalia [Amphilestidae, Holotheria, Marsupionta, Symmetrodonta, Tribosphenida]
    |--Theriimorpha OB13
    |    |--Fruitafossor Luo & Wible 2005 BW14, D07
    |    |    `--*F. windsheffeli Luo & Wible 2005 LW05
    |    |--Volaticotherium Meng, Hu et al. 2006 [Volaticotheria, Volaticotheriidae] MH06
    |    |    `--*V. antiquum Meng, Hu et al. 2006 MH06, MH07, MH06 [=V. antiquus MH06]
    |    `--+--Eutriconodonta BW14
    |       `--Theriiformes LK-JC02
    |            |--Allotheria BW14
    |            `--Trechnotheria BW14
    `--Prototheria [Australosphenida] OB13
         |--Ausktribosphenidae [Ausktribosphenida] LA02
         |    |--Bishops Rich, Flannery et al. 2001 LA02
         |    |    `--*B. whitmorei Rich, Flannery et al. 2001 LA02
         |    `--Ausktribosphenos Rich, Vickers-Rich et al. 1997 BW14, LA02
         |         `--*A. nyktos Rich, Vickers-Rich et al. 1997 LA02
         `--Monotremata BW14

Mammalia incertae sedis:
  Hypomylos LCK-J01
  Gobiatherium MHL03
  Hunanictis MHL03
  Advenimus hupeiensis Dawson et al. 1984 MHL03
  Hohomys lii Hu 1995 MHL03
  Anatolostylops dubius MHL03
  Motheretus telhebresus MHL03
  Untermannerix copiosus MHL03
  Dzungariotherium orgosense DW04
  Alloptox minor DW04
  Megacricetodon M-SA09
    |--M. ibericus M-SA09
    |--M. minor M-SK04
    |    |--M. m. minor M-SK04
    |    `--M. m. debruijni M-SK04
    `--M. sinensis DW04
  Sayimys obliquidens DW04
  Hispanotherium DW04
    |--H. matritense DW04
    `--H. tungurense DW04
  Dinocrocuta gigantea DW04
  Acerorhinus DW04
    |--A. fuguensis DW04
    |--A. hezhengensis DW04
    |--A. palaeosinensis DW04
    `--A. tsaidamensis DW04
  Pararhizomys hipparionum DW04
  Iranotherium morgani DW04
  Honanotherium schlosseri DW04
  Parataxidea sinensis DW04
  Adcrocuta variabilis DW04
  Cervavitus novorossiae DW04
  Eotheomys imaizumii (Jameson 1961) I92
  Acanthonotus Goldfuss 1809 C92
  Paraglirulus werenfelsi M-SK04
  Glirudinus undosus M-SK04
  Albanensia albanensis M-SK04
  Tapiravus polkensis WW04
  Hsiuannania maguensis HC97
  Wanotherium xuanchengensis HC97
  Pseudostoma Say 1823 [=Pseudotoma (l. c.) non Bellardi 1875] BR05
  Spinigera Lesson 1842 BR05
  Nothodectes gidleyi Matthew 1917 S35a
  Megopterna minuta Douglass 1908 S35b
  Cuscus G66
    |--C. brevicaudatus G66
    `--C. maculatus [incl. C. m. var. ochropus] G66
  Liaotherium Zhou et al. 1991 A02
    `--L. gracile Zhou et al. 1991 A02
  Sciuropterus uphami W69
  Metacervulus astylodon AC98
  ‘Liops’ Gidley 1906 non Fieber 1870 KA-Z11
  Amphidon Simpson 1925 [Amphidontidae] A02
    `--A. superstes Simpson 1925 A02
  Manchurodon Yabe & Shikama 1938 A02
  Nakunodon Yadagiri 1985 A02
  Dinocyon thenardi V67
  Isodon Say 1822 CW92
  ‘Cynocephalus’ Geoffroy & Cuvier 1795 non Boddaërt 1768 C84
  Rhizoprion Jourdan 1861 C84
  Hapalotis R87
    |--H. apicalis R87
    |--H. boweri Ramsay 1887 R87
    `--H. hemileucura R87
  Sipalus Fischer 1813 Z93
  Thylacodictis Mercerat 1891 (see below for synonymy) V65
  Typotheridae [Typotheria] A05
    |--Typotherium A05
    |    |--T. cristatum A05
    |    |--T. insigne A05
    |    `--T. robustum A05
    `--Isotypotherium annulatum A05
  Viscacia viscacia O05
  Sclerocalyptus ornatus O05
  Platatherium pampaeum O05
  Pseudolestodon miloides O05
  Chlamydotherium typum O05
  Kuehneotheriidae A02
    |--Delsatia Sigogneau-Russell & Godefroit 1997 A02
    |--Kuehneotherium Kermack, Kermack & Mussett 1968 RW12, A02 [incl. Kuehneon Kretzoi 1960 (n. d.) A02]
    |    `--K. praecursoris Kermack, Kermack & Mussett 1968 S05
    `--Kotatherium Datta 1981 A02
         `--K. haldanei Datta 1981 A02

Thylacodictis Mercerat 1891 [incl. Amphiproviverra Ameghino 1891, Protoproviverra Ameghino 1891 non Lemoine 1891] V65

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

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[A02] Averianov, A. O. 2002. Early Cretaceous “symmetrodont” mammal Gobiotheriodon from Mongolia and the classification of “Symmetrodonta”. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 47 (4): 705–716.

[BW14] Bi, S., Y. Wang, J. Guan, X. Sheng & J. Meng. 2014. Three new Jurassic euharamiyidan species reinforce early divergence of mammals. Nature 514: 579–584.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[CW92] Cassis, G., & T. A. Weir. 1992. Dynastinae. In: Houston, W. W. K. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 9. Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea pp. 383–425. AGPS Press: Canberra.

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[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[G66] Gray, J. E. 1866. Notes on some Mammalia from Port Albany (Cape York Peninsula), North Australia, with the descriptions of some new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 219–221.

[HC97] Huang X. & Chen L. 1997. Mammalian remains from the Late Paleocene of Guichi, Anhui. Vertebrata PalAsiatica 35 (1): 49–67.

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[LA02] Long, J., M. Archer, T. Flannery & S. Hand. 2002. Prehistoric Mammals of Australia and New Guinea: One Hundred Million Years of Evolution. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

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[LW05] Luo, Z.-X., & J. R. Wible. 2005. A Late Jurassic digging mammal and early mammalian diversification. Science 308: 103–107.

[MHL03] Meng, J., Y. Hu & C. Li. 2003. The osteology of Rhombomylus (Mammalia, Glires): implications for phylogeny and evolution of Glires. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 275: 1–247.

[MH06] Meng, J., Y. Hu, Y. Wang, X. Wang & C. Li. 2006. A Mesozoic gliding mammal from northeast China. Nature 444 (7121): 889–893.

[MH07] Meng, J., Y. Hu, Y. Wang, X. Wang & C. Li. 2007. Corrigendum: A Mesozoic gliding mammal from northeastern China. Nature 446: 102.

[M-SA09] Moyà-Solà, S., D. M. Alba, S. Almécija, I. Casanovas-Vilar, M. Köhler, S. De Esteban-Trivigno, J. M. Robles, J. Galindo & J. Fortuny. 2009. A unique Middle Miocene European hominoid and the origins of the great ape and human clade. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (24): 9601–9606.

[M-SK04] Moyà-Solà, S., M. Köhler, D. M. Alba, I. Casanovas-Vilar & J. Galindo. 2004. Pierolapithecus catalaunicus, a new Middle Miocene great ape from Spain. Science 306: 1339–1344.

[OB13] O'Leary, M. A., J. I. Bloch, J. J. Flynn, T. J. Gaudin, A. Giallombardo, N. P. Giannini, S. L. Goldberg, B. P. Kraatz, Z.-X. Luo, J. Meng, X. Ni, M. J. Novacek, F. A. Perini, Z. S. Randall, G. W. Rougier, E. J. Sargis, M. T. Silcox, N. B. Simmons, M. Spaulding, P. M. Velazco, M. Weksler, J. R. Wible & A. L. Cirranello. 2013. The placental mammal ancestor and the post-K–Pg radiation of placentals. Science 339: 662–667.

[O05] Outes, F. F. 1905. Sobre un instrumento paleolítico de Luján (Provincia de Buenos Aires). Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires, serie 3, 6: 169–173.

[R87] Ramsay, E. P. 1887. Description of a new species of Hapalotis, (H. boweri) from north west Australia. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1153–1154, pl. 18.

[S05] Säilä, L. K. 2005. A new species of the sphenodontian reptile Clevosaurus from the Lower Jurassic of south Wales. Palaeontology 48 (4): 817–831.

[S35a] Simpson, G. G. 1935a. The Tiffany fauna, Upper Paleocene. I.–Multituberculata, Marsupialia, Insectivora, and ?Chiroptera. American Museum Novitates 795: 1–19.

[S35b] Simpson, G. G. 1935b. New Paleocene mammals from the Fort Union of Montana. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 83 (2981): 221–244.

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[W69] Woodburne, M. O. 1969. Systematics, biogeography, and evolution of Cynorca and Dyseohyus (Tayassuidae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 141 (2): 271–356.

[Z93] Zimmerman, E. C. 1993. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 3. Nanophyidae, Rhynchophoridae, Erirhinidae, Curculionidae: Amycterinae, literature consulted. CSIRO Australia.

Last updated: 22 August 2018.

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