Muscicapidae

Mocking cliff chat Myrmecocichla cinnamomeiventris, photographed by Derek Keats.


Belongs within: Muscicapoidea.
Contains: Cinclus, Luscinia, Muscicapa, Cercotrichas, Cyornis, Sheppardia, Ficedula, Larvivora, Phoenicurus, Monticola, Saxicola, Oenanthe.

The Muscicapidae as used herein contains the Old World flycatchers and chats, a diverse group of insectivorous birds found in Eurasia and Africa. These two groups of birds have usually been divided between the more aerial Muscicapinae (Old World flycatchers) and more terrestrial Saxicolinae (chats), with the latter previously regarded as more closely related to the thrushes (Turdidae). However, recent phylogenetic studies do not resolve these two groups separately but have them intermingled (Jetz et al. 2012, Burleigh et al. 2015). The recent phylogenetic study of birds by Burleigh et al. (2015) also places the dippers Cinclus in a basal position within the Muscicapidae close to the nightingales Luscinia. However, the integrity of this clade is rendered somewhat dubious by the further inclusion of the blue tits Cyanistes, otherwise universally regarded as true tits (Paridae).

Characters (from The Internet Bird Collection): Very small to small birds with short bill wide at base and flattened dorsoventrally, wide gape and well-developed rictal bristles, small and rather weak legs and feet, short to medium-length tail; plumage often dull, predominantly grey or brown, males in some genera brightly coloured.

<==Muscicapidae [Muscicapinae, Saxicolinae]
    |--+--Muscicapella hodgsoni BKB15
    |  `--+--+--+--Cyanistes caeruleus Linnaeus 1758 BKB15, M02 [=Parus caeruleus CC10]
    |     |  |  `--‘Parus’ cyanus JF06
    |     |  `--Cinclus BKB15
    |     `--Luscinia BKB15
    `--+--+--‘Ficedula’ nigrorufa JT12
       |  `--+--+--Alethe JT12
       |     |  |    |--A. castanea JF06
       |     |  |    `--A. diademata JF06
       |     |  `--+--Vauriella goodfellowi BKB15
       |     |     `--+--+--Bradornis BKB15
       |     |        |  |    |--B. infuscatus JT12
       |     |        |  |    `--B. pallidus JT12 [=Melaenornis pallidus JF06]
       |     |        |  `--+--+--+--Empidornis semipartitus JT12
       |     |        |     |  |  `--Sigelus silens JT12 [=Melaenornis silens JF06]
       |     |        |     |  `--Melaenornis Gray 1840 BKB15, B94 [Melaenornithinae]
       |     |        |     |       |--M. annamarulae JT12
       |     |        |     |       |--M. ardesiacus JT12
       |     |        |     |       |--M. edolioides JT12
       |     |        |     |       |--M. mariquensis [=Bradornis mariquensis] JF06
       |     |        |     |       `--M. pammelaina KC02
       |     |        |     `--+--Fraseria cinerascens BKB15
       |     |        |        `--+--+--‘Muscicapa’ caerulescens BKB15
       |     |        |           |  `--‘Muscicapa’ olivascens JT12
       |     |        |           `--+--Fraseria ocreata BKB15
       |     |        |              `--Myioparus BKB15
       |     |        |                   |--M. griseigularis JF06
       |     |        |                   `--M. plumbeus JT12
       |     |        `--+--Namibornis herero BKB15
       |     |           `--+--Humblotia flavirostris JF06
       |     |              `--Muscicapa BKB15
       |     `--Cercotrichas BKB15
       `--+--+--+--Myiomela JT12
          |  |  |    |--M. albiventris JT12 [=Brachypteryx albiventris BKB15]
          |  |  |    `--M. major JT12 [=Brachypteryx major BKB15]
          |  |  `--+--Cyanoptila cyanomelana BKB15
          |  |     |    |--C. c. cyanomelana VP89
          |  |     |    `--C. c. cumatilis VP89
          |  |     `--Eumyias JT12
          |  |          |  i. s.: E. albicaudatus JT12
          |  |          |         E. sordidus JT12
          |  |          |--E. indigo JT12
          |  |          `--+--E. thalassinus JT12
          |  |             `--+--E. additus BKB15 [=Rhinomyias additus JT12]
          |  |                `--E. panayensis JT12
          |  `--+--+--‘Ficedula’ monileger JT12
          |     |  `--Cyornis JT12
          |     `--+--Anthipes BKB15
          |        |    |--A. leucops [incl. Digenea albifrons Sharpe 1888, A. albifrons, D. leucops Sharpe 1888] S89
          |        |    `--A. moniliger Wald. in Blyth 1875 BKB15, S89 [=Digenea moniliger S89]
          |        `--Niltava Hodgson 1837 JT12, M87
          |             |  i. s.: N. oatesi S89
          |             |         N. ruecki FP64
          |             |         N. sumatrana JT12
          |             |--+--N. macgrigoriae BKB15
          |             |  `--N. vivida BKB15
          |             `--+--N. grandis BKB15
          |                `--+--N. davidi BKB15
          |                   `--N. sundara JT12
          `--+--+--+--+--Erithacus Cuvier 1800 BKB15, M02 (see below for synonymy)
             |  |  |  |    |--E. cyane VP89
             |  |  |  |    |--E. rubecula (Linnaeus 1758) [=Motacilla rubecula, E. rubeculus] CC10
             |  |  |  |    `--E. sibilans VP89
             |  |  |  `--‘Cossypha’ humeralis BKB15
             |  |  `--+--+--Pseudalethe BKB15
             |  |     |  |    |--+--P. choloensis JF06 [=Alethe choloensis JT12]
             |  |     |  |    |  `--P. fuelleborni [=Alethe fuelleborni] JF06
             |  |     |  |    `--+--P. poliocephala [=Alethe poliocephala] JF06
             |  |     |  |       `--P. poliophrys [=Alethe poliophrys] JF06
             |  |     |  `--Cossypha Vigors 1825 JT12, B94 [Cossyphinae]
             |  |     |       |  i. s.: C. heinrichi JT12
             |  |     |       |         C. natalensis KC02
             |  |     |       |--C. cyanocampter JT12
             |  |     |       `--+--C. albicapilla JT12
             |  |     |          `--+--+--C. dichroa BKB15
             |  |     |             |  `--C. heuglini BKB15
             |  |     |             `--+--C. niveicapilla BKB15
             |  |     |                `--C. semirufa (Rüppell 1840) BKB15, S05 [=Petrocincla semirufa S05]
             |  |     `--+--+--+--Cossyphicula roberti BKB15
             |  |        |  |  `--Swynnertonia swynnertoni BKB15
             |  |        |  `--+--Oreocossypha isabellae JF06 [=Cossypha isabellae BKB15]
             |  |        |     `--Pogonocichla stellata BKB15
             |  |        `--+--Cichladusa BKB15
             |  |           |    |--C. arquata JF06
             |  |           |    |--C. guttata JT12
             |  |           |    `--C. ruficauda JT12
             |  |           `--Stiphrornis BKB15
             |  |                |--S. erythrothorax BKB15
             |  |                `--+--S. gabonensis BKB15
             |  |                   `--+--S. sanghensis BKB15
             |  |                      `--S. xanthogaster JF06
             |  `--+--+--‘Cossypha’ anomala BKB15
             |     |  `--+--‘Cossypha’ archeri JT12
             |     |     `--‘Cossypha’ caffra JT12
             |     `--Sheppardia BKB15
             `--+--+--+--+--Vauriella insignis BKB15
                |  |  |  `--Calliope BKB15
                |  |  |       |--C. calliope (Pall. 1776) (see below for synonymy) M01
                |  |  |       `--C. pectoralis BKB15
                |  |  `--+--‘Cinclidium’ frontale BKB15
                |  |     `--Myiophoneus Temminck 1822 JT12, B94 (see below for synonymy)
                |  |          |  i. s.: M. blighi JT12
                |  |          |         M. borneensis JT12
                |  |          |         M. eugenei S89
                |  |          |         M. horsfieldii RD02
                |  |          |         M. insularis JT12
                |  |          |         M. robinsoni JT12
                |  |          |--M. melanurus JT12
                |  |          `--+--M. caeruleus JT12
                |  |             `--M. glaucinus JT12
                |  `--+--Enicurus Temminck 1822 BKB15, B94 [=Henicurus (l. c.) B94; Enicurinae, Henicurinae]
                |     |    |  i. s.: E. immaculatus JT12
                |     |    |         E. sinensis Gould 1865 (see below for synonymy) S89
                |     |    |         E. velatus JT12
                |     |    |--+--E. schistaceus JT12
                |     |    |  `--E. scouleri JT12
                |     |    `--+--E. ruficapillus JT12
                |     |       `--+--E. leschenaulti JT12
                |     |          `--E. maculatus JT12
                |     `--+--+--+--+--‘Rhinomyias’ insignis JT12
                |        |  |  |  `--Heinrichia calligyna JT12
                |        |  |  `--Cinclidium BKB15
                |        |  |       |--C. diana JT12
                |        |  |       `--C. leucurum JT12
                |        |  `--Ficedula BKB15
                |        `--+--Tarsiger BKB15
                |           |    |--+--T. cyanurus JT12 [=Erithacus cyanurus T89]
                |           |    |  `--T. hyperythrus JT12
                |           |    `--+--T. indicus JT12
                |           |       `--+--T. chrysaeus JT12
                |           |          `--T. johnstoniae JT12
                |           `--+--Brachypteryx Horsfield 1822 BKB15, B94 [Brachypteryginae]
                |              |    |--B. hyperythra JT12
                |              |    |--B. leucophrys JF06
                |              |    |--B. montana VP89
                |              |    `--B. stellata JT12
                |              `--Larvivora BKB15
                `--+--+--‘Luscinia’ calliope JT12
                   |  `--‘Luscinia’ pectoralis JT12
                   `--+--Phoenicurus BKB15
                      `--+--Monticola JT12
                         `--+--Saxicola JT12
                            `--+--Oenanthe BKB15
                               `--+--+--*Campicoloides bifasciatus B93 (see below for synonymy)
                                  |  `--Cercomela BKB15
                                  |       |--C. schlegelii JT12
                                  |       |    |--C. s. schlegelii B93
                                  |       |    `--C. s. pollux (Hartlaub 1865) [=Saxicola pollux] B93
                                  |       `--+--C. sinuata JT12
                                  |          `--C. tractrac JT12
                                  `--+--+--‘Myrmecocichla’ cinnamomeiventris JT12
                                     |  `--‘Cercomela’ sordida BKB15
                                     `--+--Thamnolaea BKB15
                                        |    |--T. cinnamomeiventris JF06
                                        |    |    |--T. c. cinnamomeiventris S05
                                        |    |    `--T. c. albiscapulata (Rüppell 1837) (see below for synonymy) S05
                                        |    `--T. leucocephalus VP89
                                        `--Myrmecocichla BKB15
                                             |  i. s.: M. formicivora JF06
                                             |         M. tholloni JT12
                                             |--+--M. aethiops JT12
                                             |  `--‘Oenanthe’ monticola JT12 [incl. Saxicola castor Hartlaub 1865 B93]
                                             `--+--M. nigra JT12 (see below for synonymy)
                                                `--+--M. arnotti BKB15
                                                   `--M. melaena JT12

Muscicapidae incertae sedis:
  Xenocopsychus ansorgei MS55
  Pinarornis plumosus JT12
  Dioptrornis JT12
    |--D. brunneus JT12
    |--D. chocolatinus JT12
    `--D. fischeri JT12
  Oedon luscinia (Linnaeus 1758) [=Motacilla luscinia, Daulias luscinia] CC10
  Rhinomyias JT12
    |--R. albigularis JT12
    |--R. brunneatus JT12
    |--R. colonus JT12
    |--R. goodfellowi JF06
    |--R. gularis JT12
    `--R. oscillans JT12

Calliope calliope (Pall. 1776) [=Motacilla calliope, Erithacus calliope; incl. Calliope camtschatkensis Strickl. 1841] M01

*Campicoloides bifasciatus B93 [=Saxicola bifasciatus BKB15, Oenanthe bifasciata B93; incl. S. spectabilis Hartlaub 1865 B93]

Enicurus sinensis Gould 1865 [=E. chinensis, Henicurus chinensis, H. sinensis; incl. H. speciosus Swinh. 1861 (preoc.)] S89

Erithacus Cuvier 1800 BKB15, M02 [incl. Aedon Forster 1814 B94, Cyanecula Brehm 1828 B94, Philomela Swainson 1831 non Link 1806 B94; Aedoninae, Cyaneculinae, Erithacinae, Philomelinae]

Myiophoneus Temminck 1822 JT12, B94 [=Myophoneus (l. c.) B94, Myophonus (l. c.) B94; Myiophoneinae, Myophoneinae, Myophoninae]

Myrmecocichla nigra JT12 [incl. M. stoehri Sclater ex Brooke 1993 (n. n.) B93]

Thamnolaea cinnamomeiventris albiscapulata (Rüppell 1837) [=Saxicola albiscapulata; incl. S. humeralis ms, S. rufiventris ms] S05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[B93] Brooke, R. K. 1993. Annotated catalogue of the Aves type specimens in the South African Museum. Annals of the South African Museum 102 (10): 327–349.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149–186.

[KC02] Kuiper, S. M., & M. I. Cherry. 2002. Brood parasitism and egg matching in the red-chested cuckoo Cuculus solitarius in southern Africa. Ibis 144: 632–639.

[M01] Madarász, J. 1901. Madarak [Vögel]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 21–39. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[M87] Mayr, E. 1987. The status of subjective junior homonyms. Systematic Zoology 36 (1): 85–86.

[MS55] Mertens, R., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Die im Senckenberg-Museum vorhandenen Arten ausgestorbener, aussterbender oder seltener Vögel. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (3–4): 241–265.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[RD02] Robin, V. V., & P. Davidar. 2002. The vertical stratification of birds in mixed species flocks at Parambikulam, south India: a comparison between two habitats. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 389–399.

[S89] Salvadori, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea nella Birmania e nelle regioni vicine. XIX.—Uccelli raccolti nei Monti Carin a nord-est di Tounghoo, nel Pegù presso Rangoon e Tounghoo e nel Tenasserim presso Malewoon. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 369–438.

[S05] Steinheimer, F. D. 2005. Eduard Rüppel’s avian types at the Natural History Museum, Tring (Aves). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 233–264.

[T89] Takeshita, N. 1989. Nihon no Yachoo. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

[VP89] Viney, C., & K. Phillipps. 1989. Birds of Hong Kong 5th ed. Government Printer: Hong Kong.

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