Miridae

Fulvius sp., copyright S. Cresswell.


Belongs within: Cimicomorpha.
Contains: Orthotylinae, Phylinae, Bryocorinae, Mirinae.

The Miridae are a diverse family of true bugs, including both phytophagous and carnivorous species. They can be distinguished from most other bug families by the presence of a cuneus in the forewing, together with a four-segmented labium. Most mirids, except the members of the subfamily Isometopinae, also lack ocelli (Carver et al. 1991).

Characters (from Carver et al. 1991): Length 2-6 mm long; ocelli usually absent (except in Isometopinae); mesofemoral and metafemoral trichobothria present; forewing with cuneus (except in some brachypters), 1 or 2 cells in forewing membrane; abdomen without ventral trichobothria; specialised male and female genitalia.

<==Miridae
    |--Psallops CGW91 [Psallopinae W79]
    `--+--Phylinae W79
       `--+--+--Bryocorinae W79
          |  `--Mirinae W79
          `--Cylapinae W79
               |  i. s.: Peritropis MC13
               |--Bakeriola [Bothriomirini] CGW91
               |--Fulvius MC13 [Fulviini CGW91]
               `--Cylapini CGW91
                    |--Carvalhoma CGW91
                    `--Schizopteromiris CGW91

Miridae incertae sedis:
  Chaetedus reuterianus M83
  Heterocordylus H01
    |--H. genistae H01
    `--H. tibialis A71
  Asciodema obsoletum A71
  Orthotylinae G75
  Auricillocoris MC94
  Ctypomiris MC94
  Dioclerus MC94
  Myiocapsus MC94
  Mertila MC94
  Harpedona MC94
  Prodromus MC94
  Thaumastomiris MC94
  Diomocoris russatus WFS04
  Chinamiris nigrifrons WFS04
  Cyphodema S54
    |--C. hilare S54
    |--C. instabile S54
    |--C. mendosum S54
    |--C. oberthuri S54
    |--C. pernix S54
    `--C. rubricum Seidenstücker 1954 S54
  Deraeocorinae G75
    |--Deraeocoris Kirschbaum 1855 GM79 [incl. Estuidus Distant 1904 G34a, GM79; Deraeocorini]
    |--Termatophyloides [Termatophylini] CGW91
    `--Saturniomirini CGW91
         |--Trilaccus nigroruber CGW91, G75
         `--Imogen WEE70
  Lygocoris YS01
  Monocoris GE05
  Ranzovius GE05
  Ragmus G34a
    |--R. argenteus Girault 1934 G34b
    |--R. importunitas G34a
    |--R. liebknechti Girault 1934 G34a
    |--R. pulcher Girault 1934 G34a
    `--R. seminigricaput Girault 1934 G34b
  Paracalocoris G34a
    |--P. australis G34a
    `--P. semiflavifemur Girault 1934 G34a
  Rhinomiridius bioculatus Girault 1934 G34a
  Nesiomiris O94
  Orectoderus obliquus BM76
  Notostira H01
    |--N. doddi K08
    |--N. elongata K09
    |--N. erratica [incl. N. erratica var. ochracea] H01
    `--N. pacifica Kirkaldy 1908 K08
  Leptopterna H01
    |--L. dolabrata [incl. L. dolabrata var. aurantiaca] H01
    `--L. ferrugata H01
  Lopus gothicus H01
  Adelphocoris H01
    |--A. annulicornis H01
    |--A. lineolatus [incl. A. chenopodii] H01
    |--A. quadripunctatus H01
    |--A. reicheli H01
    |--A. seticornis H01
    `--A. triannulatus [incl. A. triannulatus var. nigriceps] H01
  Poeciloscytus H01
    |--P. cognatus H01
    |--P. unifasciatus H01
    `--P. vulneratus H01
  Polymerus H01
    |--P. nigrita H01
    `--P. pekinensis Horváth 1901 H01
  Camptobrochis lutescens H01
  Rhopalotomus ater [incl. R. ater var. tyrannus] H01
  Allodapus H01
    |--A. montandoni H01
    `--A. pumilus Horváth 1901 H01
  Systellonotus triguttatus H01
  Myrmecophyes alboornatus H01
  Anapus longicornis H01
  Euryopocoris nitidus H01
  Orthocephalus vittipennis H01
  Strongylocoris leucocephalus H01
  Criocoris quadrimaculatus H01
  Oncotylaria H01
    |--Oncotylus H01
    |--Litoxenus H01
    `--Ibiaris Horváth & Reut. in Horváth 1901 H01
         `--*I. discretus Horváth & Reut. in Horváth 1901 H01
  Isometopinae [Isometopidae] CGW91
    |--Eurocrypha thanatochlamys CGW91
    `--Isometopus K08
  Nesocrypha Kirkaldy 1908 K08
    `--*N. corticicola Kirkaldy 1908 K08
  Hyaloscytus elegantulus Reuter 1904 [incl. H. elegantulus var. filicola Kirkaldy 1908] K08
  Tichorhinus vitiensis Kirkaldy 1908 K08
  Nesosylphas Kirkaldy 1908 K08
    `--*N. pacifica Kirkaldy 1908 K08
  Disphinctus K08
  Malacopeplus K08
  Capsini [Capsidae] K08
    |--Nesodaphne Kirkaldy 1908 K08
    |    `--*N. knowlesi Kirkaldy 1908 K08
    `--Capsus E12
         |--C. minutus Lucas 1847 E12
         `--C. rugicollis Lucas 1847 E12
  Phytocoris K08
    |--P. albofasciatus Lucas 1847 E12
    |--P. femoralis Lucas 1847 E12
    |--P. instabilis Lucas 1847 E12
    `--P. rubromarginatus Lucas 1847 E12
  Taylorilygus WEE74

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M. & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[G34a] Girault, A. A. 1934a. Miridae et Hymenoptera nova Australiensis. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 308–310).

[G34b] Girault, A. A. 1934b. New Capsidae and Hymenoptera, with note on an unmentionable. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 311–314).

[GM79] Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 1–400.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[G75] Gross, G. F. 1975. Plant-feeding and Other Bugs (Hemiptera) of South Australia. Heteroptera—Part I. Handbook of the Flora and Fauna of South Australia.

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[K08] Kirkaldy, G. W. 1908. A catalogue of the Hemiptera of Fiji. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 345–391, pl. 4.

[K09] Köhler, G. 2009. Heuschrecken (Saltatoria) und Ohrwürmner (Dermaptera) im Immissionsgebiet des Düngemittelwerkes Steudnitz/Thüringen—eine Langzeitstudie (1978–2001). Mauritiana 20 (3): 601–646.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[MC94] Morrone, J. J., & J. M. Carpenter. 1994. In search of a method for cladistic biogeography: an empirical comparison of component analysis, Brooks parsimony analysis, and three-area statements. Cladistics 10: 99–153.

[O94] Otte, D. 1994. The Crickets of Hawaii: origin, systematics and evolution. The Orthopterists' Society: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

[S54] Seidenstücker, G. 1954. Cyphodema rubricum n. sp., eine neue Mirine aus Syrien (Ins. Hem. Het. Miridae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 99–100.

[W79] Wiley, E. O. 1979. An annotated Linnean hierarchy, with comments on natural taxa and competing systems. Systematic Zoology 28 (3): 308–337.

[WFS04] Winks, C. J., S. V. Fowler & L. A. Smith. 2004. Invertebrate fauna of boneseed, Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera (L.) T. Norl. (Asteraceae: Calenduleae), an invasive weed in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 61–72.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

[WEE74] Woodward, T. E., V. F. Eastop & J. W. Evans. 1974. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 52–57. Melbourne University Press.

[YS01] Yoshizawa, K., & T. Saigusa. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of paraneopteran orders (Insecta: Neoptera) based on forewing base structure with comments on monophyly of Auchenorrhycha (Hemiptera). Systematic Entomology 26: 1–13.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="http://www.fieldofscience.com/">FoS</a> = FoS