Potamididae


Live individual of Telescopium telescopium, photographed by Ria Tan.


Belongs within: Cerithioidea.

The Potamididae are a family of marine gastropods, many species of which live among mangroves.

Characters (from Strong et al., in press): Aperture of shell flaring, with anterior siphon, medial sinus on outer lip; growth determinate, periodic with numerous varices. Propodial pedal gland restricted to anterior half of sole margin. Pallial sensory structures (varying from well-developed pallial eyes to simple light-sensitive cup) at mantle edge in inhalant siphon. Ctenidial filament broad (base longer than height). Inner marginal tooth of radula with tapering distal tip. Midgut with anterior sorting area flap; style sac long, extending into pallial roof. Pallial oviduct with two sperm gutters and seminal receptacle in medial lamina. Euspermatozoa with acrosomal vesicle conical basally, flattened anteriorly; axoneme attached to nucleus and dense vesicles. Embryonic development extra-capsular but within parental body. Haploid chromosome number = 17.

<==Potamididae [Potamidinae]
    |--Tympanotonos margaritaceus (Brocchi 1814) GK02
    |--Telescopium Montfort 1810 [Telescopiidae] BR05
    |    |--*T. telescopium Linnaeus 1758 WG71
    |    `--T. fuscum F66
    |--Terebralia Swainson 1840 WG71
    |    |--T. bidentata (Defrance in Grateloup 1840) GK02
    |    |--T. semistriatus W08
    |    `--T. sulcata Bruguière 1792 WG71
    |--Cerithidea Swainson 1840 [Cerithideidae] BR05
    |    |--*C. decollata O27
    |    |--C. californica Haldeman 1840 O27 [incl. C. sacrata CG99]
    |    |--C. fuscata CG99
    |    |--C. kieneri (Hombr. & Jacq. 1853) [=Cerithium kieneri] H09
    |    `--C. largillierti (Philippi 1848) [=Cerithium largillierti] H09
    |--Potamides Brongniart 1810 BR05
    |    |--*P. (Potamides) lamarckii O27
    |    `--P. (Liocerithium Tryon 1887) O27
    |         `--P. (L.) sculptum (Sowerby 1855) [=Cerithium sculptum] O27
    `--Pirenella Gray 1847 BD86, O27
         |--P. cailliaudi (Potiez & Michaud 1838) [incl. P. conica] BD86
         `--P. cyclus (Dall 1919) [=Potamides (Pirenella) cyclus] O27

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BD86] Barash, A., & Z. Danin. 1986. Further additions to the knowledge of Indo-Pacific Mollusca in the Mediterranean Sea (Lessepsian migrants). Spixiana 9 (2): 117-141.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, J. Frýda, B. Hausdorf, W. Ponder, Á. Valdés & A. Warén. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1-397.

[CG99] Carlton, J. T., J. B. Geller, M. L. Reaka-Kudla & E. A. Norse. 1999. Historical extinctions in the sea. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 30: 315-338.

[F66] Fraser, L. 1866. Communication of a list of mollusks collected by R. Swinhoe, Esq., in Formosa. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 146.

[GK02] Gründel, J., & T. Kowalke. 2002. Palaeorissoinidae, a new family of marine and brackish water Rissooidea (Gastropoda, Littorinimorpha). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen 226 (1): 43-57.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. II, pt. III. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

Strong, E. E., D. J. Colgan, J. M. Healy, C. Lydeard, W. F. Ponder & M. Glaubrecht. in press. Phylogeny of the gastropod superfamily Cerithioidea using morphology and molecules. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society.

[W08] Wilson, B. 2008. Background information on Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 1-9.

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

Batillariidae


Hercules Club mud whelks Pyrazus ebeninus on sea-grass bed. Photo from here.


Belongs within: Cerithioidea.

The Batillariidae are a family of high-spired marine gastropods found within the tide zone in mud and muddy sand.

Characters (from Strong et al., in press): Shell with flaring outer lip on aperture. Long efferent ctenidial vein between gill and aperture. Radula with basal denticles on central tooth. Salivary gland complex, massive, without central lumen. Sorting area of midgut rectangular, tapering, with pointed, slightly curving rectangular tip.

<==Batillariidae
    |--Batillaria Benson 1842 [Batillariidae, Batillariinae] BR05
    |    |--B. attramentaria CG99
    |    `--B. australis OC03
    |--Granulolabium GK02 [Tiaracerithiinae BR05]
    |    |  i. s.: G. plicatum (Basterot 1825) GK02
    |    `--G. (Tiaracerithium Sacco 1895) GK02, BR05
    |         `--G. (T.) pseudotiarella (d’Orbigny 1825) GK02
    |--Pyrazus Montfort 1810 [Pyrazidae] BR05
    |    |--P. cingulatus (Gmelin 1790) [=Murex cingulatus] H09
    |    |--P. ebeninus Bruguière 1792 WG71
    |    |--P. herculeus (Martyn 1784) [=Clava herculea] H09
    |    |--P. layardi (Adams 1855) [=Cerithium layardi] H09
    |    |--P. palustris (Linnaeus 1767) [=Strombus palustris] H09
    |    |--P. semistriatus F66
    |    |--P. sulcatus (Born 1778) [=Murex sulcatus] H09
    |    `--P. telescopium (Linnaeus 1758) [=Trochus telescopium] H09
    `--Velacumantus Iredale 1936 HJ08, WG71
         `--V. australis (Quoy & Gaimard 1834) HJ08

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR05] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, J. Frýda, B. Hausdorf, W. Ponder, Á. Valdés & A. Warén. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1-397.

[CG99] Carlton, J. T., J. B. Geller, M. L. Reaka-Kudla & E. A. Norse. 1999. Historical extinctions in the sea. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 30: 315-338.

[F66] Fraser, L. 1866. Communication of a list of mollusks collected by R. Swinhoe, Esq., in Formosa. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 146.

[GK02] Gründel, J., & T. Kowalke. 2002. Palaeorissoinidae, a new family of marine and brackish water Rissooidea (Gastropoda, Littorinimorpha). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen 226 (1): 43-57.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[HJ08] Huisman, J. M., D. S. Jones, F. E. Wells & T. Burton. 2008. Introduced marine biota in Western Australian waters. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 1-44.

[OC03] Olson, P. D., T. H. Cribb, V. V. Tkach, R. A. Bray & D. T. J. Littlewood. 2003. Phylogeny and classification of the Digenea (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda). International Journal for Parasitology 33: 733-755.

Strong, E. E., D. J. Colgan, J. M. Healy, C. Lydeard, W. F. Ponder & M. Glaubrecht. in press. Phylogeny of the gastropod superfamily Cerithioidea using morphology and molecules. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society.

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

Pseudorthoceratidae


Pyritised specimen of Pseudorthoceras knoxense. Photo from here.


Belongs within: Micelinoceratida.
Contains: Spyroceras.

The Pseudorthoceratidae were a Lower Silurian to Permian family of 'orthocerid' cephalopods. The relationship of this family to the remaining orthocerids is doubtful.

Characters (from Sweet 1964): Cyrtochoanitic orthocones and longiconic cyrtocones; endosiphuncular annuli developing into continuous parietal endosiphuncular lining, each deposit extending forward or backward from its place of origin to join the next.

<==Pseudorthoceratidae [Mooreoceratidae, Shikhanoceratidae]
    |--Pseudactinoceratinae [Macroloxoceratinae, Pseudactinoceratidae] S64
    |    |--Pseudactinoceras Schindewolf 1943 S64
    |    |    `--*P. promiscuum Schindewolf 1943 S64
    |    |--Bergoceras Flower 1939 S64
    |    |    `--*B. antelope (deKoninck 1880) [=Cyrtoceras antelope] S64
    |    |--Campyloceras M’Coy 1844 S64
    |    |    `--*C. unguis (Phillips 1836) [=Orthoceras unguis] S64
    |    |--Eusthenoceras Foord 1898 S64
    |    |    `--*E. hulli (deKoninck 1881) [=Cyrtoceras hulli] S64
    |    |--Macroloxoceras Flower 1957 S64
    |    |    `--*M. magnum Flower 1957 S64
    |    `--Paraloxoceras Flower 1939 S64
    |         `--*P. konincki Flower 1939 S64
    |--Cayutoceratinae S64
    |    |--Cayutoceras Flower 1939 S64
    |    |    `--*C. casteri Flower 1939 S64
    |    |--Arpaoceras Zhuravleva 1962 S64
    |    |    `--*A. raphaeli Zhuravleva 1962 S64
    |    |--Bradfordoceras Flower & Caster 1935 S64
    |    |    `--*B. transversum Flower & Caster 1935 S64
    |    |--Buchanoceras Teichert & Glenister 1952 S64
    |    |    `--*B. graviventrum Teichert & Glenister 1952 S64
    |    |--Dnestroceras Zhuravleva 1961 S64
    |    |    `--*D. incertum Zhuravleva 1961 S64
    |    |--Metastromatoceras Zhuravleva 1957 S64
    |    |    `--*M. formosum Zhuravleva 1957 S64
    |    `--Stromatoceras Teichert & Glenister 1953 [=Stromotoceras (l. c.)] S64
    |         `--*S. eximium Teichert & Glenister 1953 S64
    |--Pseudorthoceratinae S64
    |    |--Eifeloceras Foerste 1929 S64
    |    |    `--*E. kayseri Foerste 1929 S64
    |    |--Neocycloceras Flower & Caster 1935 S64
    |    |    `--*N. obliquum Flower & Caster 1935 S64
    |    |--Pseudocyrtoceras Schindewolf 1943 S64
    |    |    `--*P. acus (deKoninck 1880) [=Cyrtoceras acus] S64
    |    |--Simorthoceras Shimanskiy 1954 S64
    |    |    `--*S. gracile Shimanskiy 1954 S64
    |    |--Uralorthoceras Shimanskiy 1951 S64
    |    |    `--*U. tzwetaevae Shimanskiy 1951 S64
    |    |--Pseudorthoceras Girty 1911 S64
    |    |    |--*P. knoxense (McChesney 1859) [=Orthoceras knoxense] S64
    |    |    `--P. seminolense Girty 1911 P68
    |    `--Mooreoceras Miller, Dunbar & Condra 1933 S64
    |         |--*M. normale Miller, Dunbar & Condra 1933 S64
    |         |--M. crebriliratum P68
    |         `--M. giganteum P68
    `--Spyroceratinae [Dolorthoceratinae, Spyroceratidae] S64
         |--Spyroceras S64
         |--Allanoceras Barskov 1959 S64
         |    `--*A. inusitatum Barskov 1959 S64
         |--Anastomoceras Flower 1939 S64
         |    `--*A. mirabile Flower 1939 S64
         |--Cryptorthoceras Flower 1939 S64
         |    `--*C. productum Flower 1939 S64
         |--Cyrtospyroceras Flower 1938 S64
         |    `--*C. reimanni Flower 1938 S64
         |--Diagoceras Flower 1936 S64
         |    `--*D. aptum (Hall 1876) [=Orthoceras aptum] S64
         |--Eridites Zhuravleva 1961 S64
         |    `--*E. astrovae Zhuravleva 1961 S64
         |--Euloxoceras Miller, Dunbar & Condra 1933 S64
         |    `--*E. greenei Miller, Dunbar & Condra 1933 S64
         |--Fusicoceras Flower 1939 S64
         |    `--*F. eriense Flower 1939 S64
         |--Geisonoceroides Flower 1939 S64
         |    `--*G. woodae Flower 1939 S64
         |--Gordonoceras Teichert & Glenister 1953 S64
         |    `--*G. bondi Teichert & Glenister 1953 S64
         |--Lopingoceras Shimanskiy 1962 S64
         |    `--*L. lopingense (Stoyanow 1909) [=Orthoceras lopingense] S64
         |--Mitorthoceras Gordon 1960 S64
         |    `--*M. perfilosum Gordon 1960 S64
         |--Palmeroceras Flower 1936 S64
         |    `--*P. fustis (Hall 1879) [=Orthoceras fustis] S64
         |--Petryoceras Flower 1939 S64
         |    `--*P. thyestes (Hall 1879) [=Orthoceras thyestes] S64
         |--Pseudocycloceras Barskov 1959 S64
         |    `--*P. karanglense Barskov 1959 S64
         |--Shikhanoceras Shimanskiy 1954 S64
         |    `--*S. sphaerophorum Shimanskiy 1954 S64
         |--Tripteroceroides Miller & Furnish 1940 S64
         |    `--*T. knighti Miller & Furnish 1940 S64
         |--Cyrtothoracoceras Turner 1954 S64
         |    |--*C. tuberculatum (M’Coy 1844) [=Cyrtoceras tuberculatum] S64
         |    `--C. wrighti S64
         |--Reticycloceras Gordon 1960 S64
         |    |--*R. croneisi Gordon 1960 S64
         |    `--‘Orthocera sulcata’ Fleming 1815 non Modeer 1797 [=Cycloceras sulcatum] S64
         |--Sceptrites Flower 1939 S64
         |    |--*S. sceptrum (Hall 1888) [=Orthoceras sceptrum] S64
         |    |--S. claviformis Flower 1939 P68
         |    `--S. obliquus Flower 1939 P68
         |--Adnatoceras Flower 1939 [=Adnathoceras (l. c.)] S64
         |    |--*A. spissum (Hall 1879) [=Orthoceras spissum] S64
         |    |--A. alaskense Gordon 1957 P68
         |    |--A. cooperi Flower 1939 P68
         |    `--A. naplense S64
         `--Dolorthoceras Miller 1931 S64
              |--*D. circulare Miller 1931 S64
              |--D. crebriliratum P68
              |--D. exile S64
              |--D. medium Gordon 1957 P68
              |--D. revertum S64
              |--D. sociale TM64
              `--D. solitarium Flower 1939 P68

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[P68] Purnell, L. R. 1968. Catalog of the Type Specimens of Invertebrate Fossils. Part I: Paleozoic Cephalopoda. United States National Museum Bulletin 262: 1-198.

[S64] Sweet, W. C. 1964. Nautiloidea – Orthocerida. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. K. Mollusca 3. Cephalopoda – General Features – Endoceratoidea – Actinoceratoidea – Nautiloidea – Bactritoidea (R. C. Moore, ed.) pp. K216-K261. The Geological Society of America and the University of Kansas Press.

[TM64] Teichert, C., & R. C. Moore. 1964. Introduction. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. K. Mollusca 3. Cephalopoda – General Features – Endoceratoidea – Actinoceratoidea – Nautiloidea – Bactritoidea (R. C. Moore, ed.) pp. K2-K4. The Geological Society of America and the University of Kansas Press.

Thiaridae


The thiarid Melanoides tuberculata, an invasive species in many parts of the world and intermediate host for some medically significant flukes. Photo by Alex Kawazaki.


Belongs within: Cerithioidea.

The Thiaridae are a family of freshwater caenogastropods. In the past, pretty much all lake-dwelling cerithioids have been treated as Thiaridae (or as Melaniidae, an older but invalid name for the same family), but this larger Thiaridae is now regarded as polyphyletic.

Characters (from Strong et al., in press): Midgut with accessory pads large and textured, distal end of crescentic ridge attaching to right side of glandular pad and coiling deeply into caecum, style sac typhlosoles partially fused. Female foot lacking ciliated egg groove; subhaemocoelic brood pouch present; pallial oviduct a nonglandular tube; no sperm gutters in pallial oviduct medial lamina; spermatophore bursa large, comprising most of pallial oviduct. Euspermatozoa with nuclear basal invagination long but well short of apex, nucleus longer than 15 μm. Reproduction gonochoristic or parthenogenetic; embryonic development extra-capsular but within parental body. Haploid chromosome number greater than 20.

<==Thiaridae [Melaniidae]
    |--Pyrgulifera Meek 1871 [Pyrguliferidae] BR05
    |--Pachymelania Smith 1893 [Pachymelaniidae] BR05
    |--Aylacostoma Spix 1827 (see below for synonymy) BR05
    |    |--A. chloroticum Hylton Scott 1954 RGG06
    |    |--A. guaraniticum (Hylton Scott 1951) RGG06
    |    `--A. stigmaticum Hylton Scott 1954 RGG06
    |--Melanoides Olivier 1804 [Melanoididae, Melanoidinae, Melanoidoidea] BR05
    |    |--M. admirabilis M04
    |    |--M. herculea (Gould 1846) (see below for synonymy) TC89
    |    |--M. reevei (see below for synonymy) TC89
    |    |--M. tourannensis [=Melania (Melanoides) tourannensis] TC89
    |    |--M. tuberculata (Müller 1774) RGG06
    |    `--‘Melania’ variabilis TC89
    `--Thiara Röding 1798 (see below for synonymy) BR05
         |  i. s.: ‘Melania’ abbreviata Defrance 1823 F27
         |         ‘Melania’ crenulata F66
         |         ‘Melania’ fasciolata F66
         |         ‘Melania’ lateritia F66
         |--‘Melania’ (Striatella) TC89
         |    |--‘Melania’ (S.) pyramis TC89
         |    `--‘Melania’ (S.) tuberculata [=Nerita tuberculata] TC89
         `--‘Melania’ (Tarebia) lirata Benson 1836 [incl. M. flavida, Helix lineata, M. semigranosa] TC89

Nomen nudum: Aylacostoma cingulatum Hylton Scott in Rumi, Gutiérrez Gregoric et al. 2006 RGG06

Aylacostoma Spix 1827 [incl. Hemisinus Swainson 1840, Semisinus Fischer 1885; Aylacostomatinae, Hemisininae, Hemisinuinae, Hemisinuseae, Semisinusinae] BR05

Melanoides herculea (Gould 1846) [=Melania (Melanoides) herculea; incl. Melania indica, Melania herculea var. sowerbyi, Melania varicosa] TC89

Melanoides reevei [=Melania (Melanoides) reevei; incl. Melania (M.) reevei var. imbricata, Melania (M.) reevei var. regularis Tapparone Canefri 1889] TC89

Thiara Röding 1798 [=Melania Lamarck 1799; Melaniacea, Melaniana, Melanianae, Thiareae, Thiarinae, Tiarinae] BR05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR05] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, J. Frýda, B. Hausdorf, W. Ponder, Á. Valdés & A. Warén. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1-397.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488-533.

[F66] Fraser, L. 1866. Communication of a list of mollusks collected by R. Swinhoe, Esq., in Formosa. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 146.

[M04] Michel, E. 2004. Vinundu, a new genus of gastropod (Cerithioidea: ‘Thiaridae’) with two species of Lake Tanganyika, East Africa, and its molecular phylogenetic relationships. Journal of Molluscan Studies 70: 1-19.

[RGG06] Rumi, A., D. E. Gutiérrez Gregoric, V. Núñez, I. I. César, M. A. Roche, M. P. Tassara, S. M. Martín & M. F. López Armengol. 2006. Freshwater Gastropoda from Argentina: species richness, distribution patterns, and an evaluation of endangered species. Malacologia 49 (1): 189-208.

Strong, E. E., D. J. Colgan, J. M. Healy, C. Lydeard, W. F. Ponder & M. Glaubrecht. in press. Phylogeny of the gastropod superfamily Cerithioidea using morphology and molecules. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society.

[TC89] Tapparone Canefri, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XVIII. – Molluschi terrestri e d'acqua dolce. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 295-359.

Sactorthoceratidae


Various views of the ascocerid Choanoceras mutabile, possibly the most obscene cephalopod ever. Figure from Furnish & Glenister (1964).


Belongs within: Michelinoceratida.

The Middle Ordovician to Upper Silurian sactorthoceratid lineage includes the paraphyletic Sactorthoceratidae, Clinoceratidae and Ascocerida. The Sactorthoceratidae and Clinoceratidae were orthoconic or cyrtoconic longicones without endosiphuncular or cameral deposits (Sweet 1964). Septal necks were orthochoanitic or suborthochoanitic in Sactorthoceratidae and Ascocerida, cyrtochoanitic in Clinoceratidae (Furnish & Glenister 1964, Sweet 1964). Ascocerids were distinguished by inflated siphuncles and the periodic shedding of the apical parts of the conch; in the Ascoceratidae, the adoral portion of the conch became greatly swollen, followed by shedding of the juvenile section of the conch to produce a breviconic adult form (Furnish & Glenister 1964).

See also: The floating egg.

<==Sactorthoceratidae
    |--Sactorthoceras Kobayashi 1934 [incl. Sigmorthoceras Kobayashi 1934] S64
    |    `--*S. gonioseptum Kobayashi 1934 S64
    |--Sigmocycloceras Kobayashi 1934 S64
    |    `--*S. kogenense (Kobayashi 1927) [=Protocycloceras kogenense] S64
    `--+--Centroonoceras Kobayashi 1934 [incl. Cyrtoonoceras Flower 1939] S64
       |    `--*C. tokunagai (Kobayashi 1927) [=Ooceras tokunagai] S64
       `--+--Clinoceratidae S64
          |    |--Whiteavesites Foerste 1929 S64
          |    |    `--*W. winnipegense (Whiteaves 1892) [=Orthoceras winnipegense] S64
          |    |--Clinoceras Mascke 1876 [=Clynoceras (l. c.)] S64
          |    |    |--*C. dens Mascke 1876 S64
          |    |    `--C. exiguum P68
          |    `--Whitfieldoceras Foerste 1932 S64
          |         |--*W. mumiaeforme (Whitfield 1882) [=Oncoceras mumiaeforme] S64
          |         |--W. baffinense Foerste 1932 P68
          |         |--W. minimum Foerste 1935 P68
          |         `--W. trentonense Foerste 1932 P68
          `--Ascocerida [Ascoceracea, Ascoceratina, Ascoceratida, Ecdyceratida, Mixochoanites] S64
               |--Choanoceras Lindström 1890 (see below for synonymy) FG64
               |    `--*C. mutabile Lindström 1890 FG64
               |--Hebetoceratidae FG64
               |    |--Hebetoceras Flower 1941 FG64
               |    |    `--*H. mirandum Flower 1941 FG64
               |    |--Ecdyceras Flower 1941 [incl. Pachecdyceras Flower 1947] FG64
               |    |    `--*E. sinuiferum Flower 1941 FG64
               |    `--Montyoceras Flower 1941 FG64
               |         `--*M. arcuatum Flower 1941 FG64
               `--Ascoceratidae [Ascocératides] FG64
                    |--Probillingsitinae FG64
                    |    |--Shamattawaceras Foerste & Savage 1927 FG64
                    |    |    `--*S. ascoceroides Foerste & Savage 1927 FG64
                    |    `--Probillingsites Foerste 1928 FG64
                    |         |--*P. welleri Foerste 1928 FG64
                    |         |--P. belli Miller, Youngquist & Collinson 1954 P68
                    |         |--P. milleri Foerste 1935 P68
                    |         |--P. pronis FG64
                    |         `--P. sutherlandi FG64
                    `--Ascoceratinae [Schuchertoceratidae] FG64
                         |--Aphragmites Barrande 1865 FG64
                         |    `--*A. buchi (Barrande 1855) [=Ascoceras buchi] FG64
                         |--Lindstroemoceras Miller 1932 FG64
                         |    `--*L. dolium (Lindström 1890) [=Ascoceras dolium] FG64
                         |--Glossoceras Barrande 1865 FG64
                         |    |--*G. gracile (Barrande 1865) [=Ascoceras (*Glossoceras) gracile] FG64
                         |    `--G. lindstroemi FG64
                         |--Billingsites Hyatt 1884 [=Billingoceras (l. c.)] FG64
                         |    |--*B. canadensis (Billings 1857) [=Ascoceras canadense] FG64
                         |    |--B. landerensis Foerste 1835 P68
                         |    `--B. williamsportensis Foerste 1924 P68
                         |--Schuchertoceras Miller 1932 FG64
                         |    |--*S. anticostiense (Billings 1866) [=Ascoceras anticostiense] FG64
                         |    |--S. newberryi FG64
                         |    `--S. thomasi [=S. iowaense] FG64
                         |--Ascoceras Barrande 1847 (see below for synonymy) FG64
                         |    |--*A. bohemicum Barrande 1855 FG64
                         |    |--A. collare FG64
                         |    |--A. lagena FG64
                         |    `--A. manubrium FG64
                         `--Parascoceras Miller 1932 [incl. Pseudascoceras Miller 1932, Pseudoscoceras (l. c.)] FG64
                              |--*P. fistula (Lindström 1890) [=Ascoceras fistula] FG64
                              |--P. decipiens FG64
                              |--P. pupa FG64
                              `--P. sipho FG64

Ascoceras Barrande 1847 [=Asoceras (l. c.), Cryptoceras Barrande 1846 (n. n.) non Latreille 1804] FG64

Choanoceras Lindström 1890 [=Choaniceras Lindström 1888 (n. n.), Choniceras (l. c.), Coanoceras (l. c.); Choanoceratidae] FG64

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[FG64] Furnish, W. M., & B. F. Glenister. 1964. Nautiloidea – Ascocerida. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. K. Mollusca 3. Cephalopoda – General Features – Endoceratoidea – Actinoceratoidea – Nautiloidea – Bactritoidea (R. C. Moore, ed.) pp. K261-K277. The Geological Society of America and the University of Kansas Press.

[P68] Purnell, L. R. 1968. Catalog of the Type Specimens of Invertebrate Fossils. Part I: Paleozoic Cephalopoda. United States National Museum Bulletin 262: 1-198.

[S64] Sweet, W. C. 1964. Nautiloidea – Orthocerida. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. K. Mollusca 3. Cephalopoda – General Features – Endoceratoidea – Actinoceratoidea – Nautiloidea – Bactritoidea (R. C. Moore, ed.) pp. K216-K261. The Geological Society of America and the University of Kansas Press.

Michelinoceratida


Specimen of Dawsonoceras annulatum, from here.


Belongs within: Cephalopoda.
Contains: Pseudorthoceratidae, Proteoceratidae, Troedssonellidae, Sactorthoceratidae, Orthoceratidae, Paraphragmitidae, Geisonoceratidae.

The Michelinoceratida or Orthocerida were a Lower Ordovician to Upper Triassic assemblage of orthoconic or cyrtoconic cephalopods. This is perhaps the most systematically difficult group of fossil cephalopods and may be polyphyletic, with recent authors suggesting that some families (particularly the Pseudorthoceratidae) should be removed from the order.

Characters (from Sweet 1964): Conchs straight to curved (never coiled), smooth or elaborately ornamented; cameral deposits typically well developed; siphuncles with orthochoanitic or secondarily cyrtochoanitic septal necks and thin connecting rings, empty or occupied by parietal or annulosiphonate deposits.

<==Michelinoceratida (see below for synonymy)
    |--Pseudorthocerataceae S64
    |    |--Pseudorthoceratidae S64
    |    |--Proteoceratidae S64
    |    |--Mysterioceras Teichert & Glenister 1953 [Mysterioceratidae] S64
    |    |    `--*M. australe Teichert & Glenister 1953 S64
    |    `--Stereoplasmoceras Grabau 1922 [incl. Stereoplasmocerina Kobayashi 1936; Stereoplasmoceratidae] S64
    |         |--*S. pseudoseptatum Grabau 1922 S64
    |         |--S. approximatum S64
    |         |--S. liaotungense D82
    |         |--S. longicameratum S64
    |         `--S. tofangoense S64
    `--Orthocerataceae [Orthocerocea, Orthocerotoidea] S64
         |  i. s.: Sphooceras Flower 1962 [Sphooceratidae] S64
         |           `--*S. truncatum (Barrande 1868) [=Orthoceras truncatum] S64
         |         Brachycycloceras Miller, Dunbar & Condra 1933 [Brachycycloceratidae] S64
         |           |--*B. normale Miller, Dunbar & Condra 1933 S64
         |           |--B. bransoni S64
         |           `--B. curtum S64
         |         Troedssonellidae S64
         |         Dawsonoceratidae S64
         |           |--Dawsonocerina Horný 1956 S64
         |           |    `--*D. omega (Barrande 1868) [=Orthoceras dulce var. omega] S64
         |           `--Dawsonoceras Hyatt 1884 [incl. Cedarvilleoceras Shimizu & Obata 1935] S64
         |                |--*D. annulatum (Sowerby 1818) [=Orthocera annulata] S64
         |                |--D. americanum P68
         |                |--D. hammelli (Foerste 1910) [=Orthoceras (Dawsonoceras) hammelli] P68
         |                |--D. nodocostatum P68
         |                `--D. perelegans [=Orthoceras (Dawsonoceras) perelegans] P68
         |         Offleyoceras Foerste 1928 [Offleyoceratidae] S64
         |           `--*O. arcticum (Foord 1888) [=Orthoceras arcticum] S64
         |--Sactorthoceratidae S64
         `--+--Orthoceratidae S64
            |--Paraphragmitidae S64
            |--Geisonoceratidae S64
            `--Lamellorthoceratidae S64
                 |--Gorgonoceras Zhuravleva 1961 S64
                 |    `--*G. visendum Zhuravleva 1961 S64
                 |--Lamellorthoceras Termier & Termier 1950 (see below for synonymy) S64
                 |    |--*L. vermiculare Termier & Termier 1950 S64
                 |    `--L. gracile S64
                 `--Arthrophyllum Beyrich 1850 S64
                      |--*A. crassum (Roemer 1843) [=Orthoceratites crassus] S64
                      `--A. kahlebergense S64

Michelinoceratida incertae sedis:
  Chicagooceras Foerste & Savage 1927 S64
    `--*C. welleri Foerste & Savage 1927 S64
  Cycloceras M’Coy 1844 [=Cycoceras (l. c.); incl. Perigrammoceras Foerste 1924; Cycloceratidae] S64
    |--*C. annulare (Fleming 1815) [=Orthocera annularis] S64
    |--C. amycus [=Orthoceras (Cycloceras) amycus] P68
    |--C. annulatum [=Orthoceras (Cycloceras) annulatum] P68
    |--C. aokii Endo 1932 P68
    |--C. austini Foerste 1928 P68
    |--C. ballianum Girty 1909 P68
    |--C. inceptum P68
    |--C. junciforme Foerste 1928 P68
    |--C. laevigatum (Foord 1897) [=Orthoceras laevigatum, *Perigrammoceras laevigatum] S64
    |--C. louderbacki Endo 1932 P68
    |--C. manchuriense Endo 1932 P68
    |--C. marginale Endo 1932 P68
    |--C. novacarlislensis (Foerste 1890) [=Orthoceras (Cycloceras) novacarlislensis] P68
    |--C. peitoutzense P68
    `--C. shensiense Endo 1932 P68
  Dictyoceras Eichwald 1860 S64
    `--*D. porosum (Eichwald 1857) [=Orthoceras porosum] S64
  Donacoceras Foerste 1925 S64
    `--*D. timiskamingense Foerste 1925 S64
  Garryoceras Foerste 1928 S64
    `--*G. semiplanatum (Whiteaves 1892) [=Orthoceras semiplanatum] S64
  Heloceras Eichwald 1860 S64
    `--*H. tuberculatum Eichwald 1860 S64
  Loxoceras M’Coy 1844 [=Breynioceras Foerste 1929; Loxoceratidae] S64
    |--*L. breyni (Fleming 1828) [=Orthocera breyni, *Breynioceras breyni] S64
    |--L. husseyi Foerste 1923 P68
    `--L. milleri (Foerste 1910) [=Orthoceras (Loxoceras) milleri] P68
  ‘Molossus’ deMontfort 1808 non Geoffroy 1805 S64
    `--*M. gracilis (Blumenbach 1803) [=Orthoceratites gracilis] S64
  Neorthoceras Shimizu & Obata 1936 S64
    `--*N. verbeeki (Haniel 1915) [=Orthoceras verbeeki] S64
  Protobactrites Hyatt in Zittel 1900 [=Protobactolites (l. c.)] S64
    `--*P. styloideum (Barrande 1866) [=Orthoceras styloideum] S64
  Sannionites Fischer de Waldheim 1829 S64
    `--*S. crepitaculum Fischer de Waldheim 1829 S64
  Subspyroceras Shimizu & Obata 1935 S64
    `--*S. middlevillense (Foerste 1928) [=Spyroceras middlevillense] S64
  Tienoceras Chao 1954 S64
    `--*T. lenticulare Chao 1954 S64
  Tretoceras Salter 1858 [=Diploceras Salter 1856 non Conrad 1842, Tritoceras (l. c.)] S64
    `--*T. bisiphonatum (Sowerby in Murchison 1839) (see below for synonymy) S64

Lamellorthoceras Termier & Termier 1950 [=Lamelloceras (l. c.); incl. Coralloceras Zhuravleva 1962] S64

Michelinoceratida [Michelinoceratina, Michelinoceroida, Orthoceracea, Orthoceratida, Orthocerida, Orthocerotida, Sinoceratida]

*Tretoceras bisiphonatum (Sowerby in Murchison 1839) [=Orthoceras bisiphonatum, *Diploceras bisiphonatum] S64

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D82] Dong D.-Y. 1982. Lower Ordovician stromatoporoids of northern Anhui. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 21 (5): 577-583.

[P68] Purnell, L. R. 1968. Catalog of the Type Specimens of Invertebrate Fossils. Part I: Paleozoic Cephalopoda. United States National Museum Bulletin 262: 1-198.

[S64] Sweet, W. C. 1964. Nautiloidea – Orthocerida. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. K. Mollusca 3. Cephalopoda – General Features – Endoceratoidea – Actinoceratoidea – Nautiloidea – Bactritoidea (R. C. Moore, ed.) pp. K216-K261. The Geological Society of America and the University of Kansas Press.

Baltoceratidae


Ventral, dorsal and septal views of Murrayoceras murrayi. Figures from Furnish & Glenister (1964).


Belongs within: Cephalopoda.

The Lower to Middle Ordovician Baltoceratidae were a family of relatively large orthoconic early cephalopods.

Characters (from Furnish & Glenister 1964): Smooth, longiconic orthocones with moderately large marginal siphuncle, orthochoanitic septal necks and thin homogenous connecting rings.

<==Baltoceratidae [Cochlioceratidae]
    |--Bactroceras Holm 1898 FG64
    |    `--*B. avus Holm 1898 FG64
    |--Murrayoceras Foerste 1926 FG64
    |    `--*M. murrayi (Billings 1857) [=Orthoceras murrayi] FG64
    |--Ogygoceras Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1944 FG64
    |    `--*O. gracile Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1944 FG64
    |--Cochlioceras Eichwald 1860 [incl. Baltoceras Holm 1897, Protobaltoceras Troedsson 1937] FG64
    |    |--*C. avus (Eichwald 1857) [=Orthoceras avus] FG64
    |    `--C. burchardii FG64 [=Baltoceras burchardi S64]
    `--Pachendoceras Ulrich & Foerste 1936 FG64
         |--*P. huzzahense (Ulrich & Foerste in Bridge 1931) [=Cameroceras huzzahense] FG64
         |--P. confertum Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1944 P68
         |--P. newportense Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1944 P68
         `--P. tardum Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1944 P68

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[FG64] Furnish, W. M., & B. F. Glenister. 1964. Nautiloidea - Ellesmerocerida. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. K. Mollusca 3. Cephalopoda – General Features – Endoceratoidea – Actinoceratoidea – Nautiloidea – Bactritoidea (R. C. Moore, ed.) pp. K129-K159. The Geological Society of America and the University of Kansas Press.

[P68] Purnell, L. R. 1968. Catalog of the Type Specimens of Invertebrate Fossils. Part I: Paleozoic Cephalopoda. United States National Museum Bulletin 262: 1-198.

[S64] Sweet, W. C. 1964. Nautiloidea – Orthocerida. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. K. Mollusca 3. Cephalopoda – General Features – Endoceratoidea – Actinoceratoidea – Nautiloidea – Bactritoidea (R. C. Moore, ed.) pp. K216-K261. The Geological Society of America and the University of Kansas Press.

Cephalopoda

Cross-section of Archendoceras conipartitum, from Holland (1987).


Belongs within: Mollusca.
Contains: Hadrocheilus, Plectronoceratidae, Multiceratoidea, Baltoceratidae, Angusteradulata, Barrandeocerida, Nautilida.

The Cephalopoda are a class of molluscs first known from the Late Cambrian; among modern taxa, cephalopods include the shelled Nautilidae and the Coleoidea (squids, cuttlefish, octopods) that lack an external shell. Traditionally, the cephalopods have been divided between three subclasses, the Nautiloidea, Ammonoidea and Coleoidea, but the Nautiloidea in the broad sense are paraphyletic with regard to the other two groups.

The earliest cephalopods are known from the Upper Cambrian and had straight to slightly curved shells with tightly packed septa; these stem representatives may not yet have adopted the nektonic lifestyles of crown cephalopods. An alternative structure for cephalopod evolution was proposed by Smith & Caron (2010), who interpreted the Early to Middle Cambrian Nectocarididae as early cephalopods and suggested that the first cephalopods may have lacked a shell (see links below for comments on why this may be unlikely).

See also: How to be straight; Open query—what are cephalopod shells for?; Nectocaris: largely irrelevant to cephalopods?; So nice when people agree with you.

Characters (from Sweet 1964): Ancestrally with a shell divided into chambers by transverse septa; chambers connected by a tubular siphuncle piercing the septa; shell originally conical and more or less straight but becoming elongate and coiled in many lineages. In those species for which soft anatomy is known, body is elongate with an anterior head and posterior ventral mass; mouth with a parrot-like beak and surrounded by an array of tentacles or arms; ancestral molluscan foot modified into a muscular hyponome (siphon) used to eject water from the mantle cavity and so provide propulsion. Digestive system looped so that mouth and anus are both more or less anterior.

<==Cephalopoda [Ellesmerocerida, Ellipochoanoida, Microchoanites, Nautiloidea, Octopodia, Tetrabranchiata]
    |--Protactinoceras [Protactinoceratida] H87
    |    `--P. magnitubulum H87
    |--+--Archendoceras [Yanhecerida] H87
    |  |    `--A. conipartitum H87
    |  `--Plectronoceratida H87
    |       |  i. s.: Lunanoceras precordium H87
    |       `--Plectronoceratidae H87
    `--+--Multiceratoidea M13
       `--+--Baltoceratidae STK64
          `--+--Angusteradulata STK64
             `--+--Barrandeocerida KVF11
                `--Nautilida KVF11

Cephalopoda incertae sedis:
  Pseudogrammoceras DC01
  Esericeras DC01
  Pleydellia subcompta DC01
  Phoenixites frechi GR97
  Holzapfeloceras D02
    |--*H. convolutum (Holzapfel 1895) D02
    `--H. croyi House 1978 D02
  Werneroceras D02
  Gomiprotomeroceras (nom. inv.) D02
    `--G. acutum Sobolew 1914 D02
  Wedekindella brilonensis (Kayser 1872) D02
  Pseudoprobeloceras polonicum (Sobolew 1914) D02
  Archoceras D02
    |--A. tataense Bensaïd 1974 D02
    `--A. varicosum (Drevermann 1901) D02
  Acanthoclymenia genundewa (Clarke 1898) D02
  Linguatornoceras [incl. Truyolsoceras] D02
    |--L. clausum (Glenister 1958) D02
    |--L. compressum (Clarke 1899) D02
    `--‘Truyolsoceras’ undulatum (Sandberger & Sandberger 1856) D02
  Crassotornoceras belgicum (Matern 1931) D02
  Siemiradzkia P87
  Parachondroceras filicostatum Imlay 1967 P87
  Talkeetnites Imlay 1980 P87
  Longaeviceras P87
  Chamoussetia P87
  Xenocephalites [incl. Cadoceras (Oligocadoceras Meledina 1977)] P87
    |--‘Arcticoceras’ crassicostatum P87
    `--‘Arcticoceras’ loveanum P87
  Goniocamax lundgreni S98
  Talenticeras TC71
  Mimosphinctes TC71
  Miklukhoceras pamiricum Pavlov 1967 ZL04
  Schreyerites binodosus (Hauer 1851) SC04
  Paraceratites SC04
    |--P. binodosus Ku79
    |--P. brembanus (Mojsisovics 1882) SC04
    `--P. trinodosus (Mojsisovics 1882) SC04
  Synpharciceras clavilobum (Sandberger & Sandberger 1850) KK02
  Acrimeroceras falcisulcatum Becker 1993 KK02
  Clistoceras globosum Nassichuk 1967 KK02
  Nathorstites maconnelli (Whiteaves 1889) KK02
  Mayaites (Araucanites) stipanicici Westermann & Riccardi 1975 KK02
  Hibolithes E01
    |--H. catlinensis E01
    |--H. joleaudi Ka79
    `--H. pistilliformis Ka79
  Hedstroemoceras Foerste 1930 T64
    `--*H. haelluddenense Foerste 1930 T64
  Rhyncolite Biguet 1819 (see below for synonymy) TMNZ64
    |--*R. hirundo Biguet 1819 [=*Rhombocheilus hirundo, *Rhyncholithes hirundo] TMNZ64
    |--‘Rhyncholitus’ (l. c.) duplicatus Münster 1829 TMNZ64
    |--‘Rhyncolites’ gigantea d’Orbigny 1825 [=*Longocapuchones gigantea, Rhyncholithes giganteus] TMNZ64
    |--R. larus Biguet 1819 TMNZ64
    `--R. mouette Biguet 1819 TMNZ64
  Conchorhynchus de Blainville 1827 [=Conchorchynchus (l. c.), Onchorhynchus (l. c.)] TMNZ64
    `--C. avirostris (von Schlotheim 1820) (see below for synonymy) TMNZ64
  Tillicheilus Shimanskiy 1947 [incl. Unguibeccus Shimanskiy 1949 (n. n.)] TMNZ64
    |--*T. obtusus (Till 1906) [=Rhyncholithes obtusus] TMNZ64
    `--T. sella TMNZ64
  Rhynchoteuthis d’Orbigny 1847 [=Rhynchotenthis (l. c.), Rhynchotheutis Till 1906] TMNZ64
    |--*R. astierianus d’Orbigny 1847 TMNZ64
    |--R. kaibabensis TMNZ64
    `--R. sonii TMNZ64
  Hadrocheilus TMNZ64
  Palaeoteuthis d’Orbigny 1849 [=Palaeotheutis Till 1906] TMNZ64
    `--*P. honoratianus d’Orbigny 1850 TMNZ64
  Scaptorrhynchus Bellardi 1871 [=Scaptorhynchus (l. c.)] TMNZ64
    `--*S. miocenicus Bellardi 1873 TMNZ64
  Leptocheilus Till 1907 TMNZ64
    |--L. (Leptocheilus) TMNZ64
    |    |--*L. (L.) geyeri Till 1907 TMNZ64
    |    `--L. (L.) excavatus TMNZ64
    `--L. (Mesocheilus Till 1909) TMNZ64
         `--L. (*M.) proceroides (Till 1909) [=*Mesocheilus proceroides] TMNZ64
  Akidocheilus Till 1907 TMNZ64
    |--A. (Akidocheilus) TMNZ64
    |    |--*A. (A.) ambiguus Till 1907 TMNZ64
    |    `--A. (A.) tauricus TMNZ64
    `--A. (Planecarpula Shimanskiy 1947) TMNZ64
         `--A. (*P.) infirus Shimanskiy 1947 TMNZ64
  Gonatocheilus Till 1907 TMNZ64
    `--*G. brunneri (Ooster 1857) [=Rhynchoteuthis brunneri] TMNZ64
  Erlangericheilus Shimanskiy 1947 TMNZ64
    `--*E. insignis Shimanskiy 1947 TMNZ64
  Neptunoceratidae T64
    |--Neptunoceras Shimanskiy 1949 T64
    |    `--*N. sakmarense Shimanskiy 1949 T64
    `--Tetrapleuroceras Shimanskiy 1949 T64
         `--*T. karpinskyi Shimanskiy 1949 T64
  Dartoceras Foerste 1936 T64
    `--*D. nodosum Foerste 1936 T64
  Achelois de Montfort 1808 (n. d.) T64
    `--*A. pyramidatum de Montfort 1808 (n. d.) T64
  Amblyceras Glockner 1842 (n. d.) T64
    `--*A. rittbergense Glockner 1842 (n. d.) T64
  Bisiphites de Montfort 1808 (n. d.) T64
  Curvites Petter 1959 (n. d.) T64
  Deltoceras Hyatt 1894 (n. d.) T64
    `--*D. planum Hyatt 1894 (n. d.) T64
  Diadiploceras Hyatt 1884 (n. d.) T64
    `--D. inopinatum [=Discoceras inopinatum] H84
  Gyrocerus King 1844 (n. d.) T64
  Koleoceras Portlock 1843 (n. d.) [=Coleoceras (l. c.)] T64
  Nautilites Pallas 1771 (n. d.) T64
    `--*N. complanatus Pallas 1771 (n. d.) T64
  Oceanus de Montfort 1808 (n. d.) T64
    `--*O. flammeus de Montfort (n. d.) T64
  Parksoceras Foerste & Savage 1927 (n. d.) T64
    `--*P. lepidodendroides (Parks 1915) [=Orthoceras (Thoracoceras) lepidodendroides] T64
  Pteronautilus Meek in Meek & Hayden 1865 (n. d.) T64
    `--*P. seebachianus (Geinitz 1861) (n. d.) [=Nautilus seebachianus] T64
  Schoulgoceras Shimanskiy 1951 (n. d.) T64
  Ungeroceras Sturgeon & Miller 1948 (n. d.) T64
    `--*U. ungeri Sturgeon & Miller 1948 (n. d.) T64
  Gasconoceras P68
    |--G. obesum Foerste 1936 P68
    `--G. planiventrum Foerste 1936 P68
  ‘Rhenopterus’ maccarthyi (Kjellesvig-Waering 1934) TB04
  Aulacosphinctes H79
    |--A. hollandi H79
    `--A. reedi SY85
  Micracanthoceras micracanthus H79
  Nectocarididae SC10
    |--Nectocaris Conway Morris 1976 EL11, W96
    |    `--N. pteryx Conway Morris 1976 D95
    |--Petalilium [=Petalium (l. c.)] SC10
    |    `--P. latus SC10
    `--Vetustovermis planus SC10
  Loxendoceras Collins 1967 EK12
  Paradakeoceras minor Flower 1964 EK12

Nomen nudum: Diadiploceras quadratum Hyatt 1883 H84

Conchorhynchus avirostris (von Schlotheim 1820) [=Lepadites avirostris; incl. *C. ornatus de Blainville 1827, Rhyncolites gaillardoti d’Orbigny 1825, Rhyncholites gaillardoti, Sepia gaillardoti] TMNZ64
Rhyncolite Biguet 1819 [=Nautilorhynchus Frič 1910, Rhombocheilus Shimanskiy 1947, Rhyncholites Zieten 1830, Rhyncholithes de Blainville 1827, Rhyncholithus Bronn 1853, Rhyncholitus (l. c.), Rhyncolites d’Orbigny 1825, Rhyncholythes (l. c.); incl. Longocapuchones Shimanskiy 1947] TMNZ64

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[DC01] Delsate, D., & L. Candoni. 2001. Description de nouveaux morphotypes dentaires de Batomorphii toarciens (Jurassique inférieur) du Bassin de Paris: Archaeobatidae nov. fam. Bull. Soc. Nat. Luxemb. 102: 131–143.

[D95] Dzik, J. 1995. Yunnanozoon and the ancestry of chordates. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 40: 341–360.

[D02] Dzik, J. 2002. Emergence and collapse of the Frasnian conodont and ammonoid communities in the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 47: 565–650.

[E01] Eagle, M. K. 2001. A new species of Cottreauaster (Asteroidea: Echinodermata) from the Middle Jurassic of New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 93–100.

[EL11] Erwin, D. H., M. Laflamme, S. M. Tweedt, E. A. Sperling, D. Pisani & K. J. Peterson. 2011. The Cambrian conundrum: early divergence and later ecological success in the early history of animals. Science 334: 1091–1097.

[EK12] Evans, D. H., & A. H. King. 2012. Resolving polyphyly within the Endocerida: the Bisonocerida nov., a new order of early Palaeozoic nautiloids. Geobios 45 (1): 19–28.

[GR97] Girard, C., E. Robin, R. Rocchia, L. Froget & R. Feist. 1997. Search for impact remains at the Frasnian-Famennian boundary in the stratotype area, southern France. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 132: 391–397.

[H79] Hölder, H. 1979. Jurassic. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A390–A417. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[H87] Holland, C. H. 1987. The nautiloid cephalopods: a strange success story. Journal of the Geological Society 144 (1): 1–15.

[H84] Hyatt, A. 1883–1884. Genera of fossil cephalopods. Boston Soc. Nat. History, Proc. 22: 253–338.

[Ka79] Kauffman, E. G. 1979. Cretaceous. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A418–A487. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[KVF11] Kröger, B., J. Vinther & D. Fuchs. 2011. Cephalopod origin and evolution: a congruent picture emerging from fossils, development and molecules. Bioessays 33: 602–613.

[KK02] Klug, C., & D. Korn. 2002. Occluded umbilicus in the Pinacitinae (Devonian) and its palaeoecological implications. Palaeontology 45 (5): 917–931.

[Ku79] Kummel, B. 1979. Triassic. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A351–A389. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[M13] Mutvei, H. 2013. Characterization of nautiloid orders Ellesmerocerida, Oncocerida, Tarphycerida, Discosorida and Ascocerida: new superorder Multiceratoidea. GFF 135 (2): 171–183.

[P87] Poulton, T. P. 1987. Zonation and correlation of Middle Boreal Bathonian to Lower Callovian (Jurassic) ammonites, Salmon Cache Canyon, Porcupine River, northern Yukon. Geological Survey of Canada—Bulletin 358: 1–155.

[P68] Purnell, L. R. 1968. Catalog of the type specimens of invertebrate fossils. Part I: Paleozoic Cephalopoda. United States National Museum Bulletin 262: 1–198.

[SY85] Sha J.-G. & Yuan F.-S. 1985. Buchia fauna from Dong’anzhen Formation near Dong’an of Raohe County, Heilongjiang. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 24 (6): 651–662.

[SC10] Smith, M. R. & J.-B. Caron. 2010. Primitive soft-bodied cephalopods from the Cambrian. Nature 465: 469–472.

[S98] Spaeth, C. 1998. Cretaceous cephalopods. Lethaia 31: 28.

[SC04] Stiller, F., & Chen J. 2004. Eophilobryoidella sinoanisica new genus and species, an early philobryid bivalve from the Upper Anisian (Middle Triassic) of Qingyan, southwestern China. Journal of Paleontology 78 (2): 418–419.

Sweet, W. C. 1964. Cephalopoda—general features. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt K. Mollusca 3. Cephalopoda—General Features—Endoceratoidea—Actinoceratoidea—Nautiloidea—Bactritoidea pp. K4–K13. The Geological Society of America and the University of Kansas Press.

[STK64] Sweet, W. C., C. Teichert & B. Kummel. 1964. Phylogeny and evolution. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt K. Mollusca 3. Cephalopoda—General Features—Endoceratoidea—Actinoceratoidea—Nautiloidea—Bactritoidea pp. K106–K114. The Geological Society of America and the University of Kansas Press.

[T64] Teichert, C. 1964. Doubtful taxa. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt K. Mollusca 3. Cephalopoda—General Features—Endoceratoidea—Actinoceratoidea—Nautiloidea—Bactritoidea pp. K484–K490. The Geological Society of America and the University of Kansas Press.

[TMNZ64] Teichert, C., R. C. Moore & D. E. Nodine Zeller. 1964. Rhyncholites. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt K. Mollusca 3. Cephalopoda—General Features—Endoceratoidea—Actinoceratoidea—Nautiloidea—Bactritoidea pp. K467–K484. The Geological Society of America and the University of Kansas Press.

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[TC71] Thomson, K. S., & K. S. W. Campbell. 1971. The structure and relationships of the primitive Devonian lungfish—Dipnorhynchus sussmilchi (Etheridge). Yale University Peabody Museum of Natural History Bulletin 38: 1–109.

[W96] Waggoner, B. M. 1996. Phylogenetic hypotheses of the relationships of arthropods to Precambrian and Cambrian problematic fossil taxa. Systematic Biology 45 (2): 190–222.

[ZL04] Zhou, Z., & M. Liengjarern. 2004. Lower Permian perrinitid ammonoid faunas from Thailand. Journal of Paleontology 78: 317–339.

Animalia

Trichoplax adhaerens, copyright Ana Signorovitch.


Belongs within: Opisthokonta.
Contains: Stromatoporoidea, Archaeocyatha, Coleoloidae, Cornulitidae, Homoscleromorpha, Calcispongia, Hexactinellida, Demospongiae, Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Bilateria.

The Animalia are united as ancestrally multicellular and phagotrophic with collagenous connective tissue uniting two dissimilar epithelia (Cavalier-Smith 1998), though some of these features have been lost in derived parasitic forms such as Myxozoa. Relationships of the major subdivisions of animals (Calcispongia, Hyalospongiae, Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Bilateria) remain contentious: classic morphology has favoured a basal, possibly paraphyletic position for sponge-grade taxa (Silicispongea, Calcispongia and Homoscleromorpha) relative to a monophyletic tissue-grade clade (Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Bilateria). Conversely, some recent molecular studies have suggested that sponge-grade animals may be derived from tissue-grade ancestors (e.g. Dunn et al. 2008). Also lacking tissue structure is the small, flat, amorphous marine animal Trichoplax adhaerens, which moves by means of cilia on the cell surfaces and feeds on microscopic algae by lifting the body to form a ventral cavity into which digestive enzymes are released. A sister relationship between the Cnidaria and Bilateria is more generally accepted; the resulting clade has been dubbed the Planulozoa, in reference to the planula-like larvae of some cnidarians and basal bilaterians that may represent an ancestral feature of the clade.

Sponges (Porifera) possess a radially symmetrical or asymmetrical body organised around a system of water-conducting canals and chambers, with flagellate cells capturing food particles from the water as it passes through the chambers. The sponge body is commonly reinforced by spicules, which may be calcareous (Calcarea) or siliceous (Silicispongea). In the Silicispongea, spicules are formed around an intracellularly secreted axial organic filament, and include distinct skeletal megascleres and reinforcing microscleres (Botting & Butterfield 2005). A number of extinct groups such as Stromatoporoidea and Archaeocyatha are generally believed to represent sponge-grade taxa of uncertain relationships to modern species.

The phylogenetic relationships of a number of other fossil animal groups are also unknown. The Salterellidae are a group of Early Cambrian fossils with a conical integument of calcium carbonate, closed at one end, the interior of which is partially filled with grains agglutinated into laminae separated by thin sheets of carbonate (Yochelson & Kisselev 2003). The Suvorovellidae are calcareous fossils from the uppermost Precambrian with double-walled, saucer-shaped or irregularly discoidal skeletons lacking structural elements between the walls (Glaessner 1979).

See also: Is it a sponge, or is it a plant?; More little tubes—not just tons but tonnes; Scleritome week: A mystery ending.

Animalia (see below for synonymy)
    |--Porifera CV16
    |    |  i. s.: Rhabdocnemis Pomel 1872 Z93
    |    |--+--Homoscleromorpha CV16
    |    |  `--Calcispongia CV16
    |    `--Silicispongea [Hyalospongiae, Silicea, Silicispongia] BB05
    |         |--Hexactinellida CV16
    |         `--Demospongiae EL11
    `--+--Ctenophora CV16
       `--+--Trichoplax von Schulze 1883 EL11, AS12 [Placozoa]
          |    `--T. adhaerens C-SC03
          `--Planulozoa BM08
               |--Cnidaria HO09
               `--Bilateria HO09

Animalia incertae sedis:
  Namapoikia Wood, Grotzinger & Dickson 2002 WGD02
    `--*N. rietoogensis Wood, Grotzinger & Dickson 2002 WGD02
  Yaworipora WGD02
  Rosellatana WGD02
  Purella Missarzhevsky 1974 [Purellidae] P02
    `--*P. cristata Missarzhevsky 1974 P02 [incl. P. antiqua (Abaimova 1976) KB09]
  Albinaria coerulea NS03
  Ventogyrus chistyakovi IF02, EL11
  Podolimirus mirus IF02, EL11
  Neotricula aperta LO03
  Uroteuthis noctiluca NN03
  Cleisopus gloriamaris NN03
  Ainiktozoon WB85
  Caveasphaera costata X04
  Megaclonophycus onustus X04
  Sinocyclocyclicus guizhouensis X04
  Spiralicellula bulbifera X04
  Eurytholia Sutton, Holmer & Cherns 2001 SHC01
    |--*E. prattensis Sutton, Holmer & Cherns 2001 SHC01
    `--E. elibata Sutton, Holmer & Cherns 2001 SHC01
  Dimorphoconus granulatus Donovan & Paul 1985 SHC01
  Stromatoporoidea F71
  Dinomischus isolatus CM98
  Jennaria pulchra Rieger 1991 ZHT01
  Amauroceras ferrugineum D01
  Pseudomytiloides dubius BL78
  Parastromatopora HS02
  Gilletia HS02
  Sestromella HS02
  Chaetetopsis HS02
  Ellipsactinia HS02
  Sphaeractinia HS02
  Doryderma HS02
  Elasmoiera HS02
  Poterion neptuni F79
  Microcordyla asteriae BK77
  Stematumenia MK83
    |--S. foetida MK83
    |--S. strobilina MK83
    `--S. variabilis MK83
  Hemectyon ferox MH96
  Vauxia gracilenta CM98
  Pirania muricata CM98
  Archaeocyatha T10
  Speophilosoma T07
    |--S. koyama T07
    `--S. tottoriense T07
  Lycocerus suturellus T07
  Araragi enthea T07
  Parechthistatus gibber T07
  Parapodisma setouchiensis T07
  Arcuphantes T07
    |--A. hibanus T07
    |--A. iharai T07
    |--A. saitoi T07
    `--A. tsurusakii T07
  ‘Leptophyllus’ Quenstedt 1876 non Hope 1842 FT93
  Periphragella [Euretidae] BJ06
    `--P. antarctica Janussen, Tabachnick & Tendal 2004 BJ06
  Rossellidae BJ06
    |--Schaudinnia rosea (Fristedt 1887) [incl. S. arctica Schulze 1900] BJ06
    |--*Trichasterina borealis Schulze 1900 BJ06
    `--Caulophacus BJ06
         |--C. (Caulodiscus) brandti Janussen, Tabachnick & Tendal 2004 BJ06
         |--C. valdiviae Schulze 1904 BJ06
         `--C. (*Oxydiscus) weddelli Janussen, Tabachnick & Tendal 2004 BJ06
  Sarostegia [incl. Ramella; Farreidae] BJ06
    `--S. occulata Topsent 1904 [incl. *Ramella tubulosa Schulze 1904] BJ06
  Paracharnia dengyingensis XS05
  Sinotubulites baimatuoensis XS05
  Pararenicola Wang 1982 [incl. Paleorhynchus Wang 1982] SWZ86
    `--*P. huaiyuanensis Wang 1982 (see below for synonymy) SWZ86
  Protoarenicola Wang 1982 SWZ86
    `--*P. baiguashanensis Wang 1982 SWZ86
  Gunnarites antarcticus CT05
  Coleoloidae YH85
  Salterellidae [Agmata, Protochoanites, Volborthellacea, Volborthellidae, Volborthellidea] YK03
    |--Lidaconus Onken & Signor 1988 HW02, YK03
    |--Vologdinella Balashov 1962 [Vologdinellidae] T64
    |    `--*V. antiqua (Vologdin 1931) [=Orthoceras antiquus] YK03
    |--Volborthella Schmidt 1888 T64 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--*V. tenuis Schmidt 1888 [incl. V. conica Schindewolf 1934] YK03
    `--Salterella Billings 1861 T64
         |--S. maccullochi (Murchison 1859) [incl. *S. rugosa Billings 1861] YK03
         `--S. conulata Clark 1925 [incl. S. pulchella Clark 1925] YK03
  Ptychoderma australiensis H09
  Limnorea Goldfuss 1826 BR05
  Cladopora cylindrocellulaia Y92
  Liponissus saurarorum K92
  Ancodon S61
    |--A. gorringei S61
    `--A. parvus S61
  Megacyllene robiniae EBS98
  Shelbyoceras Ulrich & Foerste 1930 T64
    |--*S. robustum Ulrich & Foerste 1930 T64
    |--S. bessemerense Ulrich, Foerste & Miller 1943 P68
    |--S. buttsi Ulrich, Foerste & Miller 1943 P68
    `--S. unguliforme Ulrich, Foerste & Mller 1943 P68
  Conigalea Ivanov 1995 [Actinaculata, Conigaleidae, Conigaleoida, Marinaculata] I95
    `--*C. otschevi Ivanov 1995 I95
  Stylodrilus heringianus KA01
  Basiliella wusungensis D82
  Taimyrosphinctes excentricus SY85
  Chetaites sibiricus SY85
  Hectoceras kochi SY85
  Riasamites riasanensis SY85
  Substeuroceras stantoni SY85
  Lelapia australis T10
  Astylospongia radiata Pickett 1967 F71
  Attungaia F71
    |--A. cloacata F71
    `--A. wellingtonensis Pickett 1967 F71
  Columellaespongia woolomolensis Pickett 1967 F71
  Devonospongia clarkei F71
  Hyalostelia australis Etheridge 1916 F71
  Varneycoelia favosa Pickett 1967 F71
  Receptaculites Defrance 1827 F71, W77 [Receptaculitidae]
    |--R. australis F71
    `--R. clarkei M87
  Cornulitidae F62
  Ramenta Jiang in Luo et al. 1982 P08
  Ernogia Jiang in Luo et al. 1982 P08
  Biconulites de Chardin 1931 F62
    `--*B. grabaui de Chardin 1931 F62
  Stenothecopsis Cobbold 1935 F62
    `--*S. heraultensis Cobbold 1935 F62
  Scenellopsis Resser 1938 F62
    `--*S. clotho (Walcott 1905) [=Scenella clotho] F62
  Charruia Rusconi 1955 F62
    `--*C. annulata Rusconi 1955 F62
  Cyrtotheca Hicks 1872 F62
    `--*C. hamula Hicks 1872 F62
  Peronidella furcata H75
  Anzalia Termier & Termier 1947 H75
    `--*A. cerebriformis Termier & Termier 1947 H75
  Bovicornellum Howell 1934 H62
    `--*B. vermontense Howell 1934 H62
  Cestites Caster & Brooks 1956 H75
    `--*C. mirabilis Caster & Brooks 1956 H75
  Coelenteratella Korde 1959 [=Coelenterella (l. c.)] H75
    `--*C. antiqua Korde 1959 H75
  Lenaella Korde 1959 H75
    `--*L. reticulata Korde 1959 H75
  Paramedusium Gürich 1930 H62
    `--*P. africanum Gürich 1930 H62
  Diorygma Biernat 1961 H75
    `--*D. atrypophilia Biernat 1961 H75
  Escumasia Nitecki & Solem 1973 H75
    `--*E. roryi Nitecki & Solem 1973 H75
  Tyrkanispongia Vologdin & Drozdova 1970 G79
    `--*T. tenua Vologdin & Drozdova 1970 G79
  Redkinia Sokolov 1976 G79
    `--*R. spinosa Sokolov 1976 G79
  Vermiforma Cloud in Cloud et al. 1976 G79
    `--*V. antiqua Cloud in Cloud et al. 1976 G79
  Suvorovellidae G79
    |--Suvorovella Vologdin & Maslov 1960 G79
    |    `--*S. aldanica Vologdin & Maslov 1960 G79
    `--Majella Vologdin & Maslov 1960 G79
         `--*M. verkhojanica Vologdin & Maslov 1960 G79
  Petalostroma Pflug 1973 G79
    `--*P. kuibis Pflug 1973 G79
  Cupitheca Duan in Xing et al. 1984 MP10
  Acidocharacus Qin & Ding 1988 MP10
  Caveacus Landing 1995 L95
    `--*C. rectus Landing 1995 L95
  Fomichella infundabiliformis Missarzhevsky 1969 L95
  Actinotheca Xiao & Zhou 1984 non Cookson & Eisenack 1960 (ICBN) L95
    `--*A. mirus He in Qian 1977 L95
  Ausia fenestrate EL11
  Palaeophragmodictya reticulate EL11
  Rugoconites Glaessner & Wade 1966 EL11, G79
    |--*R. enigmaticus Glaessner & Wade 1966 G79
    `--R. tenuirugosus EL11
  Thectardis avalonensis EL11
  Leiperia gracile B88
  Potamotrygonocotyle amazonensis B88
  Ellisell Peel & Berg-Madsen 1988 YK03
  Arbusculites Murray 1831 M65
  Dendrogramma Just, Kristensen & Olesen 2014 [Dendrogrammatidae] JKO14
    |--*D. enigmatica Just, Kristensen & Olesen 2014 JKO14
    `--D. discoides Just, Kristensen & Olesen 2014 JKO14

Animalia [Agnotozoa, Coelenterata, Diploblastica, Enterozoa, Eumetazoa, Gelatinosa, Lithophyta, Metazoa, Parazoa, Radiata, Spongiaria, Vendobionta, Vendozoa, Xenoconchia]

*Pararenicola huaiyuanensis Wang 1982 [incl. Paleorhynchus anhuiensis Wang 1982, Ruedemannella minuta Wang 1982, Paleolina tortuosa Wang 1982] SWZ86

Volborthella Schmidt 1888 T64 [=Volborthelia (l. c.) T64; incl. Campitius Firby & Durham 1974 HW02; Paleonavtili]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

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