Female Bolitophila, photographed by Kevin Hall.

Belongs within: Bibionomorpha.
Contains: Ditomyiidae, Mycetophilidae, Keroplatidae, Sciaridae, Cecidomyiidae.

The Sciaroidea are a diverse clade of mostly lightly built flies, including the fungus gnats and related taxa. Many of its constituent taxa previously combined in the family Mycetophilidae have been divided into separate families on the basis of the latter family's non-monophyly. These include the genus Manota, characterised by having the head inserted at the anterior end of the thorax and with a row of strong posteriorly directed bristles behind the eye, and wing with the stem of M absent and branches of M present as detached veins on the distal part of the wing (Vockeroth 1981).

Synapomorphies (from Amorim & Rindal 2007, as Mycetophiliformia): Wings with r-m directed obliquely backwards; bM absent; width of basal radial (br) + basal medial (bm) combined cells smaller than medial fork width; first sector of M3+4 longitudinal; m-cu longitudinal, with basal angle; M4 parallel to CuA along its basal one-third; A1 incomplete or absent; male sternite 9 reduced to slender strip.

<==Sciaroidea [Fungivoroidea, Mycetophiliformia, Mycetophiloidea]
    |--Eoditomyia [Eoditomyiidae] GE05
    `--+--+--Ditomyiidae WT11
       |  `--Manota V81 [Manotidae WT11, Manotinae]
       |       |--M. coxata TE27
       |       |--M. defecta TE27
       |       |--M. flavipes TE27
       |       |--M. maorica Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
       |       |--M. orientalis TE27
       |       `--M. unuifurcata TE27
       `--+--Diadocidiidae [Diadocidiinae] WT11
          |    |--Paleoheterotricha TE27
          |    |--Pterogymnus V09a
          |    `--Diadocidia V09a
          |         |--D. ferruginosa V81
          |         |--D. nigripalpus V09a
          |         `--D. spinosula P76
          `--+--+--Mycetophilidae WT11
             |  `--+--Keroplatidae WT11
             |     `--Bolitophila Meigen 1818 P86 [Bolitophilidae WT11, Bolitophilinae]
             |          |--B. aperta P76
             |          |--B. basicornis (Mayer 1951) P86
             |          |--B. (Bolitophila) caspersi Plassmann 1986 P86
             |          |--B. cinerea V81
             |          |--B. dubia P76
             |          |--B. glabratella P76
             |          |--B. hybrida JP76
             |          |--B. (Cliopisa) mayeri Plassmann 1986 [=B. tarsata Mayer 1951 non Odaka 1935] P86
             |          |--B. tarsata Odaka 1935 P86
             |          |--B. tasmaniensis G60
             |          `--B. tenella Winnertz 1863 P86
             `--+--Sciaridae WT11
                `--+--+--Cecidomyiidae WT11
                   |  `--+--Rangomaramidae GE05
                   |     `--Archizelmiridae GE05
                   |          |--Burmazelmira aristica GE05
                   |          `--Zelmiarcha lebanensis GE05
                   `--Lygistorrhinidae [Lygistorrhininae] WT11
                        |--Lebanognoriste prima GE05
                        |--Archeognoriste primitiva GE05
                        `--+--Leptognoriste GE05
                           |    |--L. davisi GE05
                           |    `--L. microstoma GE05
                           |--+--Plesiognoriste GE05
                           |  |    |--P. carpenteri GE05
                           |  |    `--P. zherikhini GE05
                           |  `--Protognoriste GE05
                           |       |--P. amplicauda GE05
                           |       |--P. goeleti GE05
                           |       `--P. nascifoa GE05
                           `--+--Palaeognoriste GE05
                              |--+--Loyugesa khuati GE05
                              |  `--Seguyola GE05
                              `--Lygistorrhina GE05
                                   |--L. asiatica GE05
                                   |--L. cincticornis O98
                                   |--L. sanctaecatherinae V81
                                   `--L. singularis V09b

Sciaroidea incertae sedis:
  Pleciofungivora [Pleciofungivoridae] BLM02
  Antefungivoridae BLM02
  Mesosciophilidae BLM02
  Ohakuneinae J09
    |--*Rogambara dentata J09
    |--*Cabamofa mira J09
    |--Ohakunea Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |    |--*O. bicolor Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |    `--O. australiensis TC04
    `--Colonomyia J09
         |--C. albicaulis J09
         `--C. borea J09
  Paramanota O98

*Type species of generic name indicated


Amorim, D. de S., & E. Rindal. 2007. Phylogeny of the Mycetophiliformia, with proposal of the subfamilies Heterotrichinae, Ohakuneinae, and Chiletrichinae for the Rangomaramidae (Diptera, Bibionomorpha). Zootaxa 1535: 1-92.

[BLM02] Blagoderov, V. A., E. D. Lukashevich & M. B. Mostovski. 2002. Order Diptera Linné, 1758. The true flies (=Muscida Laicharting, 1781). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 227–240. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[G60] Gatenby, J. B. 1960. The Australasian mycetophilid glowworms. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 577–593.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[J09] Jaschhof, M. 2009. Ohakunea group (Sciaroidea, unassigned to family; no common name). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 315–317. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[JP76] Joost, W., & E. Plassmann. 1976. Mycetophiliden aus dem Zentralkaukasus (Diptera: Mycetophilidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1–3): 67–68.

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[P76] Plassmann, E. 1976. Vierter Nachtrag zu der Mycetophiliden-Sammlung des Senckenberg-Museums Frankfurt am Main (Diptera; Mycetophilidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1–3): 77–79.

[P86] Plassmann, E. 1986. Neun neue Pilzmücken aus der Westpaläarktis (Diptera, Nematocera, Mycetophilidae). Spixiana 9 (2): 143–150.

[TC04] Toft, R. J., & P. J. Chandler. 2004. Three introduced species of Mycetophilidae (Diptera: Sciaroidea) established in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 43–49.

[TE27] Tonnoir, A. L., & F. W. Edwards. 1927. New Zealand fungus gnats (Diptera, Mycetophilidae). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 747–878.

[V81] Vockeroth, J. R. 1981. Mycetophilidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 223–246. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[V09a] Vockeroth, J. R. 2009a. Diadocidiidae (diadocidiid fungus gnats). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 257–258. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[V09b] Vockeroth, J. R. 2009b. Lygistorrhinidae (long-beaked fungus gnats). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 265–266. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

Last updated: 18 June 2018.

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