Sciaroidea

Female Bolitophila, photographed by Kevin Hall.


Belongs within: Neoneura.
Contains: Ditomyiidae, Mycetophilidae, Keroplatidae, Sciaridae, Cecidomyiidae.

The Sciaroidea are a diverse clade of mostly lightly built flies, including the fungus gnats and related taxa. Many of its constituent taxa previously combined in the family Mycetophilidae have been divided into separate families on the basis of the latter family's non-monophyly.

Synapomorphies (from Amorim & Rindal 2007, as Mycetophiliformia): Wings with r-m directed obliquely backwards; bM absent; width of basal radial (br) + basal medial (bm) combined cells smaller than medial fork width; first sector of M3+4 longitudinal; m-cu longitudinal, with basal angle; M4 parallel to CuA along its basal one-third; A1 incomplete or absent; male sternite 9 reduced to slender strip.

<==Sciaroidea [Mycetophiliformia]
    |  i. s.: Pleciofungivora [Pleciofungivoridae] BLM02
    |         Antefungivoridae BLM02
    |         Mesosciophilidae BLM02
    |--Eoditomyia [Eoditomyiidae] GE05
    `--+--+--Ditomyiidae GE05
       |  `--Manota TE27 [Manotidae WT11, Manotinae]
       |       |--M. coxata TE27
       |       |--M. defecta TE27
       |       |--M. flavipes TE27
       |       |--M. maorica Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
       |       |--M. orientalis TE27
       |       `--M. unuifurcata TE27
       `--+--Diadocidiidae [Diadocidiinae] WT11
          |    |--Heterotricha novaezelandiae Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
          |    |--Paleoheterotricha TE27
          |    `--Diadocidia P76
          |         |--D. ferruginosa WT11
          |         `--D. spinosula P76
          `--+--+--Mycetophilidae WT11
             |  `--+--Keroplatidae WT11
             |     `--Bolitophila Meigen 1818 P86 [Bolitophilidae WT11, Bolitophilinae]
             |          |--B. aperta P76
             |          |--B. basicornis (Mayer 1951) P86
             |          |--B. (Bolitophila) caspersi Plassmann 1986 P86
             |          |--B. dubia P76
             |          |--B. glabratella P76
             |          |--B. hybrida JP76
             |          |--B. (Cliopisa) mayeri Plassmann 1986 [=B. tarsata Mayer 1951 non Odaka 1935] P86
             |          |--B. tarsata Odaka 1935 P86
             |          |--B. tasmaniensis G60
             |          `--B. tenella Winnertz 1863 P86
             `--+--Sciaridae WT11
                `--+--Lygistorrhinidae [Lygistorrhininae] WT11
                   |       |--Lebanognoriste prima GE05
                   |       |--Archeognoriste primitiva GE05
                   |       `--+--Leptognoriste GE05
                   |          |    |--L. davisi GE05
                   |          |    `--L. microstoma GE05
                   |          |--+--Palaeognoriste GE05
                   |          |  |--Lygistorrhina GE05
                   |          |  |    |--L. asiatica GE05
                   |          |  |    `--L. sanctaecatherinae WT11
                   |          |  `--+--Loyugesa khuati GE05
                   |          |     `--Seguyola GE05
                   |          `--+--Plesiognoriste GE05
                   |             |    |--P. carpenteri GE05
                   |             |    `--P. zherikhini GE05
                   |             `--Protognoriste GE05
                   |                  |--P. amplicauda GE05
                   |                  |--P. goeleti GE05
                   |                  `--P. nascifoa GE05
                   `--+--+--Rangomaramidae GE05
                      |  `--Archizelmiridae GE05
                      |       |--Burmazelmira aristica GE05
                      |       `--Zelmiarcha lebanensis GE05
                      `--Cecidomyiidae WT11

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Amorim, D. de S., & E. Rindal. 2007. Phylogeny of the Mycetophiliformia, with proposal of the subfamilies Heterotrichinae, Ohakuneinae, and Chiletrichinae for the Rangomaramidae (Diptera, Bibionomorpha). Zootaxa 1535: 1-92.

[BLM02] Blagoderov, V. A., E. D. Lukashevich & M. B. Mostovski. 2002. Order Diptera Linné, 1758. The true flies (=Muscida Laicharting, 1781). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 227-240. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[G60] Gatenby, J. B. 1960. The Australasian mycetophilid glowworms. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 577-593.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[JP76] Joost, W., & E. Plassmann. 1976. Mycetophiliden aus dem Zentralkaukasus (Diptera: Mycetophilidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1-3): 67-68.

[P76] Plassmann, E. 1976. Vierter Nachtrag zu der Mycetophiliden-Sammlung des Senckenberg-Museums Frankfurt am Main (Diptera; Mycetophilidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1-3): 77-79.

[P86] Plassmann, E. 1986. Neun neue Pilzmücken aus der Westpaläarktis (Diptera, Nematocera, Mycetophilidae). Spixiana 9 (2): 143-150.

[TE27] Tonnoir, A. L., & F. W. Edwards. 1927. New Zealand fungus gnats (Diptera, Mycetophilidae). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 747-878.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690-5695.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="http://www.fieldofscience.com/">FoS</a> = FoS