Bradysia impatiens, copyright Centre for Biodiversity Genomics.

Belongs within: Sciaroidea.
Contains: Sciara (Sciara).

The Sciaridae, fungus gnats, are a group of small flies that mostly feed on decaying organic matter. They are characterised by wings with a short costa, a single short crossvein r-m near the base of the wing, two strongly sclerotised R veins and weakly sclerotised forked M and Cu veins (Mohrig & Menzel 2009).

Characters (from Steffan 1981): Small flies, 1.0–11 mm long, usually blackish, brownish, or yellowish. Compound eyes usually forming dorsal bridge above antennal bases. Wings hyaline or fumose, sometimes reduced or absent. C ending between apices of R5 and M1; Sc weak, ending free; CuP, A1, and A2 poorly developed; crossvein r-m in line with R5; M and CuA forked; crossvein m-cu absent. R and its branches setose above; most other veins sometimes setose above; some veins sometimes setose below. Halter absent in wingless females. Tibiae with one or two apical spurs. Abdomen cylindrical and usually strongly tapering in female.

<==Sciaridae [Lycoriidae, Sciarinae, Sciaroidae]
    |--Scythropochroa nitida Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 S81, TE27
    |--Pnyxia scabiei S81
    |--Pharatretula S81
    |--Zygoneura [Zygoneurinae] S81
    |--Metangela toxoneura MM09, S81
    |--Moehnia erema S81
    |--Hybosciara gigantea BW09
    |--Keilbachia paucipalpa MM09
    |--Acuatella vestituda MM09
    |--Pterothrix capillosa MM09
    |--Ctenosciara destita MM09
    |--Trichosciara spinimana MM09
    |--Leucosciara imperfecta MM09
    |--Austrosciara CM91
    |--Palaeoheteretricha Loew 1850 H02
    |--Palaeoheterotricha Meunier 1904 H02
    |--Cerato Meigen 1904 H02
    |--Palaeofuorista Meigen 1904 H02
    |--Ruebsaameniella Meigen 1904 H02
    |--Heeriella Meigen 1903 H02
    |--Sciarella Meigen 1903 H02
    |--Parastemmia H02
    |--Neosciara H02
    |--Phorodonata H02
    |--Protosciara Quievreux 1938 H02
    |--Lycoria bicolor Meigen 1800 H02
    |--Heterotricha Meunier 1904 H02
    |    `--H. novaezelandiae Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |--Neophnyxia Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |    `--*N. nelsoniana Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |--Mixosciaritis Hong 2002 H02
    |    `--*M. brachyceroidis (Hong 1981) [=Lycoria brachyceroidis] H02
    |--Epidapus Haliday 1856 H02
    |    |--E. (Epidapus) flavothoracicus MM09
    |    `--E. (Clandestina) perniciosus MM09
    |--Eugnoriste MM09
    |    |--E. occidentalis S81
    |    `--E. villosoabdominalis MM09
    |--Chaetosciara Frey 1942 H02
    |    |--C. joffrei S81
    |    `--C. solutospina MM09
    |--Phytosciara (Dolichosciara) MM09
    |    |--P. (D.) exlobata MM09
    |    `--P. (D.) flavipes S81
    |--Scatopsciara MM09
    |    |--S. (Scatopsciara) funesta MM09
    |    `--S. (Xenopygina) caribiana MM09
    |--Plastosciara Berg 1899 [incl. Peyrimhoffia Kieffer 1903] H02
    |    |--P. johnstoni S81
    |    `--P. perniciosa S81
    |--Leptosciarella MM09
    |    |--L. (Leptosciarella) prospera MM09
    |    `--L. (Protosciarella) virgatoalata MM09
    |--Schwenckfeldina MM09
    |    |--S. filamentosa MM09
    |    |--S. forcipigera MM09
    |    `--S. imitans S81
    |--Hyperlasion MM09
    |    |--H. capitulatum MM09
    |    `--H. wasmanni MM09
    |--Rhynchosciara MM09
    |    |--R. angelae KSM06
    |    |--R. hollaenderi KSM06
    |    `--R. mathildae MM09
    |--Lycoriella Frey 1942 H02
    |    |--L. agarici CM91
    |    |--L. mali S81
    |    `--L. ventrosa (Lengersdorf 1941) TKM93
    |--Odontosciara MM09
    |    |  i. s.: O. nigra S81
    |    |--O. (Odontosciara) nocta MM09
    |    `--O. (Obscura) grandis MM09
    |--Corynoptera MM09
    |    |--C. assimilis Menzel 2005 F05
    |    |--C. hannae Menzel 2005 F05
    |    `--C. parvula MM09
    |--Zygomma MM09
    |    |--Z. acuta MM09
    |    |--Z. fasciatellum MM09
    |    `--Z. modica MM09
    |--Pseudosciara Schiner 1866 H02
    |    |--P. forceps S81
    |    |--P. fragistyla MM09
    |    |--P. hirtella S81
    |    |--P. melanocephala MM09
    |    `--P. ribeiroi MM09
    |--Pseudolycoriella MM09
    |    |--P. coecoalata MM09
    |    |--P. ferocia MM09
    |    |--P. indocera MM09
    |    |--P. ovistyla MM09
    |    `--P. torva MM09
    |--Cratyna MM09
    |    |--C. (Cratyna) MM09
    |    |    |--C. (C.) ciliocera MM09
    |    |    |--C. (C.) ciliovenosa MM09
    |    |    `--C. (C.) micra MM09
    |    `--C. (Spathobdella) exteria MM09
    |--Bradysia Winnertz 1867 H02
    |    |--B. amoena WT11
    |    |--B. coprophila P09
    |    |--B. crassicera MM09
    |    |--B. dilucida MM09
    |    |--B. impatiens S81
    |    |--B. lobulata MM09
    |    `--B. macfarlanei S81
    `--Sciara Meigen 1903 H02
         |  i. s.: S. coprophila WB98
         |         S. fraterna RD77
         |         ‘Trichosia’ hebes S81
         |         S. militaris R13
         |         S. penicillata MM09
         |         S. rufescens Hutton 1881 (n. d.) TE27
         |         S. semialata RD77
         |         S. thomae R13
         |         S. tritici RD77
         |--S. (Sciara) TE27
         `--S. (Scaptosciara Tonnoir & Edwards 1927) TE27
              |--S. (*S.) quinquelineata TE27
              `--S. (S.) unicalcarata Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BW09] Buck, M., N. E. Woodley, A. Borkent, D. M. Wood, T. Pape, J. R. Vockeroth, V. Michelsen & S. A. Marshall. 2009. Key to Diptera families—adults. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 95–156. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[H02] Hong Y. 2002. Amber Insect of China. Beijing Scientific and Technological Publishing House.

[KSM06] King, R. C., W. D. Stansfield & P. K. Mulligan. 2006. A Dictionary of Genetics 7th ed. Oxford University Press.

[MM09] Mohring, W., & F. Menzel. 2009. Sciaridae (black fungus gnats). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 279–292. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[P09] Pape, T. 2009. Economic importance of Diptera. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 65–77. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[S81] Steffan, W. A. 1981. Sciaridae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 247–255. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[TKM93] Thaler, K., B. Knoflach & E. Meyer. 1993. Fragmenta faunistica Tirolensia—X. Berichte des Naturwissenschaftlich-Medizinischen Vereins in Innsbruck 80: 311–325.

[TE27] Tonnoir, A. L., & F. W. Edwards. 1927. New Zealand fungus gnats (Diptera, Mycetophilidae). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 747–878.

[WB98] Werren, J. H., & L. W. Beukeboom. 1998. Sex determination, sex ratios, and genetic conflict. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 233–261.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

Last updated: 4 February 2021.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="">FoS</a> = FoS