Pavement ant Tetramorium caespitum, photographed by Alex Wild.

Belongs within: Myrmicinae.

Tetramorium is a cosmopolitan genus of ants characterised by the presence of a dorsal appendage on the sting (Heterick 2009). Many species in the genus are difficult to distinguish, and molecular studies have identified the existence of morphologically cryptic species, for instance in the Tetramorium caespitum group of Europe (Schlick-Steiner et al. 2006).

Characters (from Heterick 2009): Area of clypeus below antennal sockets raised into sharp ridge; propodeal angle usually a pair of stout spines, sometimes flanges; postpetiole attached to front of gaster; tip of sting with a triangular or club-like appendage projecting upwards from the shaft.

<==Tetramorium Mayr 1855 FT08 [incl. Rhoptromyrmex Mayr 1901 B03]
    |--T. bicarinatum (Nylander 1846) S-SS06
    |--T. capitale (McAreavey 1949) S-SS06
    `--+--+--T. semilaeve (André 1883) S-SS06
       |  `--+--*T. caespitum (Linnaeus 1758) B03, S-SS06 (see below for synonymy)
       |     `--T. hungaricum (Röszler 1935) S-SS06
       `--+--T. tsushimae (Emery 1925) S-SS06
          `--+--T. impurum (Foerster 1850) S-SS06
             `--+--T. moravicum (Kratochvil 1941) S-SS06
                `--+--T. chefketi (Forel 1911) S-SS06
                   `--T. forte (Forel 1904) S-SS06

Tetramorium incertae sedis:
  T. aptum N-ZLI11
  T. belgaense Forel 1902 [=T. (Xiphomyrmex) belgaense] B03
  T. christiei Forel 1902 B03
  T. coonoorense Forel 1902 B03
  T. curtulum Emery 1894 B03
  T. curvispinosum Mayr 1897 B03
  T. dariae G89
  T. fergusoni Forel 1902 B03
  T. guineense (Fabr. 1793) B03 [=Formica guineensis B03; incl. T. guineense var. macra Emery 1914 E14]
  T. impressum H09
  T. inglebyi Forel 1902 B03
  T. insolens (Smith 1861) FT08
  T. kraepelini N-ZLI11
  T. lanuginosum Mayr 1870 FT08
  T. megalops H09
  T. meshena N-ZLI11
  T. mixtum Forel 1902 B03
  T. noratum N-ZLI11
  T. nursei Bingham 1903 B03
  T. pacificum Mayr 1870 FT08
    |--T. p. pacificum E14
    `--T. p. subscabra E14 [=T. scabrum var. subscabrum B03]
  T. parvum N-ZLI11
  ‘Myrmecina’ pilicornis Smith 1858 B03
  T. pilosum Emery 1893 [=T. (Xiphomyrmex) pilosum] B03
  T. pygmaeum G89
  T. rothneyi (Forel 1902) [=Rhoptromyrmex wroughtoni rothneyi] B03
  T. salvatum Forel 1902 B03
  T. scabrum Mayr 1879 B03
  T. setuliferum BM76
  T. simillimum (Smith 1851) FT08 (see below for synonymy)
  T. smithi Mayr 1871 FT08
  T. striolatum (Viehmeyer 1914) S-SS06
  T. subcoecum A61
  T. tortuosum Roger 1863 B03
  T. transversarium Roger 1863 B03
  T. validiusculum BS06
  T. viehmeyeri [incl. T. viehmeyeri venustus] H09
  T. walshi Forel 1890 FT08
  T. wroughtoni (Forel 1902) [=Rhoptromyrmex wroughtoni] B03]
  T. yerburyi Forel 1902 [=T. (Xiphomyrmex) pilosum yerburyi] B03

*Tetramorium caespitum (Linnaeus 1758) B03, S-SS06 [incl. Formica fusca Leach 1825 non Linnaeus 1758 S-SS06, T. fuscula (Nylander 1846) S-SS06]

Tetramorium simillimum (Smith 1851) FT08 [=Myrmica simillima B03; incl. T. simillimum denticulatum Forel 1902, T. simillimum laevinode Forel 1902 B03]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Andreae, H. 1961. Coleoptera: Cossyphodidae. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebeck. South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 198–216. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

[B03] Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera. Vol. II. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M. & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[BS06] Brady, S. G., T. R. Schultz, B. L. Fisher & P. S. Ward. 2006. Evaluating alternative hypotheses for the early evolution and diversification of ants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (48): 18172–18177.

[E14] Emery, C. 1914. Les fourmis de la Nouvelle-Calédonie & des îles Loyalty. In: Sarasin, F. & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1, Heft IV pp. 393-436, pl. 12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[FT08] Framenau, V. W., & M. L. Thomas. 2008. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean): identification and distribution. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 45–85.

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso «Esploratore» dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 5–72.

[H09] Heterick, B. E. 2009. A guide to the ants of south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 76: 1–206.

[N-ZLI11] Nur-Zati A. M., G. T. Lim & A. B. Idris. 2011. Checklist of ants of selected hill dipterocarp forests of peninsular Malaysia. Serangga 16 (1): 91–105.

[S-SS06] Schlick-Steiner, B. C., F. M. Steiner, K. Moder, B. Seifert, M. Sanetra, E. Dyreson, C. Stauffer & E. Christian. 2006. A multidisciplinary approach reveals cryptic diversity in western Palearctic Tetramorium ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (1): 259–273.

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