Asteroideae

Hemp-agrimony Eupatorium cannabinum, photographed by dnnya17.


Belongs within: Asteraceae.
Contains: Senecio, Gnaphalieae, Astereae, Anthemideae, Calenduleae, Inuleae, Plucheeae, Heliantheae.

The Asteroideae is a major clade within the composite-flowered plants, a major characteristic of which is the presence of true ray florets in many species.

Synapomorphies (from www.mobot.org): Sesquiterpene lactones at biogenetic levels 3 and 4, benzopyrans, benzofurans present; ray florets common, female, disc florets with corolla shallowly lobed, perfect; anthers often ecalcarate and usually ecaudate; pollen 25.0-34.3 µm in diameter, colpus ends acute, exine 2.3-4.2 µm across, with a double tectum; style hairs often rounded, only more or less at style tip, stigmatic areas in two marginal bands; n = (4-)9-10(-19); rbcL 6bp x 4 inversion.

<==Asteroideae
    |  i. s.: Smallanthus PF02
    |--Senecioneae PF02
    |    |  i. s.: Blennosperma T00
    |    |         Crassocephalum H03
    |    |           |--C. coeruleum CV06
    |    |           `--C. crepidioides MH98
    |    |--Senecio BR65
    |    `--Othonninae BR65
    |         |--Euryops BR65
    |         |    |--E. abrotanifolius [=Othonna abrotanifolia] BR65
    |         |    |--E. mucosus CV06
    |         |    `--E. walterorum CV06
    |         `--Othonna CV06
    |              |--O. brandbergensis CV06
    |              |--O. clavifolia CV06
    |              |--O. graveolens CV06
    |              `--O. sparsiflora CV06
    `--+--+--+--Gnaphalieae PF02
       |  |  `--+--Astereae PF02
       |  |     `--Anthemideae PF02
       |  `--Calenduleae PF02
       `--+--+--Inuleae PF02
          |  `--Plucheeae PF02
          `--+--Athroismeae PF02
             |    |--Athroisma de Candolle 1883 PF02
             |    |--Blepharispermum PF02
             |    `--Leucoblepharis PF02
             `--+--Helenieae PF02
                |    |--Helenium YY22
                |    `--Flaveria australasica BR65
                `--+--Coreopsideae [Coreopsidinae] PF02
                   |    |--Coreopsis lanceolata H06
                   |    |--Glossogyne tenuifolia BR65
                   |    `--Bidens BR65
                   |         |--B. alba ACW01
                   |         |--B. bipinnata C55b
                   |         |--B. biternata PP07
                   |         |--B. cernua C55a
                   |         |--B. frondosa MH98
                   |         |--B. hendersonensis SJP60
                   |         |    |--B. h. var. hendersonensis SJP60
                   |         |    `--B. h. var. oenoensis SJP60
                   |         |--B. leucantha C55b
                   |         |--B. pilosa BR65
                   |         `--B. tripartita C55a
                   `--+--+--Neurolaena J87 [Neurolaeneae PF02]
                      |  |    `--N. lobata J87
                      |  `--+--Tagetes TS03 [Tageteae PF02]
                      |     `--+--Bahieae PF02
                      |        `--Chaenactideae PF02
                      `--+--Polymnia Linnaeus 1751 [Polymnieae, Polymniinae] PF02
                         `--+--Heliantheae PF02
                            `--+--Milleria YY22 [Millerieae PF02]
                               `--+--Madia D51 [Madieae PF02]
                                  |    |--M. citrigracilis D51
                                  |    |--M. citriodora D51
                                  |    `--M. sativa D51
                                  `--+--Perityleae PF02
                                     `--Eupatorium T03 [Eupatorieae PF02]
                                          |--E. adenophorum P82
                                          |--E. cabaionum J87
                                          |--E. cannabinum LDB98
                                          |--E. capillifolium ACW01
                                          |--E. flavidulum J87
                                          |--E. glehni T03
                                          |--E. illitum J87
                                          |--E. microchaetum J87
                                          |--E. nervosum J87
                                          |--E. odoratum G01
                                          |--E. porphyrocladium J87
                                          |--E. puberulum J87
                                          |--E. rugosum EBS98
                                          |--E. selleanum J87
                                          |--E. stigmaticum J87
                                          `--E. urbanii J87

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[ACW01] Aguilar, H., C. C. Childers & W. C. Welbourn. 2001. Relative abundance and seasonal occurrence of mites in the family Tydeidae on citrus in Florida. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 376-380. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae-Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175-189.

[D51] Dobzhansky, T. 1951. Genetics and the Origin of Species, 3rd ed. Columbia University Press: New York.

[EBS98] Elliott, K. J., L. R. Boring & W. T. Swank. 1998. Changes in vegetation structure and diversity after grass-to-forest succession in a southern Appalachian watershed. American Midland Naturalist 140: 219-232.

[G01] Gupta, S. K. 2001. A conspectus of natural enemies of phytophagous mites and mites as potential biocontrol agents of agricultural pests in India. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 484-497. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[H03] Hancock, D. L. 2003. The status and relationships of Terpnodesma Munro and establishment of the new tribe Axiothaumini (Diptera: Tephritidae: Tephritinae). African Entomology 11 (1): 143-145.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201-222.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[LDB98] Lenssen, J. P. M., G. E. ten Dolle & C. W. P. M. Blom. 1998. The effect of flooding on the recruitment of reed marsh and tall forb plant species. Plant Ecology 139: 13-23.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180-190.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P. & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 15-78.

[PF02] Panero, J. L., & V. A. Funk. 2002. Toward a phylogenetic subfamilial classification for the Compositae (Asteraceae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 115 (4): 909-922.

[P82] Pickard, J. 1982. Catastrophic disturbance and vegetation on Little Slope, Lord Howe Island. Australian Journal of Ecology 7: 161-170.

[SJP60] St. John, H. & W. R. Philipson. 1960. List of the flora of Oeno Atoll, Tuamotu Archipelago, south-central Pacific Ocean. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 401-403.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

[TS03] Tremetsberger, K., T. F. Stuessy, Y.-P. Guo, C. M. Baeza, H. Weiss & R. M. Samuel. 2003. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) variation within and among populations of Hypochaeris acaulis (Asteraceae) of Andean southern South America. Taxon 52: 237-245.

[T03] Tsurusaki, N. 2003. Phenology and biology of harvestmen in and near Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan, with some taxonomical notes on Nelima suzukii n. sp. and allies (Arachnida: Opiliones). Acta Arachnologica 52: 5-24.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

Heliantheae

Common cocklebur Xanthium strumarium, photographed by J. V. Littell.


Belongs within: Asteroideae.

The Heliantheae are a group of composite-flowered plants distinguished by their scaled receptacles and (usually) stiff pappuses. Significant members include the sunflower Helianthus annuus and Jerusalem artichoke H. tuberosus. Molecular studies indicate the presence of two major clades within the Heliantheae; interestingly, the morphologically similar genera Montanoa and Rojasianthe, sharing such characters as chromosome number, opposite phyllotaxy, accrescent pales, blackish disc corollas and neutral ray flowers with white corollas, are each placed basally on oppposite clades (Panero & Funk 2002).

Characters (from Black & Robertson 1965): Receptacle with chaffy scales; involucral bracts without scarious margins; heads mostly heterogamous-radiate; pappus of scales, awns or stiff plumose bristles, rarely absent; style-branches flattish, not truncate; leaves often opposite.

<==Heliantheae
    |  i. s.: Spilanthes paniculata PF02, BB07
    |         Galinsoga [Galinsoginae] BR65
    |           `--G. parviflora BR65
    |--+--Montanoa PF02
    |  |    |--M. bipinnatifida Z02
    |  |    |--M. hibiscifolia H06
    |  |    |--M. liebmannii PF02
    |  |    `--M. pteropoda PF02
    |  `--Ecliptinae PF02
    |       |--Salmea PF02
    |       `--Eclipta BR65
    |            |--E. alba PP07
    |            |--E. erecta C55
    |            |--E. platyglossa BR65
    |            `--E. prostrata VB02
    `--+--Rojasianthe Standley & Steyermark 1940 [Rojasianthinae] PF02
       `--+--Rudbeckiinae PF02
          |--Zaluzania YY22 [Zaluzaniinae PF02]
          |--Zinnia YY22 [Zinniinae PF02]
          |--Engelmaniinae PF02
          |--Helianthus BR65 [Helianthinae PF02]
          |    |--H. annuus Linnaeus 1753 CD07
          |    |--H. bolanderi D51
          |    |--H. paradoxus MAA95
          |    |--H. petiolaris D51
          |    `--H. tuberosus BR65
          |--Verbesininae PF02
          |    |--Siegesbeckia orientalis BR65
          |    |--Verbesina DH98
          |    |    |--V. encelioides DH98
          |    |    `--V. turbaiensis MM96
          |    `--Wedelia von Jacquin 1763 BR65
          |         |--W. biflora P88
          |         |--W. glauca (Orteg) Blake 1917 [=Pascalia glauca Orteg 1797] SS02
          |         |--W. serrata J87
          |         |--W. trilobata P88
          |         `--W. verbesinoides [incl. W. stirlingii] BR65
          `--Ambrosiinae [Ambrosieae] PF02
               |--Iva axillaris BR65
               |--Ambrosia BR65
               |    |--A. artemisiifolia BR65
               |    |--A. dumosa C90
               |    |--A. psilostachya BR65
               |    `--A. tenuifolia C55
               `--Xanthium BR65
                    |--X. californicum BR65
                    |--X. canadense MH98
                    |--X. indicum C55
                    |--X. macrocarpum C55
                    |--X. orientale BR65
                    |--X. pungens BR65
                    |--X. spinosum BR65
                    `--X. strumarium BR65

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BB07] Baishya, A. K. & P. J. Bora. 2007. Cross community ethno-medico botany of Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve, Assam. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 121-154.

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae-Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1-E44.

[C90] Crawford, C. S. 1990. Scorpiones, Solifugae, and associated desert taxa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 421-475. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[DH98] Danin, A., & I. C. Hedge. 1998. Contributions to the flora of Jordan 2. A new species of Satureja (Labiatae) and some new records. Willdenowia 28: 135-142.

[D51] Dobzhansky, T. 1951. Genetics and the Origin of Species, 3rd ed. Columbia University Press: New York.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201-222.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[MAA95] McCarthy, E. M., M. A. Asmussen & W. W. Anderson. 1995. A theoretical assessment of recombinational speciation. Heredity 74: 502-509.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180-190.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1-487.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P. & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 15-78.

[PF02] Panero, J. L., & V. A. Funk. 2002. Toward a phylogenetic subfamilial classification for the Compositae (Asteraceae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 115 (4): 909-922.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[SS02] Salunkhe, C. B., V. B. Shimpale, M. M. Sardesai & S. R. Yadav. 2002. Some new records of Asteraceae for the state of Maharashtra. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 555-557.

[VB02] Vijay, S. K., & T. N. Bhardwaja. 2002. Vegetation and phenodynamics of wetlands of central Rajasthan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 573-581.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

[Z02] Zhang, Z.-Q. 2002. Taxonomy of Tetranychus ludeni (Acari: Tetranychidae) in New Zealand and its ecology on Sechium edule. New Zealand Entomologist 25: 27-34.

Plucheeae

Epaltes australis, photographed by Ian Sutton.


Belongs within: Asteroideae.

The Plucheeae is a group of composite-flowered plants distinguished by their flowers with filiform style-branches.

Characters (from Black & Robertson 1965, as Plucheinae): Style-branches filiform, stigmatic on inner side, beset with collecting hairs downwards to below place of division; heads heterogamous-discoid, female flowers usually with minute ligules or none; bisexual flowers often sterile with shortly bifid or entire styles; receptacle naked.

<==Plucheeae [Plucheinae]
    |--Cratystylis Moore 1905 BR65
    |    `--C. conocephala [=Olearia conocephala von Mueller 1886, Pluchea conocephala von Mueller 1887] BR65
    |--Sphaeranthus BR65
    |    |--S. indicus [incl. S. hirtus] BR65
    |    `--S. wattii CV06
    |--Pterocaulon Elliot 1824 [incl. Monenteles Labillardière 1824-1825] BR65
    |    |--P. glandulosum BR65
    |    `--P. sphacelatum BR65
    |--Pluchea BR65
    |    |--P. dentex [incl. P. rubelliflora var. major] BR65
    |    |--P. rubelliflora (von Mueller) Druce 1917 (see below for synonymy) BR65
    |    `--P. symphytifolia J87
    |--Epaltes BR65
    |    |--E. australis BR65
    |    |--E. brasiliensis C55
    |    |--E. cunninghamii BR65
    |    |--E. divaricata BR65
    |    `--E. tatei BR65
    `--Pterigeron BR65
         |--P. adscendens BR65
         |--P. cylindriceps BR65
         |--P. dentatifolius BR65
         |--P. liatroides BR65
         `--P. odorus BR65

Pluchea rubelliflora (von Mueller) Druce 1917 [=Eyrea rubelliflora von Mueller 1852; incl. P. eyrea von Mueller 1859] BR65

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae-Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175-189.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

Lauraceae

Ceylon cinnamon Cinnamomum zeylanicum, from here.


Belongs within: Laurales.

The Lauraceae is a pantropical family of mostly shrubs and trees, with the exception of the parasitic vine genus Cassytha. They are often aromatic. Commercially significant species include the bay tree Laurus nobilis, avocado Persea americana and cinnamon Cinnamomum species. The genus Cinnamomum also includes the camphor laurel C. camphora, whose aromatic wood is used to repel insects. Members of the genus Sassafras are deciduous; the North American species Sassafras albidum was historically used to flavour root beer, though 'sassafras oil' is now more commonly derived from other species of Lauraceae.

Characters (from H. van der Werff): Shrubs to tall trees, evergreen or rarely deciduous (Cassytha a parasitic vine with leaves reduced to scales), usually aromatic. Leaves alternate, rarely whorled or opposite, simple, without stipules, petiolate. Leaf blade: unlobed (unlobed or lobed in Sassafras), margins entire, occasionally with domatia (crevices or hollows serving as lodging for mites) in axils of main lateral veins (in Cinnamomum). Inflorescences in axils of leaves or deciduous bracts, panicles (rarely heads), racemes, compound cymes, or pseudoumbels (spikes in Cassytha), sometimes enclosed by decussate bracts. Flowers bisexual or unisexual, bisexual only, or staminate and pistillate on different plants, or staminate and bisexual on some plants, pistillate and bisexual on others; flowers usually yellow to greenish or white, rarely reddish; hypanthium well developed, resembling calyx tube, tepals and stamens perigynous; tepals 6(-9), in 2(-3) whorls of 3, sepaloid, equal or rarely unequal, if unequal then usually outer 3 smaller than inner 3 (occasionally absent in Litsea); stamens (3-)9(-12), in whorls of 3, but 1 or more whorls frequently staminodial or absent; stamens of 3d whorl with 2 glands near base; anthers 2- or 4-locular, locules opening by valves; pistil 1, 1-carpellate; ovary 1-locular; placentation basal; ovule 1; stigma subsessile, discoid or capitate. Fruits drupes, drupe borne on pedicel with or without persistent tepals at base, or seated in ± deeply cup-shaped receptacle (cupule), or enclosed in accrescent floral tube. Seed 1; endosperm absent.

<==Lauraceae
    |--Eusideroxylon zwageri K03
    |--Ampelodaphne YY22
    |--Hypodaphnis YY22
    |--Paxiodendron YY22
    |--Iteadaphne YY22
    |--Polyadenia YY22
    |--Aydendron YY22
    |--Ravensara YY22
    |--Parabenzoin praecox [=Lindera praecox] LO98
    |--Dahlgrenodendron FPC04
    |--Laurocarpum JD05
    |--Nothaphoebe umbelliflora (Bl.) Bl. 1851 (see below for synonymy) G06
    |--Alseodaphne hainanensis G06
    |--Machilus khasyana G06
    |--Daphnogene Unger 1850 HL08
    |    |--D. cinnamomifolia HL08
    |    `--D. lanceolata HL08
    |--Lindera K03
    |    |--L. pipericarpa K03
    |    `--L. pulcherrima D07
    |--Actinodaphne YY22
    |    |--A. angustifolia [incl. A. hookeri] BS07
    |    `--A. pseudogermarii JD05
    |--Sassafras YY22
    |    |--S. albidum C96
    |    `--S. ferretianum S89
    |--Neolitsea DS04
    |    |--N. cassia DS04
    |    `--N. sericea [incl. Litsaea glauca] LO98
    |--Laurophyllum Goeppert 1854 HL08
    |    |--L. knauense JD05
    |    |--L. lomatolepis Rüffle, Müller-Stoll & Litke 1976 HL08
    |    `--L. syncarpifolium JD05
    |--Laurus [Lauroideae] F71
    |    |--L. australiensis Ettingshausen 1883 F71
    |    |--L. azorica KL98
    |    |--L. nobilis R-RR-GM-S98
    |    `--L. princeps S89
    |--Nectandra J87
    |    |--N. coriacea J87
    |    |--N. membranacea J87
    |    |--N. patens J87
    |    `--N. sintenisii SWK87
    |--Beilschmiedia Nees 1831 A61
    |    |--B. bhutanica Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
    |    |--B. pendula J87
    |    |--B. roxburghiana G06
    |    |--B. tarairi (Cunn.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex Kirk 1889 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |    `--B. tawa (Cunn.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex Kirk 1889 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |--Dehaasia G06
    |    |--D. arunachalensis Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
    |    |--D. assamica G06
    |    |--D. candolleana G06
    |    |--D. cuneata G06
    |    |--D. incrassata (Jack) Kosterm. 1952 [=Laurus incrassata Jack 1822] G06
    |    |--D. kurzii G06
    |    `--D. rangamattiensis Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
    |--Cryptocarya J00
    |    |--C. amygdalina G06
    |    |--C. biswasii Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
    |    |--C. burkillii Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
    |    |--C. costata G06
    |    |--C. dekae Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
    |    |--C. everettii G06
    |    |--C. kurzii G06
    |    |--C. oblata H42
    |    `--C. triplinervis P82
    |--Litsea Lamarck 1791 A61
    |    |--L. calicaris (Cunn.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex Kirk 1889 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |    |--L. glutinosa H06
    |    |--L. graciae K03
    |    |--L. odorifera K03
    |    |--L. salicifolia [incl. Tetranthera lanceaefolia Roxburgh 1832] BS07
    |    `--L. stocksii (Meisner) Hooker 1886 (see below for synonymy) BS07
    |         |--L. s. var. stocksii BS07
    |         |--L. s. var. acutata (Meisner) Hooker 1886 (see below for synonymy) BS07
    |         `--L. s. var. glabrescens (Meisner) Hooker 1886 (see below for synonymy) BS07
    |--Ocotea J87
    |    |--O. acarina J87
    |    |--O. acrantha J87
    |    |--O. foeniculacea J87
    |    |--O. kenyensis K09
    |    |--O. leucoxylon SWK87
    |    |--O. moschata SWK87
    |    |--O. portoricensis SWK87
    |    |--O. spathulata SWK87
    |    `--O. wrightii J87
    |--Phoebe JD05
    |    |--P. attenuata D07
    |    |--P. baishyae Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
    |    |--P. boehlensis JD05
    |    |--P. cathia G06
    |    |--P. declinata (Bl.) Nees 1836 [=Laurus declinata Bl. 1823, Persea declinata (Bl.) Kosterm. 1974] G06
    |    |--P. lanceolata G06
    |    |--P. lummaoensis Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
    |    |--P. montanum J87
    |    |--P. pallida G06
    |    `--P. prazeri Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
    |--Cassytha Linnaeus 1753 [Cassythoideae] A61
    |    |--C. aurea G04b
    |    |--C. capillaris B12
    |    |--C. filiformis P88
    |    |--C. flava GK00
    |    |--C. glabella G04b
    |    |--C. melantha G04b
    |    |--C. micrantha GK00
    |    |--C. nodiflora G04a
    |    |--C. paniculata Br. 1810 A61
    |    |--C. pubescens A61
    |    `--C. racemosa G04b
    |--Persea SR07
    |    |--P. americana J87
    |    |--P. anomala J87
    |    |--P. arunachalensis Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
    |    |--P. bhaskarii Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
    |    |--P. borbonia M83
    |    |--P. fructifera D07
    |    |--P. gamblei G06
    |    |--P. gratissima [incl. Laurus persea] C55
    |    |--P. haridasanii Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
    |    |--P. himalayaensis Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
    |    |--P. indica KL98
    |    |--P. lobitensis Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
    |    |--P. macrantha SR07
    |    |--P. odoratissima [=Machilus odoratissima] G06
    |    |--P. robusta (Smith) Kosterm. 1962 [=Machilus robusta Smith 1921] G06
    |    |--P. russellii Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
    |    |--P. sharmae Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
    |    |--P. sikkimensis Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
    |    |--P. thunbergii (Sieb. & Zucc.) Kosterm. 1957 [=Machilus khunbergii Sieb. & Zucc. 1847] G06
    |    `--P. upendrae Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
    `--Cinnamomum VM02
         |--C. bejolghota G06
         |--C. bhamoensis Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
         |--C. bhaskarii Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
         |--C. bishnupadae Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
         |--C. blandfordii Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
         |--C. burmannii (C.G. & Nees) Bl. 1826 [=Laurus burmannii C.G. & Nees 1823] G06
         |--C. cacharensis G06
         |--C. camphora (Linnaeus) Presl 1825 CD07
         |--C. cupulatum G06
         |--C. discoideum JD05
         |--C. glaucescens G06
         |--C. impressinervium G06
         |--C. iners P88
         |--C. leichhardtii Ettingshausen 1883 F71
         |--C. lohitensis Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
         |--C. macrophyllum Miq. 1864 G06
         |--C. mollissimum Hooker 1886 G06
         |--C. polymorphoides F71
         |--C. sanjappae Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
         |--C. sieboldii [incl. C. loureirii] LO98
         |--C. subavenium Miq. 1858 G06
         |--C. sulphuratum SR07
         |--C. suvrae Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
         |--C. tamala D07
         |--C. tavoyanum G06
         |--C. travancoricum VM02
         |--C. walaiwarense Kostermans 1983 VM02
         `--C. zeylanicum E30

Beilschmiedia tarairi (Cunn.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex Kirk 1889 [=Laurus tarairi Cunn. 1838, Nesodaphne tarairi (Cunn.) Hook. f. 1854] A61

Beilschmiedia tawa (Cunn.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex Kirk 1889 [=Laurus tawa Cunn. 1838, Nesodaphne tawa Hook. f. 1854; incl. L. victoriana Col. in Hooker 1864 (n. n.)] A61

Litsea calicaris (Cunn.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex Kirk 1889 [=Laurus calicaris Sol. ex Cunn. 1838, T. calicaris Hook. f. 1854; incl. T. tangao Cunn. ms] A61

Litsea stocksii (Meisner) Hooker 1886 [=Cylicodaphne oblonga var. stocksii Meisner in de Candolle 1864; incl. L. josephii Almeida 1990 (nom. illeg.), L. vartakii Almeida 1989 (nom. illeg.)] BS07

Litsea stocksii var. acutata (Meisner) Hooker 1886 [=Cylicodaphne myristicaefolia var. acutata Meisner in de Candolle 1864] BS07

Litsea stocksii var. glabrescens (Meisner) Hooker 1886 [=Cylicodaphne wightiana var. glabrescens Meisner in de Candolle 1864] BS07

Nothaphoebe umbelliflora (Bl.) Bl. 1851 [=Ocotea umbelliflora Bl. 1826; incl. N. nicobarica Chakrab. & Vasud. 1985] G06

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BS07] Bhuinya, T. & P. Singh. 2007. Critical notes on Litsea stocksii (Meisn.) Hook. f. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 195-198.

[B12] Braby, M. F. 2012. The butterflies of El Questro Wilderness Park, with remarks on the taxonomy of the Kimberley fauna, Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (2): 161-175.

[C96] Campbell, N. A. 1996. Biology (4th ed.) The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc.: Menlo Park (California).

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1-E44.

[D07] Dash, S. S. 2007. Useful plants of Kabi Sacred Grove, Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 79-88.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467-510.

[E30] Enderlein, G. 1930. Die Copeognathen-Fauna der Seychellen. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 141: 21.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1-167.

[FPC04] Friis, E. M., K. R. Pedersen & P. R. Crane. 2004. Araceae from the Early Cretaceous of Portugal: Evidence on the emergence of monocotyledons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 101 (47): 16565-16570.

[G06] Gangopadhyay, M. 2006. Notes on the family Lauraceae from India and its adjoining countries—I. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 48 (1-4): 103-156.

[G04a] Gibson, N. 2004a. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35-47.

[G04b] Gibson, N. 2004b. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49-62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323-402.

[G60] Gudex, M. C. 1960. The native flora of Bryant House-Whale Bay area. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 357-362.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201-222.

[HL08] Henniger, M. & R. Leder. 2008. Eozäne Makroflora der Querfurter Mulde. Mauritiana 20 (2): 229-251.

[H42] Hill, G. F. 1942. Termites (Isoptera) from the Australian Region (including Australia, New Guinea and islands south of the Equator between 140°E. longitude and 170°W. longitude). Commonwealth of Australia Council for Scientific and Industrial Research: Melbourne.

[J00] Johnston, P. R. 2000. Rhytismatales of Australia: The genus Coccomyces. Australian Systematic Botany 13 (2): 199-243.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[JD05] Junge, F. W., M. Dolezych, H. Walther, T. Böttger, A. Kühl, L. Kunzmann, P. Morgenstern, T. Steinberg & R. Stange. 2005. Ein Fenster in Landschaft und Vegetation vor 37 Millionen Jahren: Lithologische, sedimentgeochemische und paläobotanische Befunde aus einem Paläoflusssystem des Weißelsterbeckens. Mauritiana 19 (2): 185-273.

[K09] Kelbessa, E. 2009. Three new species of Acanthaceae from Ethiopia. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 57-65.

[KL98] Kiffe, K., K. Lewejohann. 1998. Ein Neufund von Carex oedipostyla Duval-Jouve (Cyperaceae) auf Teneriffa, Kanarische Inseln. Willdenowia 28: 117-122.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81-98.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263-276.

[M83] Myers, R. L. 1983. Site susceptibility to invasion by the exotic tree Melaleuca quinquenervia in southern Florida. Journal of Applied Ecology 20: 645-658.

[P82] Pickard, J. 1982. Catastrophic disturbance and vegetation on Little Slope, Lord Howe Island. Australian Journal of Ecology 7: 161-170.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[R-RR-GM-S98] Ramil-Rego, P., M. Rodríguez-Guitián & C. Muñoz-Sobrino. 1998. Sclerophyllous vegetation dynamics in the north of the Iberian peninsula during the last 16,000 years. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 7: 335-351.

[SR07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 165-172.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[S89] Squinabol, S. 1889. Res Ligusticae. VII.—Cenno preliminare sulla flora fossile di Santa Giustina. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 73-76.

[VM02] Viswanathan, M. B., & U. Manikandan. 2002. Emending of an endemic and critically endangered species Cinnamomum walaiwarense Kosterm., family Lauraceae, of Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve, India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 557-559.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

Hydrocotyle

Water pennywort Hydrocotyle vulgaris, from Robert Paul Hudson.


Belongs within: Araliaceae.

Hydrocotyle, the water pennyworts, is a genus of aquatic and semi-aquatic creeping plants.

Characters (from She, Watson & Cannon): Herbs, perennial. Stem slender, creeping or decumbent, rooting at the nodes. Leaves petiolate; petioles not sheathing; stipules present, entire or parted to base, membranous; blade cordate, orbicular, or reniform. Inflorescence a simple umbel; umbels sometimes densely capitate; peduncles axillary, obsolete to much longer than leaves; bracts present or absent; pedicels very short or extended (best seen in fruiting material). Flowers bisexual. Calyx teeth minute or obsolete. Petals white, greenish or yellow, valvate, ovate, spreading. Stylopodium conic to depressed. Fruit globose or ellipsoid, strongly flattened laterally, base cordate, dorsal surface rounded, glabrous (rarely with white hairs); dorsal and lateral ribs usually conspicuous, slender, acute (rarely obsolete); vittae inconspicuous. Seed face plane to concave; endocarp woody. Carpophore usually absent.

<==Hydrocotyle
    |--H. alata GK00
    |--H. americana An27
    |--H. asiatica An27
    |--H. callicarpa GK00
    |--H. diantha GK00
    |--H. dissecta An27
    |--H. elongata An27
    |--H. hirsuta J87
    |--H. microphylla An27
    |--H. moschata An27
    |--H. natans C55
    |--H. novaezelandiae An27
    |    |--H. n. var. novaezelandiae Al27
    |    `--H. n. var. montana Al27
    |--H. pilifera GK00
    |    |--H. p. var. pilifera GK00
    |    `--H. p. var. glabrata GK00
    |--H. pusilla J87
    |--H. rugulosa G04
    |--H. sibthorpioides BB07
    |--H. verticillata K01
    `--H. vulgaris K01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[Al27] Allan, H. H. 1927. The vegetation of Mount Peel, Canterbury, New Zealand. Part 2. – The grassland and other herbaceous communities. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 73-89.

[An27] Andersen, J. C. 1927. Popular names of New Zealand plants. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 905-977.

[BB07] Baishya, A. K. & P. J. Bora. 2007. Cross community ethno-medico botany of Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve, Assam. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 121-154.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49-62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323-402.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[K03] Kårehed, J. 2003. The family Pennantiaceae and its relationships to Apiales. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 1-24.

Piperales

Florida peperomia Peperomia obtusifolia, photographed by Roger L. Hammer.


Belongs within: Mesangiospermae.
Contains: Aristolochiaceae.

The Piperales is a clade of mostly herbaceous plants (some species are lianes or small trees) found primarily in tropical and subtropical regions. Members of the families Piperaceae and Saururaceae have small flowers borne in elongate spikes. Commercially significant species include Piper nigrum, pepper, and Piper betle, betel.

Synapomorphies (from www.mobot.org): Plant herbaceous, growth sympodial; sesquiterpenes [e.g. gamma-elemene] present; starch grains compound; primary stem with distinct bundles; vessel elements in radial files, with simple perforation plates; wood with broad rays; nodes often swollen; stomata not paracytic; leaves two-ranked, lamina with secondary veins palmate; stamens in threes; seed more or less tegmic, endotegmen tanniniferous; PHYE gene absent.

<==Piperales [Piperineae]
    |--Aristolochiaceae SaaRai07
    |--Saururaceae DS04
    |    |--Houttuynia cordata DS04
    |    `--Saururus JD05
    |         |--S. bilibatus JD05
    |         `--S. cernuus DS04
    `--Piperaceae DS04
         |  i. s.: Nematanthera YY22
         |         Symbryon YY22
         |         Verhuellia YY22
         |         Lepianthes umbellatum [=Pothomorphe umbellata] J87
         |--+--Macropiper Miq. 1839 DS04, A61
         |  |    `--M. excelsum (Forst. f.) Miq. 1843 [=Piper excelsum Forst. f. 1786] A61
         |  |         |--M. e. var. excelsum A61
         |  |         `--M. e. var. majus (Cheeseman) Allan 1961 (see below for synonymy) A61
         |  `--Piper [Piperoideae] DS04
         |       |--P. aduncum J87
         |       |--P. amarum J87
         |       |--P. betle Linnaeus 1753 CD07
         |       |--P. carinum K03
         |       |--P. cenocladum DL99
         |       |--P. confusum J87
         |       |--P. feistmanteli Ettingshausen 1886 F71
         |       |--P. hispidum J87
         |       |--P. longum SDK05
         |       |--P. methysticum HSS13
         |       |--P. nigrum SanRav07
         |       |--P. oviedoi J87
         |       |--P. rugosum J87
         |       `--P. wightii SanRav07
         `--Peperomia Ruiz & Pav. 1794 DS04, A61 [Peperomioideae]
              |--P. acuminata J87
              |--P. alata J87
              |--P. cabaianum J87
              |--P. distachya J87
              |--P. dominicana J87
              |--P. galioides J87
              |--P. glabella J87
              |--P. hernandifolia J87
              |--P. heyneana D07
              |--P. hispidula J87
              |--P. leonardii J87
              |--P. magnoliifolia J87
              |--P. michelensis J87
              |--P. obtusifolia J87
              |--P. pellucida P88
              |--P. polybotrya DS04
              |--P. pseudo-rhombea de Candolle 1869 (see below for synonymy) SanRav07
              |--P. quadrifolia J87
              |--P. ramosa J87
              |--P. reflexa J87
              |--P. tenella J87
              |--P. tetraphylla (Forst. f.) Hook. & Arn. 1832 (see below for synonymy) A61
              `--P. urvilleana Rich. 1832 (see below for synonymy) A61

Macropiper excelsum var. majus (Cheeseman) Allan 1961 [=Piper excelsum var. major Cheeseman 1906; incl. Piper psittacorum Endl. 1833, Macropiper excelsum var. psittacorum (Endl.) Laing 1915] A61

Peperomia pseudo-rhombea de Candolle 1869 [incl. P. dindigulensis Wight 1821, P. thomsoni Hooker 1886] SanRav07

Peperomia tetraphylla (Forst. f.) Hook. & Arn. 1832 [=Piper tetraphyllum Forst. f. 1786; incl. Pe. novae-zealandiae Col. 1895] A61

Peperomia urvilleana Rich. 1832 [incl. P. endlicheri Miq. 1843, P. muricatula Colenso 1895, P. simplex Endl. 1833] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1-E44.

[D07] Dash, S. S. 2007. Useful plants of Kabi Sacred Grove, Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 79-88.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467-510.

[DL99] Dyer, L. A. & D. K. Letourneau. 1999. Relative strengths of top-down and bottom-up forces in a tropical forest community. Oecologia 119: 265-274.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1-167.

[HSS13] Hirschfeld, E., A. Swash & R. Still. 2013. The World's Rarest Birds. Princeton University Press: Princeton (New Jersey).

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[JD05] Junge, F. W., M. Dolezych, H. Walther, T. Böttger, A. Kühl, L. Kunzmann, P. Morgenstern, T. Steinberg & R. Stange. 2005. Ein Fenster in Landschaft und Vegetation vor 37 Millionen Jahren: Lithologische, sedimentgeochemische und paläobotanische Befunde aus einem Paläoflusssystem des Weißelsterbeckens. Mauritiana 19 (2): 185-273.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81-98.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[SaaRai07] Saarela, J. M., H. S. Rai, J. A. Doyle, P. K. Endress, S. Mathews, A. D. Marchant, B. G. Briggs & S. W. Graham. 2007. Hydatellaceae identified as a new branch near the base of the angiosperm phylogenetic tree. Nature 446: 312-315.

[SanRav07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 165-172.

[SDK05] Sharma, L. K., N. K. Dadhich & A. Kumar. 2005. Plant based veterinary medicine from traditional knowledge of India. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1-4): 43-52.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

Lomariopsidaceae

Elaphoglossum peltatum, photographed by Robbin Moran.


Belongs within: Leptosporangiatae.

The Lomariopsidaceae is a family of tropical hemiepiphytic ferns.

Characters (from Smith et al. 2006): Rhizomes creeping or sometimes climbing (plants hemiepiphytic); petioles with round vascular bundles arranged in a gutter-shape; blades 1-pinnate, pinnae entire or crenate, often articulate, auriculate in some genera; veins free, more or less parallel or pinnate; sori discrete, round, and with round-reniform to reniform indusia, or exindusiate, or sporangia acrostichoid and the fronds dimorphic; spores bilateral, monolete, variously winged or ornamented; x = 41 (lower numbers known in some Lomariopsis species).

<==Lomariopsidaceae
    |--Lomariopsis I88
    |    |--L. amydrophlebia J87
    |    `--L. cochinchinensis Fée 1845 I88
    `--Elaphoglossum R-SN07
         |--E. chartaceum J87
         |--E. crinitum [=Hymenodium crinitum] J87
         |--E. firmum L54
         |--E. formosum L54
         |--E. hirtum L54
         |--E. huacsaro J87
         |--E. latifolium J87
         |--E. longifolium L54
         |--E. marginatum (Wallich) Moore 1857 [=Acrostichum marginatum Wallich ex Fée 1845] I88
         |--E. moranii Mickel 1992 R-SN07
         |--E. pachyphyllum J87
         |--E. peltatum J87
         |--E. pilosum L54
         |--E. revolutum J87
         `--E. stelligerum (Wallich) Moore ex Alston & Bonner 1956 (see below for synonymy) I88

Elaphoglossum stelligerum (Wallich) Moore ex Alston & Bonner 1956 [=Acrostichum stelligerum Wallich ex Baker in Hooker & Baker 1874; incl. A. yunnanense Baker 1898, Elaphoglossum yunnanense (Baker) Christensen 1931] I88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[I88] Iwatsuki, K. 1988. An enumeration of the pteridophytes of Nepal. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 231-339.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[L54] Lötschert, W. 1954. Beitrag zur Pteridophyten-Flora von Mittel-Amerika. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35 (1-2): 109-119.

[R-SN07] Retana-Salazar, A. P., & K. Nishida. 2007. First gall-inducing thrips on Elaphoglossum ferns: a new genus and species of thrips, Jersonithrips galligenus from Costa Rica (Insecta, Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (2): 143-148.

Smith, A. R., K. M. Pryer, E. Schuettpelz, P. Korall, H. Schneider & P. G. Wolf. 2006. A classification for extant ferns. Taxon 55 (3): 705-731.

Thelypteridaceae

Long beech fern Thelypteris phegopteris, from Michael Hough.


Belongs within: Pteridales.

The Thelypteridaceae are a mostly tropical family of ferns, whose distinguishing features include an indument of transparent needle-like hairs and an absence of blade scales (A. R. Smith).

Characters (from A. R. Smith): Plants terrestrial or on rock (occasionally epiphytic). Stems creeping to erect, scaly at apex. Leaves monomorphic or somewhat dimorphic (to dimorphic). Petiole in cross section with 2 crescent-shaped vascular bundles at base. Blade pinnate to pinnate-pinnatifid, rarely more than 2-pinnate (occasionally simple); rachis grooved adaxially or not, grooves not continuous with grooves of next order. Veins free or anastomosing, running to margin, areoles with or without included free veinlets. Indument of transparent, needlelike, hooked, septate, or stellate hairs, or rarely hairs lacking. Sori inframedial to supramedial, occasionally nearly marginal, round or oblong, rarely elongate along veins; indusia reniform or sometimes absent. Spores bilateral, monolete (rarely globose-tetrahedral and trilete), usually with a prominent, crested, echinate, or reticulate perispore. Gametophytes green, cordate, usually hairy or glandular; antheridia 3-celled.

Thelypteridaceae
    |--Ampelopteris prolifera (Retzius) Copel. 1947 B06 (see below for synonymy)
    |--Stegnogramma pozoi YM03
    |    |--S. p. var. pozoi I88
    |    `--S. p. var. mollissima (Fischer) Iwats. 1963 (see below for synonymy) I88
    |--Amphineuron opulentum BB07
    |--Pronephrium B06
    |    |--P. asperum K03
    |    `--P. nudatum (Roxburgh) Holtt. 1972 B06 (see below for synonymy)
    |--Christella dentata (Forskål) Brownsey & Jermy 1973 B06 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--C. d. var. dentata B06
    |    `--C. d. var. himalayensis Punetha & Kholia 1990 B06
    |--Macrothelypteris torresiana (Gaud.) Ching 1963 B06 (see below for synonymy)
    |--Cyclosorus SS04
    |    |--C. dentatus [incl. Dryopteris parasitica Kuntze 1891] C49
    |    |--C. gongylodes [=Aspidium gongylodes Schkuhr 1809] C49
    |    |--C. interruptus P05
    |    |--C. pennigerus [=Dryopteris pennigera (Forster) Christensen 1905] C49
    |    `--C. striatus SS04
    `--Thelypteris I88
         |--T. appendiculata (Presl) Reed 1968 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. arida (Don) Morton 1959 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. articulata (Houlst. & Moore) Tagawa & Iwats. 1975 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. asplenioides J87
         |--T. asterothrix J87
         |--T. auriculata (Smith) Iwats. 1961 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. aurita (Hooker) Ching 1936 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. ciliata (Wallich) Ching 1936 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. crinipes (Hooker) Iwats. 1963 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. cylindrothrix (Ros.) Iwats. 1966 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. decussata J87
         |--T. erubescens (Wallich) Ching 1936 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. esquirolii (Christ) Ching 1936 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. falciloba (Hooker) Ching 1936 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. flaccida (Blume) Ching 1936 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. hispidula J87
         |--T. imitata J87
         |--T. lakhimpurensis (Ros.) Iwats. 1965 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. melanochlaena L54
         |--T. normalis L54
         |--T. noveboracensis EBS98
         |--T. ornata (Wallich) Ching 1936 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. palustris C49
         |    |--T. p. var. palustris C49
         |    `--T. p. var. squamigera [=Aspidium squamigerum (Schlecht) Adumb. 1825] C49
         |--T. papilio (Hope) Iwats. 1965 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. papyracea (Bedd.) Reed 1968 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. parasitica (Linnaeus) Tard. 1938 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. patens J87
         |--T. penangiana (Hooker) Reed 1968 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. phegopteris (Linnaeus) Slosson in Rydberg 1917 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. pseudosancta L54
         |--T. pyrrhorhachis (Kunze) Nayer & Kaur 1974 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. repens (Hope) Ching 1936 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. resinifera L54
         |--T. rudis J87
         |--T. sagittata J87
         |--T. sancta J87
         |--T. serra J87
         |--T. sprengelii L54
         |--T. subpubescens (Blume) Iwats. 1965 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. tylodes (Kunze) Ching 1936 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. uliginosa [incl. Dryopteris setigera, T. setigera (Blume) Ching 1936] C49
         `--T. yunkweiensis Ching 1936 [=Pseudophegopteris yunkweiensis (Ching) Ching 1963] I88

Ampelopteris prolifera (Retzius) Copel. 1947 B06 [=Hemionitis prolifera Retzius 1791 B06, Goniopteris prolifera (Retzius) Presl 1836 I88, Meniscium proliferum (Retzius) Swartz 1806 I88, Polypodium proliferum (Retzius) Roxburgh 1844 I88]

Christella dentata (Forskål) Brownsey & Jermy 1973 B06 [=Polypodium dentatum Forskål 1773 B06, Thelypteris dentata (Forskål) St. John 1936 I88; incl. Nephrodium procurrens (Mett.) Baker in Hooker 1867 I88]

Macrothelypteris torresiana (Gaud.) Ching 1963 B06 [=Polystichum torresianum Gaud. in Freyc. 1824 B06, Thelypteris torresiana (Gaud.) Alston 1960 I88; incl. Nephrodium setigerum I88, N. tenericaule (Hooker) Hooker 1862 B06, Lastrea tenericaulis (Hooker) Moore 1858 I88]

Pronephrium nudatum (Roxburgh) Holtt. 1972 B06 [=Polypodium nudatum Roxburgh 1844 I88, Thelypteris nudata (Roxburgh) Morton 1974 I88; incl. Nephrodium moulmeinense Bedd. 1883 I88, Polypodium multilineatum Wallich ex Hooker 1863 I88, Goniopteris multilineata Bedd. 1867 B06, Nephrodium multilineatum (Wallich) Bedd. 1892 I88, Thelypteris multilineata (Wallich) Morton 1959 I88]

Stegnogramma pozoi
var. mollissima (Fischer) Iwats. 1963 [=Gymnogramma mollissima Fischer ex Kunze 1850; incl. Gymnogramma totta, Leptogramma totta] I88

Thelypteris appendiculata (Presl) Reed 1968 [=Nephrodium appendiculatum Presl 1851, Christella appendiculata (Presl) Holtt. 1976, Polypodium appendiculatum (Presl) Bedd. 1868 non Poiret 1804; incl. Nephrodium extensum var. microsorum Clarke 1880, N. microsorum (Clarke) Bedd. 1883 non Hooker 1862, N. molliusculum Bedd. 1892, Thelypteris molliuscula (Bedd.) Iwats. 1966, N. pubescens Don 1825] I88

Thelypteris arida (Don) Morton 1959 [=Aspidium aridum Don 1825, Christella arida (Don) Holtt. in Nayar & Kaur 1974, Nephrodium aridum (Don) Smith 1841] I88

Thelypteris articulata (Houlst. & Moore) Tagawa & Iwats. 1975 [=Nephrodium articulatum Houlst. & Moore 1851, Aspidium articulatum Lowe 1857 non Swartz 1801, Pronephrium articulatum (Houlst. & Moore) Holtt. 1972; incl. Nephrodium glandulosum var. laete-strigosum Clarke 1880, Cyclosorus laete-strigosus (Clarke) Ching 1938, Thelypteris laete-strigosa (Clarke) Iwats. 1966, Nephrodium pennigerum] I88

Thelypteris auriculata (Smith) Iwats. 1961 [=Polypodium auriculatum Wallich ex Hooker 1862 nec Linnaeus 1753 nec Raddi 1819 nec Presl 1822, Phegopteris auriculata Smith 1875, Cyclogramma auriculata (Smith) Ching 1963] I88

Thelypteris aurita (Hooker) Ching 1936 [=Gymnogramma aurita Hooker 1854, Leptogramma aurita (Hooker) Bedd. 1883, Pseudophegopteris aurita (Hooker) Ching 1963] I88

Thelypteris ciliata (Wallich) Ching 1936 [=Aspidium ciliatum Wallich ex Bentham 1861, Lastrea calcarata var. ciliata (Wallich) Bedd. 1883, Nephrodium ciliatum (Wallich) Clarke 1880, Trigonospora ciliata (Wallich) Holtt. 1971] I88

Thelypteris crinipes (Hooker) Iwats. 1963 [=Nephrodium crinipes Hooker 1862, Christella crinipes (Hooker) Holtt. in Nayar & Kaur 1974] I88

Thelypteris cylindrothrix (Ros.) Iwats. 1966 [=Dryopteris cylindrothrix Ros. 1913, Christella cylindrothrix (Ros.) Holtt. in Nayar & Kaur 1974, Cyclosorus cylindrothrix (Ros.) Ching 1938; incl. Nephrodium parasiticum var. aureum Clarke 1880, N. molle var. aureum (Clarke) Bedd. 1883] I88

Thelypteris erubescens (Wallich) Ching 1936 [=Polypodium erubescens Wallich ex Hooker 1862, Glaphyropteridopsis erubescens (Wallich) Ching 1963, Phegopteris erubescens (Wallich) Smith 1875] I88

Thelypteris esquirolii (Christ) Ching 1936 [=Dryopteris esquirolii Christ 1907, Pseudocyclosorus esquirolii (Christ) Ching 1963; incl. D. duclouxii Christ 1907, Thelypteris duclouxii (Christ) Ching 1936] I88

Thelypteris falciloba (Hooker) Ching 1936 [=Lastrea falciloba Hooker 1857, Lastrea calcarata var. falciloba (Hooker) Bedd. 1883, Nephrodium falcilobum, Pneumatopteris falciloba (Hooker) Ching 1963; incl. N. falcilobum var. puberula Wallich ex Clarke 1880] I88

Thelypteris flaccida (Blume) Ching 1936 [=Aspidium flaccidum Blume 1828, Lastrea flaccida, Metathelypteris flaccida (Blume) Ching 1963; incl. Lastrea gracilescens, Nephrodium gracilescens] I88

Thelypteris lakhimpurensis (Ros.) Iwats. 1965 [=Dryopteris lakhimpurensis Ros. 1917, Pronephrium lakhimpurensis (Ros.) Holtt. 1972] I88

Thelypteris ornata (Wallich) Ching 1936 [=Polypodium ornatum Wallich ex Bedd. 1864, Macrothelypteris ornata (Wallich) Ching 1963, Phegopteris ornata] I88

Thelypteris papilio (Hope) Iwats. 1965 [=Nephrodium papilio Hope 1899, Christella papilio (Hope) Holtt. in Nayar & Kaur 1974] I88

Thelypteris papyracea (Bedd.) Reed 1968 [=Nephrodium papyraceum Bedd. 1892, Christella papyracea (Bedd.) Holtt. in Nayar & Kaur 1974] I88

Thelypteris parasitica (Linnaeus) Tard. 1938 [=Polypodium parasiticum Linnaeus 1753, Christella parasitica (Linnaeus) Léveillé 1915, Cyclosorus parasiticus (Linnaeus) Farwell 1931, Nephrodium parasiticum] I88

Thelypteris penangiana (Hooker) Reed 1968 [=Polypodium penangianum Hooker 1863, Po. lineatum var. penangianum (Hooker) Clarke 1880, Pronephrium penangianum (Hooker) Holtt. 1972; incl. Nephrodium costatum, Polypodium lineatum Wallich ex Hooker 1863] I88

Thelypteris phegopteris (Linnaeus) Slosson in Rydberg 1917 [=Polypodium phegopteris, Phegopteris vulgaris; incl. Ph. connectilis (Michaux) Watt 1870] I88

Thelypteris pyrrhorhachis (Kunze) Nayer & Kaur 1974 [=Polypodium pyrrhorhachis Kunze 1851, Pseudophegopteris pyrrhorhachis (Kunze) Ching 1963; incl. Po. distans var. adnatum Clarke 1880, Thelypteris brunnea Ching 1936, Po. distans Don 1825 non Kaulf. 1824, Phegopteris distans, Po. laete-repens Troft. ex Hope 1899, Po. paludosum Bedd. 1863 non Blume 1829, Thelypteris paludosa Iwats. 1961] I88

Thelypteris repens (Hope) Ching 1936 [=Nephrodium repens Hope 1899; incl. Nephrodium canum Baker 1867 non Thelypteris cana (Smith) Ching 1936, Pseudocyclosorus canus (Baker) Holtt. & Grimes 1979] I88

Thelypteris subpubescens (Blume) Iwats. 1965 [=Aspidium subpubescens Blume 1828, Christella subpubescens (Blume) Holtt. 1976] I88

Thelypteris tylodes (Kunze) Ching 1936 [=Aspidium tylodes Kunze 1851, Lastrea ochthodes var. tylodes (Kunze) Bedd. 1883, Nephrodium tylodes (Kunze) Hope 1903, Pseudocyclosorus tylodes (Kunze) Ching 1963; incl. N. prolixum] I88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BB07] Baishya, A. K. & P. J. Bora. 2007. Cross community ethno-medico botany of Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve, Assam. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 121-154.

[B06] Biswas, A. 2006. Pteridophytes of Indian Botanic Garden, Howrah. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 48 (1-4): 175-188.

[C49] Crookes, M. W. 1949. A revised and annotated list of New Zealand Filicinae. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (2): 209-225.

[EBS98] Elliott, K. J., L. R. Boring & W. T. Swank. 1998. Changes in vegetation structure and diversity after grass-to-forest succession in a southern Appalachian watershed. American Midland Naturalist 140: 219-232.

[I88] Iwatsuki, K. 1988. An enumeration of the pteridophytes of Nepal. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 231-339.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81-98.

[L54] Lötschert, W. 1954. Beitrag zur Pteridophyten-Flora von Mittel-Amerika. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35 (1-2): 109-119.

[P05] Pinder, A. M. 2005. A review of biodiversity in wetlands with organic sediments on the Swan Coastal Plain, Western Australia, with an emphasis on aquatic invertebrates. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (3): 129-132.

[SS04] Schneider, H., E. Schuettpelz, K. M. Pryer, R. Cranfill, S. Magallón & R. Lupia. 2004. Ferns diversified in the shadow of angiosperms. Nature 428: 553-557.

[YM03] Yatabe, Y., & N. Murakami. 2003. Recognition of cryptic species in the Asplenium nidus complex using molecular data – a progress report. Telopea 10 (1): 487-496.