Long beech fern Thelypteris phegopteris, from Michael Hough.

Belongs within: Pteridales.

The Thelypteridaceae are a mostly tropical family of ferns, whose distinguishing features include an indument of transparent needle-like hairs and an absence of blade scales (A. R. Smith).

Characters (from A. R. Smith): Plants terrestrial or on rock (occasionally epiphytic). Stems creeping to erect, scaly at apex. Leaves monomorphic or somewhat dimorphic (to dimorphic). Petiole in cross section with 2 crescent-shaped vascular bundles at base. Blade pinnate to pinnate-pinnatifid, rarely more than 2-pinnate (occasionally simple); rachis grooved adaxially or not, grooves not continuous with grooves of next order. Veins free or anastomosing, running to margin, areoles with or without included free veinlets. Indument of transparent, needlelike, hooked, septate, or stellate hairs, or rarely hairs lacking. Sori inframedial to supramedial, occasionally nearly marginal, round or oblong, rarely elongate along veins; indusia reniform or sometimes absent. Spores bilateral, monolete (rarely globose-tetrahedral and trilete), usually with a prominent, crested, echinate, or reticulate perispore. Gametophytes green, cordate, usually hairy or glandular; antheridia 3-celled.

    |--Ampelopteris prolifera (Retzius) Copel. 1947 B06 (see below for synonymy)
    |--Stegnogramma pozoi YM03
    |    |--S. p. var. pozoi I88
    |    `--S. p. var. mollissima (Fischer) Iwats. 1963 (see below for synonymy) I88
    |--Amphineuron opulentum BB07
    |--Pronephrium B06
    |    |--P. asperum K03
    |    `--P. nudatum (Roxburgh) Holtt. 1972 B06 (see below for synonymy)
    |--Christella dentata (Forskål) Brownsey & Jermy 1973 B06 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--C. d. var. dentata B06
    |    `--C. d. var. himalayensis Punetha & Kholia 1990 B06
    |--Macrothelypteris torresiana (Gaud.) Ching 1963 B06 (see below for synonymy)
    |--Cyclosorus SS04
    |    |--C. dentatus [incl. Dryopteris parasitica Kuntze 1891] C49
    |    |--C. gongylodes [=Aspidium gongylodes Schkuhr 1809] C49
    |    |--C. interruptus P05
    |    |--C. pennigerus [=Dryopteris pennigera (Forster) Christensen 1905] C49
    |    `--C. striatus SS04
    `--Thelypteris I88
         |--T. appendiculata (Presl) Reed 1968 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. arida (Don) Morton 1959 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. articulata (Houlst. & Moore) Tagawa & Iwats. 1975 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. asplenioides J87
         |--T. asterothrix J87
         |--T. auriculata (Smith) Iwats. 1961 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. aurita (Hooker) Ching 1936 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. ciliata (Wallich) Ching 1936 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. crinipes (Hooker) Iwats. 1963 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. cylindrothrix (Ros.) Iwats. 1966 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. decussata J87
         |--T. erubescens (Wallich) Ching 1936 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. esquirolii (Christ) Ching 1936 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. falciloba (Hooker) Ching 1936 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. flaccida (Blume) Ching 1936 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. hispidula J87
         |--T. imitata J87
         |--T. lakhimpurensis (Ros.) Iwats. 1965 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. melanochlaena L54
         |--T. normalis L54
         |--T. noveboracensis EBS98
         |--T. ornata (Wallich) Ching 1936 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. palustris C49
         |    |--T. p. var. palustris C49
         |    `--T. p. var. squamigera [=Aspidium squamigerum (Schlecht) Adumb. 1825] C49
         |--T. papilio (Hope) Iwats. 1965 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. papyracea (Bedd.) Reed 1968 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. parasitica (Linnaeus) Tard. 1938 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. patens J87
         |--T. penangiana (Hooker) Reed 1968 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. phegopteris (Linnaeus) Slosson in Rydberg 1917 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. pseudosancta L54
         |--T. pyrrhorhachis (Kunze) Nayer & Kaur 1974 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. repens (Hope) Ching 1936 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. resinifera L54
         |--T. rudis J87
         |--T. sagittata J87
         |--T. sancta J87
         |--T. serra J87
         |--T. sprengelii L54
         |--T. subpubescens (Blume) Iwats. 1965 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. tylodes (Kunze) Ching 1936 (see below for synonymy) I88
         |--T. uliginosa [incl. Dryopteris setigera, T. setigera (Blume) Ching 1936] C49
         `--T. yunkweiensis Ching 1936 [=Pseudophegopteris yunkweiensis (Ching) Ching 1963] I88

Ampelopteris prolifera (Retzius) Copel. 1947 B06 [=Hemionitis prolifera Retzius 1791 B06, Goniopteris prolifera (Retzius) Presl 1836 I88, Meniscium proliferum (Retzius) Swartz 1806 I88, Polypodium proliferum (Retzius) Roxburgh 1844 I88]

Christella dentata (Forskål) Brownsey & Jermy 1973 B06 [=Polypodium dentatum Forskål 1773 B06, Thelypteris dentata (Forskål) St. John 1936 I88; incl. Nephrodium procurrens (Mett.) Baker in Hooker 1867 I88]

Macrothelypteris torresiana (Gaud.) Ching 1963 B06 [=Polystichum torresianum Gaud. in Freyc. 1824 B06, Thelypteris torresiana (Gaud.) Alston 1960 I88; incl. Nephrodium setigerum I88, N. tenericaule (Hooker) Hooker 1862 B06, Lastrea tenericaulis (Hooker) Moore 1858 I88]

Pronephrium nudatum (Roxburgh) Holtt. 1972 B06 [=Polypodium nudatum Roxburgh 1844 I88, Thelypteris nudata (Roxburgh) Morton 1974 I88; incl. Nephrodium moulmeinense Bedd. 1883 I88, Polypodium multilineatum Wallich ex Hooker 1863 I88, Goniopteris multilineata Bedd. 1867 B06, Nephrodium multilineatum (Wallich) Bedd. 1892 I88, Thelypteris multilineata (Wallich) Morton 1959 I88]

Stegnogramma pozoi
var. mollissima (Fischer) Iwats. 1963 [=Gymnogramma mollissima Fischer ex Kunze 1850; incl. Gymnogramma totta, Leptogramma totta] I88

Thelypteris appendiculata (Presl) Reed 1968 [=Nephrodium appendiculatum Presl 1851, Christella appendiculata (Presl) Holtt. 1976, Polypodium appendiculatum (Presl) Bedd. 1868 non Poiret 1804; incl. Nephrodium extensum var. microsorum Clarke 1880, N. microsorum (Clarke) Bedd. 1883 non Hooker 1862, N. molliusculum Bedd. 1892, Thelypteris molliuscula (Bedd.) Iwats. 1966, N. pubescens Don 1825] I88

Thelypteris arida (Don) Morton 1959 [=Aspidium aridum Don 1825, Christella arida (Don) Holtt. in Nayar & Kaur 1974, Nephrodium aridum (Don) Smith 1841] I88

Thelypteris articulata (Houlst. & Moore) Tagawa & Iwats. 1975 [=Nephrodium articulatum Houlst. & Moore 1851, Aspidium articulatum Lowe 1857 non Swartz 1801, Pronephrium articulatum (Houlst. & Moore) Holtt. 1972; incl. Nephrodium glandulosum var. laete-strigosum Clarke 1880, Cyclosorus laete-strigosus (Clarke) Ching 1938, Thelypteris laete-strigosa (Clarke) Iwats. 1966, Nephrodium pennigerum] I88

Thelypteris auriculata (Smith) Iwats. 1961 [=Polypodium auriculatum Wallich ex Hooker 1862 nec Linnaeus 1753 nec Raddi 1819 nec Presl 1822, Phegopteris auriculata Smith 1875, Cyclogramma auriculata (Smith) Ching 1963] I88

Thelypteris aurita (Hooker) Ching 1936 [=Gymnogramma aurita Hooker 1854, Leptogramma aurita (Hooker) Bedd. 1883, Pseudophegopteris aurita (Hooker) Ching 1963] I88

Thelypteris ciliata (Wallich) Ching 1936 [=Aspidium ciliatum Wallich ex Bentham 1861, Lastrea calcarata var. ciliata (Wallich) Bedd. 1883, Nephrodium ciliatum (Wallich) Clarke 1880, Trigonospora ciliata (Wallich) Holtt. 1971] I88

Thelypteris crinipes (Hooker) Iwats. 1963 [=Nephrodium crinipes Hooker 1862, Christella crinipes (Hooker) Holtt. in Nayar & Kaur 1974] I88

Thelypteris cylindrothrix (Ros.) Iwats. 1966 [=Dryopteris cylindrothrix Ros. 1913, Christella cylindrothrix (Ros.) Holtt. in Nayar & Kaur 1974, Cyclosorus cylindrothrix (Ros.) Ching 1938; incl. Nephrodium parasiticum var. aureum Clarke 1880, N. molle var. aureum (Clarke) Bedd. 1883] I88

Thelypteris erubescens (Wallich) Ching 1936 [=Polypodium erubescens Wallich ex Hooker 1862, Glaphyropteridopsis erubescens (Wallich) Ching 1963, Phegopteris erubescens (Wallich) Smith 1875] I88

Thelypteris esquirolii (Christ) Ching 1936 [=Dryopteris esquirolii Christ 1907, Pseudocyclosorus esquirolii (Christ) Ching 1963; incl. D. duclouxii Christ 1907, Thelypteris duclouxii (Christ) Ching 1936] I88

Thelypteris falciloba (Hooker) Ching 1936 [=Lastrea falciloba Hooker 1857, Lastrea calcarata var. falciloba (Hooker) Bedd. 1883, Nephrodium falcilobum, Pneumatopteris falciloba (Hooker) Ching 1963; incl. N. falcilobum var. puberula Wallich ex Clarke 1880] I88

Thelypteris flaccida (Blume) Ching 1936 [=Aspidium flaccidum Blume 1828, Lastrea flaccida, Metathelypteris flaccida (Blume) Ching 1963; incl. Lastrea gracilescens, Nephrodium gracilescens] I88

Thelypteris lakhimpurensis (Ros.) Iwats. 1965 [=Dryopteris lakhimpurensis Ros. 1917, Pronephrium lakhimpurensis (Ros.) Holtt. 1972] I88

Thelypteris ornata (Wallich) Ching 1936 [=Polypodium ornatum Wallich ex Bedd. 1864, Macrothelypteris ornata (Wallich) Ching 1963, Phegopteris ornata] I88

Thelypteris papilio (Hope) Iwats. 1965 [=Nephrodium papilio Hope 1899, Christella papilio (Hope) Holtt. in Nayar & Kaur 1974] I88

Thelypteris papyracea (Bedd.) Reed 1968 [=Nephrodium papyraceum Bedd. 1892, Christella papyracea (Bedd.) Holtt. in Nayar & Kaur 1974] I88

Thelypteris parasitica (Linnaeus) Tard. 1938 [=Polypodium parasiticum Linnaeus 1753, Christella parasitica (Linnaeus) Léveillé 1915, Cyclosorus parasiticus (Linnaeus) Farwell 1931, Nephrodium parasiticum] I88

Thelypteris penangiana (Hooker) Reed 1968 [=Polypodium penangianum Hooker 1863, Po. lineatum var. penangianum (Hooker) Clarke 1880, Pronephrium penangianum (Hooker) Holtt. 1972; incl. Nephrodium costatum, Polypodium lineatum Wallich ex Hooker 1863] I88

Thelypteris phegopteris (Linnaeus) Slosson in Rydberg 1917 [=Polypodium phegopteris, Phegopteris vulgaris; incl. Ph. connectilis (Michaux) Watt 1870] I88

Thelypteris pyrrhorhachis (Kunze) Nayer & Kaur 1974 [=Polypodium pyrrhorhachis Kunze 1851, Pseudophegopteris pyrrhorhachis (Kunze) Ching 1963; incl. Po. distans var. adnatum Clarke 1880, Thelypteris brunnea Ching 1936, Po. distans Don 1825 non Kaulf. 1824, Phegopteris distans, Po. laete-repens Troft. ex Hope 1899, Po. paludosum Bedd. 1863 non Blume 1829, Thelypteris paludosa Iwats. 1961] I88

Thelypteris repens (Hope) Ching 1936 [=Nephrodium repens Hope 1899; incl. Nephrodium canum Baker 1867 non Thelypteris cana (Smith) Ching 1936, Pseudocyclosorus canus (Baker) Holtt. & Grimes 1979] I88

Thelypteris subpubescens (Blume) Iwats. 1965 [=Aspidium subpubescens Blume 1828, Christella subpubescens (Blume) Holtt. 1976] I88

Thelypteris tylodes (Kunze) Ching 1936 [=Aspidium tylodes Kunze 1851, Lastrea ochthodes var. tylodes (Kunze) Bedd. 1883, Nephrodium tylodes (Kunze) Hope 1903, Pseudocyclosorus tylodes (Kunze) Ching 1963; incl. N. prolixum] I88

*Type species of generic name indicated


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