Florida peperomia Peperomia obtusifolia, photographed by Roger L. Hammer.

Belongs within: Mesangiospermae.
Contains: Aristolochiaceae.

The Piperales is a clade of mostly herbaceous plants (some species are lianes or small trees) found primarily in tropical and subtropical regions. Members of the families Piperaceae and Saururaceae have small flowers borne in elongate spikes. Commercially significant species include Piper nigrum, pepper, and Piper betle, betel.

Synapomorphies (from www.mobot.org): Plant herbaceous, growth sympodial; sesquiterpenes [e.g. gamma-elemene] present; starch grains compound; primary stem with distinct bundles; vessel elements in radial files, with simple perforation plates; wood with broad rays; nodes often swollen; stomata not paracytic; leaves two-ranked, lamina with secondary veins palmate; stamens in threes; seed more or less tegmic, endotegmen tanniniferous; PHYE gene absent.

<==Piperales [Piperineae]
    |--Aristolochiaceae SaaRai07
    |--Saururaceae DS04
    |    |--Houttuynia cordata DS04
    |    `--Saururus JD05
    |         |--S. bilibatus JD05
    |         `--S. cernuus DS04
    `--Piperaceae DS04
         |  i. s.: Nematanthera YY22
         |         Symbryon YY22
         |         Verhuellia YY22
         |         Lepianthes umbellatum [=Pothomorphe umbellata] J87
         |--+--Macropiper Miq. 1839 DS04, A61
         |  |    `--M. excelsum (Forst. f.) Miq. 1843 [=Piper excelsum Forst. f. 1786] A61
         |  |         |--M. e. var. excelsum A61
         |  |         `--M. e. var. majus (Cheeseman) Allan 1961 (see below for synonymy) A61
         |  `--Piper [Piperoideae] DS04
         |       |--P. aduncum J87
         |       |--P. amarum J87
         |       |--P. betle Linnaeus 1753 CD07
         |       |--P. carinum K03
         |       |--P. cenocladum DL99
         |       |--P. confusum J87
         |       |--P. feistmanteli Ettingshausen 1886 F71
         |       |--P. hispidum J87
         |       |--P. longum SDK05
         |       |--P. methysticum HSS13
         |       |--P. nigrum SanRav07
         |       |--P. oviedoi J87
         |       |--P. rugosum J87
         |       `--P. wightii SanRav07
         `--Peperomia Ruiz & Pav. 1794 DS04, A61 [Peperomioideae]
              |--P. acuminata J87
              |--P. alata J87
              |--P. cabaianum J87
              |--P. distachya J87
              |--P. dominicana J87
              |--P. galioides J87
              |--P. glabella J87
              |--P. hernandifolia J87
              |--P. heyneana D07
              |--P. hispidula J87
              |--P. leonardii J87
              |--P. magnoliifolia J87
              |--P. michelensis J87
              |--P. obtusifolia J87
              |--P. pellucida P88
              |--P. polybotrya DS04
              |--P. pseudo-rhombea de Candolle 1869 (see below for synonymy) SanRav07
              |--P. quadrifolia J87
              |--P. ramosa J87
              |--P. reflexa J87
              |--P. tenella J87
              |--P. tetraphylla (Forst. f.) Hook. & Arn. 1832 (see below for synonymy) A61
              `--P. urvilleana Rich. 1832 (see below for synonymy) A61

Macropiper excelsum var. majus (Cheeseman) Allan 1961 [=Piper excelsum var. major Cheeseman 1906; incl. Piper psittacorum Endl. 1833, Macropiper excelsum var. psittacorum (Endl.) Laing 1915] A61

Peperomia pseudo-rhombea de Candolle 1869 [incl. P. dindigulensis Wight 1821, P. thomsoni Hooker 1886] SanRav07

Peperomia tetraphylla (Forst. f.) Hook. & Arn. 1832 [=Piper tetraphyllum Forst. f. 1786; incl. Pe. novae-zealandiae Col. 1895] A61

Peperomia urvilleana Rich. 1832 [incl. P. endlicheri Miq. 1843, P. muricatula Colenso 1895, P. simplex Endl. 1833] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1-E44.

[D07] Dash, S. S. 2007. Useful plants of Kabi Sacred Grove, Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 79-88.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467-510.

[DL99] Dyer, L. A. & D. K. Letourneau. 1999. Relative strengths of top-down and bottom-up forces in a tropical forest community. Oecologia 119: 265-274.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1-167.

[HSS13] Hirschfeld, E., A. Swash & R. Still. 2013. The World's Rarest Birds. Princeton University Press: Princeton (New Jersey).

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[JD05] Junge, F. W., M. Dolezych, H. Walther, T. Böttger, A. Kühl, L. Kunzmann, P. Morgenstern, T. Steinberg & R. Stange. 2005. Ein Fenster in Landschaft und Vegetation vor 37 Millionen Jahren: Lithologische, sedimentgeochemische und paläobotanische Befunde aus einem Paläoflusssystem des Weißelsterbeckens. Mauritiana 19 (2): 185-273.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81-98.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[SaaRai07] Saarela, J. M., H. S. Rai, J. A. Doyle, P. K. Endress, S. Mathews, A. D. Marchant, B. G. Briggs & S. W. Graham. 2007. Hydatellaceae identified as a new branch near the base of the angiosperm phylogenetic tree. Nature 446: 312-315.

[SanRav07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 165-172.

[SDK05] Sharma, L. K., N. K. Dadhich & A. Kumar. 2005. Plant based veterinary medicine from traditional knowledge of India. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1-4): 43-52.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

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