Finger fern Grammitis billardieri, from here.

Belongs within: Pteridales.

The Grammitidaceae is a mostly epiphytic family of ferns. Many species are found in montane cloud forests.

Characters (from A. R. Smith): Plants perennial, mostly small, on rock or commonly epiphytic [rarely terrestrial]. Stems long- to short-creeping or suberect, usually unbranched, bearing scales [rarely scales absent], solenostelic (having phloem on both sides of xylem) to dictyostelic (having complex nets of xylem). Leaves erect, arching, or pendent, monomorphic [rarely with specialized fertile areas], less than 50 cm [rarely longer], usually scaleless throughout. Petioles often dark-colored and wiry, commonly terete, usually less than 2 mm diam., articulate or not articulate, with 1 or 2 vascular strands. Blades simple and entire to commonly pinnatifid or 1-pinnate, rarely 2-pinnate or more divided, glabrous or commonly bearing hairs, especially on petioles and rachises; hairs tan to dark reddish brown [or transparent], unicellular to multicellular; rachises often dark-colored, not grooved adaxially. Veins free [to anastomosing in simple patterns]; hydathodes present or absent, sometimes obscured by lime dots adaxially. Sori abaxial on veins, round to oblong [occasionally elongate]; paraphyses present or absent, these glandular or hairlike; sporangia with stalk of 1 row of cells; indusia absent. Spores greenish, tetrahedral-globose, trilete, surface commonly papillate. Gametophytes greenish, borne aboveground, ribbon-shaped, sometimes bearing multicellular gemmae.

    |--Micropolypodium P03
    |--Lomaphlebia P03
    |--Luisma P03
    |--Ceradenia P03
    |--Enterosora P03
    |--Melpomene flabelliformis P03
    |--Acrosorus P03
    |--Calymmodon P03
    |--Chrysogrammitis P03
    |--Scleroglossum P03
    |--Themelium P03
    |--Adenophorus P03
    |--Terpsichore P03
    |    |--T. elastica P03
    |    `--T. kirkii P03
    |--Cochlidium [incl. Xiphopteris] P03
    |    |--‘Xiphopteris’ hieronymusii P03
    |    |--C. serrulatum [=*Xiphopteris serrulata] P03
    |    `--‘Xiphopteris’ sikkimensis (Hieronymus) Copel. 1947 [=Polypodium sikkimense Hieronymus 1905] I88
    |--Lellingeria P03
    |    |--L. oosora P03
    |    |--L. saffordii P03
    |    `--L. subcoriacea P03
    |--Prosaptia [incl. Ctenopteris] P03
    |    |--‘Ctenopteris’ blechnoides P03
    |    |--‘Ctenopteris’ curtisii P03
    |    |--‘Polypodium’ grammitidis Br. 1810 [=Ctenopteris grammitidis (Br.) Smith 1875] C49
    |    |--‘Ctenopteris’ lasiostipes P03
    |    |--‘Ctenopteris’ mollicoma P03
    |    |--‘Ctenopteris’ nutans P03
    |    |--‘Ctenopteris’ repandula P03
    |    |--‘Ctenopteris’ subfalcata (Blume) Kunze 1848 [=Polypodium subfalcatum Blume 1828] I88
    |    |--P. venulosa [=*Ctenopteris venulosa] P03
    |    `--‘Ctenopteris’ whartoniana P03
    `--Grammitis P03
         |--G. adspersa H03
         |--G. apiculata J87
         |--G. billardieri Willdenow 1810 C49 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--G. b. ssp. billardieri M03
         |    `--‘Polypodium australe’ ssp. nanum M03
         |--G. ceratocarpa H03
         |--G. ciliata Colenso 1844 [incl. Polypodium australe var. villosum Hooker 1855] C49
         |--G. clemensiae H03
         |--G. collina H03
         |--G. crassa Fée 1850-1852 C49
         |--G. cretata J87
         |--G. cryptophlebia P03
         |--G. cultrata J87
         |--G. firma J87
         |--G. furcata J87
         |--G. givenii W91
         |--G. lasiosora H03
         |--G. marginella J87
         |--G. mesocarpa H03
         |--G. moniliformis J87
         |--G. nimbata L03
         |--G. oblanceolata H03
         |--G. ornatissimum H03
         |--G. padangense H03
         |--G. pendula J87
         |--G. pervillei P03
         |--G. plerogrammoides H03
         |--G. pseudaustralis H03
         |--G. pumila Armstrong 1882 [=Polypodium australe var. pumilum Cheeseman 1906] C49
         |--G. reducta H03
         |--G. reinwardtii P03
         |--G. rupestris H03
         |--G. salticola H03
         |--G. samoensis P03
         |--G. stenophylla [incl. G. kairatuensis] P03
         |--G. tomensis P03
         `--G. universa P03

Grammitis billardieri Willdenow 1810 C49 [=Polypodium billardieri (Willdenow) Christensen 1906 C49; incl. P. australe Mett. 1857 C49, G. australis M03]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[C49] Crookes, M. W. 1949. A revised and annotated list of New Zealand Filicinae. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (2): 209-225.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: Vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311-449.

[I88] Iwatsuki, K. 1988. An enumeration of the pteridophytes of Nepal. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 231-339.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[L03] Lindsay, S. 2003. Considerations for a revision of the fern family Vittariaceae for Flora Malesiana. Telopea 10 (1): 99-112.

[M03] Macloskie, G. 1903. Pteridophyta, ferns and fernlike plants. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 127-138. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[P03] Parris, B. S. 2003. The distribution of Grammitidaceae (Filicales) inside and outside Malesia. Telopea 10 (1): 451-466.

[W91] Williams, P. A. 1991. Subalpine and alpine vegetation of granite ranges in western Nelson, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 29: 317-330.

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