Adephaga

Haliplus lineatocollis, photographed by Christoph Benisch.


Belongs within: Coleoptera.
Contains: Gyrinidae, Geadephaga, Dytiscoidea.

The Adephaga is a major clade of mostly predatory beetles. Adephaga have sometimes been divided between the terrestrial Geadephaga and the primarily aquatic Hydradephaga (with members of the latter having fringes of stiff hairs on the adult legs—Grimaldi & Engel 2005); however, as not all hydradephagan families are active swimmers and those that are often differ in their adaptations for swimming, it is possible that swimming has evolved multiple times. Alternatively, some analyses have supported the whirligig beetles of the Gyrinidae as the sister group of other living adephagans (Beutel et al. 2013).

Synapomorphies (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Hind coxae immovable; abdominal sternite two divided by hind coxae; pygidial defense glands present; larvae prognathous, with labium and clypeus fused, mouthparts modified for liquid feeding.

<==Adephaga [Carabina, Caraboidea, Glabricornia, Haliploidea, Hydradephaga, Hydrocanthari, Timarchopsinae]
    |--+--Gyrinidae BW13
    |  `--Permosialidae [Perloblattidae, Tologopteridae] GE05
    |       |--Permonka R02
    |       `--Permosialis BW13 [incl. Sarbalopterodes R02, Tologoptera R02]
    |            |--P. asiatica R02
    |            `--P. belmontensis Riek 1968 F71
    `--+--Triaplus [Triaplidae] BW13
       |    `--T. laticoxa Ponomarenko 1977 BW13
       `--+--Geadephaga BW13
          `--+--+--Dytiscoidea BW13
             |  `--Bolbonectes BW13
             |       |--B. intermedius S02
             |       `--B. occidentalis Ponomarenko 1993 BW13
             `--Haliplidae RB01
                  |  i. s.: Cnemidotus caesus C01
                  |--Peltodytes rotundatus BW13, RB01
                  `--+--Brychius BW13
                     `--Haliplus Latreille 1802 WM10
                          |  i. s.: H. bistriatus Wehncke 1880 LM87
                          |         H. bonariensis Steinh. 1869 R89
                          |         H. fluviatilis C01
                          |         H. gibbus Clarke 1862 WM10, LM87
                          |         H. mucronatus RB01 [incl. H. badius R89]
                          |         H. obconicus Régimbart 1888 [incl. H. gravidus, H. robustus] R89
                          |         H. obliquus [=Dystiscus obliquus] L02
                          |         H. pinderi GMD11
                          |         H. timmsi WM10
                          |         *H. (Haliplus) impressus (Fabricius 1787) [=Dytiscus impressus] WM10
                          |         H. (Paraliaphlus) leopardus Roberts 1913 B14
                          |--H. (Liaphlus Guignot 1928) BW13, WM10
                          |    |--H. (*L.) fulvus (Fabricius 1801) [=Dytiscus fulvus] WM10
                          |    |--H. (L.) australis Clark 1862 WM10, LM87 [incl. H. testudo Clark 1962 LM87]
                          |    |--H. (L.) halsei Watts & McRae 2010 WM10
                          |    |--H. (L.) pilbaraensis Watts & McRae 2010 WM10
                          |    |--H. (L.) testudo WM10
                          |    `--H. (L.) wattsi WM10
                          `--+--Apteraliplus BW13
                             `--H. (Neohaliplus Netolitzky 1911) BW13, WM10
                                  |--H. (*N.) lineatocollis (Marsham 1802) [=Dytiscus lineatocollis] WM10
                                  |--H. (N.) fortescueensis Watts & McRae 2010 WM10
                                  |--H. (N.) fuscatus Clark 1862 WM10
                                  `--H. (N.) pinderi Watts & McRae 2010 WM10

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BW13] Beutel, R. G., B. Wang, J.-J. Tan, S.-Q. Ge, D. Ren & X.-K. Yang. 2013. On the phylogeny and evolution of Mesozoic and extant lineages of Adephaga (Coleoptera, Insecta). Cladistics 29 (2): 147–165.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[GMD11] George, A. S., N. L. McKenzie & P. Doughty. 2011. A Biodiversity Survey of the Pilbara Region of Western Australia 2002–2007. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 78 (1).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[LM87] Lawrence, J. F., B. P. Moore, J. E. Pyke & T. A. Weir. 1987. Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 4. Coleoptera: Archostemata, Myxophaga and Adephaga. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[R02] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002. Cohors Scarabaeiformes Laicharting, 1781. The holometabolans (=Holometabola Burmeister, 1835, =Endopterygota Sharp, 1899, =Oligoneoptera Martynov, 1938). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 157–164. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[R89] Régimbart, M. 1889. Enumération des Haliplidae, Dytiscidae et Gyrinidae recueillis par M.r le Prof. L. Balzan dans l’Amérique méridionale et description de quelques autres espèces voisines. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 256–268.

[RB01] Ribera, I., R. G. Beutel, M. Balke & A. P. Vogler. 2002. Discovery of Aspidytidae, a new family of aquatic Coleoptera. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences 269: 2351–2356.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Ecological history of the aquatic insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 388–426. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[WM10] Watts, C. H. S. & J. McRae. 2010. The identity of Haliplus (Coleoptera: Haliplidae) from the Pilbara region of Australia, including the description of four new species. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (4): 387–398.

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