Cicindelinae

Mating pair of green tiger beetles Cicindela campestris, copyright Ian Alexander.


Belongs within: Conjunctae.
Contains: Distipsidera, Megacephala (Pseudotetracha), Cicindela (Myriochile), Cicindela (Rivacindela).

The Cicindelinae include the tiger beetles, fast-moving and often brightly coloured predatory beetles. They have commonly been treated in the past as a distinct family, but phylogenetic studies have agreed that they are nested within the ground beetles of the Carabidae.

Characters (from Lawrence & Britton 1991): Head deflexed; clypeus broader than distance between antennal sockets; labrum large; eyes large and protruding; lateral pronotal carinae absent or incomplete posteriorly; elytra non-striate; legs very long and slender; fore tibia with two terminal spurs; abdomen with six ventrites. Larvae with urogomphi absent; head flattened, serving as a lid or plug for vertical tunnels in soil or wood; abdomen with two or three pairs of dorsal hooks.

Cicindelinae
    |--Megacephalini B14
    |    |--Picnochile fallaciosa (Chevrolat 1854) B14
    |    `--Megacephala Latreille 1802 G07 [incl. Tetracha Hope 1838 LM87]
    |         |  i. s.: M. affinis [incl. M. affinis f. angustata Chevrolat 1841] F54
    |         |         M. australasiae Hope 1842 (see below for synonymy) LM87
    |         |         M. carolina (Linnaeus 1766) L02, LM87 [=Cicindela carolina LM87, *Tetracha carolina LM87]
    |         |         M. howittii Castelnau 1867 LM87
    |         |         M. kimberleyensis Mjöberg 1916 LM87
    |         |         M. mediopilosa LM87
    |         |         M. murchisona (Fleutiaux 1896) [=Tetracha murchisona] LM87
    |         |           |--M. m. murchisona LM87 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |           `--M. m. elongata Horn 1934 LM87
    |         |         M. scaularis Macleay 1863 [=M. (Tetracha) scapularis] LM87
    |         |         M. sobrina [incl. M. sobrina f. ignea Bates 1878] F54
    |         |         M. spenceri Sloane 1897 LM87
    |         |         M. virginica BB68
    |         |--*M. (Megacephala) megacephala (Olivier 1790) [=Cicindela megacephala] LM87
    |         |--M. (Australicapitona Sumlin 1992) G07
    |         |    |--M. (A.) basalis (Macleay 1866) G07 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |    |--M. (A.) bostockii (Castelnau 1867) G07, LM87 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |    |--M. (A.) crucigera Macleay 1863 G07 [=M. (Tetracha) crucigera LM87]
    |         |    |--M. (A.) hopei (Castelnau 1867) G07 [=Tetracha hopei] LM87
    |         |    |--M. (A.) intermedia Sloane 1906 G07 [incl. M. sloanei Horn 1920 LM87]
    |         |    `--M. (A.) karratha Sumlin 1992 G07
    |         `--M. (Pseudotetracha) G07
    `--Cicindela Linnaeus 1758 [Cicindelini] F54
         |  i. s.: C. aeneicollis Bates 1881 F54
         |         C. anchoralis Chevrolat 1845 I92
         |         C. andersonii Gestro 1889 G89b
         |         C. aquatica Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         C. argentata B66
         |         C. aulica G89a
         |         C. auricollis G89b
         |         C. aurulenta [incl. C. flavomaculata Moore 1878] G89b
         |         C. bonina Nakane & Kurosawa 1959 I92
         |         C. burmeisteri C01
         |         C. catena G89b
         |         C. chloris Hope 1831 [incl. C. himalayica Moore 1831] G89b
         |         C. chlorochila Chaud. 1852 G89b
         |         C. craspedota B66
         |         C. cuprascens VD94
         |         C. cyaniventris [incl. C. cyaniventris f. papillosa Chaudoir 1854] F54
         |         C. curvata VD94
         |         C. davisonii Gestro 1889 G89b
         |         C. dorsalis VD94
         |           |--C. d. dorsalis VD94
         |           `--C. d. media VD94
         |         C. elisae I92
         |         C. eugenia Chaud. 1865 G89b
         |         C. exornata G89b
         |         C. feae Gestro 1889 G89b
         |         C. flavopunctata [incl. C. flavopunctata f. rectilatera Chaudoir 1843] F54
         |         C. foveolata Schaum. 1863 G89b
         |         C. fuliginosa G89b
         |         C. funerata Boisd. 1835 M86
         |         C. gracilis [incl. C. gracilis var. angustata] C01
         |         C. hamata VD94
         |         C. hybrida Linnaeus 1758 L58 [incl. C. hybrida var. restricta C01, C. hybrida var. sahlbergi C01]
         |         C. immanis Bates 1874 G89a
         |         C. inspecularis Horn 1904 I92
         |         C. interruptofasciata G89b
         |         C. kaleela Bates 1866 B66
         |         C. latecincta F02
         |         C. lewisi Bates 1873 I92
         |         C. limbata C90
         |           |--C. l. limbata C90
         |           `--C. l. albissima C90
         |         C. limosa G89b
         |         C. lineifrons Chaud. 1865 [=C. lineicollis (l. c.)] G89b
         |         C. longicornis F54
         |         C. macra VD94
         |         C. macrocnema Chaudoir 1852 F54
         |         C. marginata VD94
         |         C. maura Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         C. minuta [incl. C. pumila] G89b
         |         C. niveicincta B66
         |         C. octonotata G89b
         |         C. patruela B14
         |         C. peletieri Lucas 1849 E12
         |         C. psilica Bates 1866 B66
         |         C. punctatissima B66
         |         C. punctulata BB68
         |         C. puritana VD94
         |         C. quadripunctata [=Euryoda quadripunctata] G89b
         |         C. riparia Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         C. roseiventris Chevrolat 1834 F54
         |         C. scutellaris B14
         |         C. sexguttata Fabricius 1775 B14
         |         C. sexpunctata G89b
         |         C. spinolae Gestro 1889 G89b
         |         C. striolata Illig. 1800 [incl. C. semivittata] G89b
         |         C. sumatrensis Herbst 1806 G89b
         |           |--C. s. sumatrensis I92
         |           `--C. s. niponensis Bates 1883 I92
         |         C. sylvatica Linnaeus 1758 TKM93 [incl. C. silvatica var. fennica C01]
         |         C. transbaikalica C01
         |         C. tricolor C01
         |         C. trifasciata I92
         |         C. tritoma G89b
         |         C. vasseleti Chevrolat 1834 F54
         |         C. viridilabris G89b
         |         C. yuasai I92
         |--*C. (Cicindela) campestris Linnaeus 1758 LM87 [incl. C. campestris ab. desertorum C01]
         |--C. (Antennaria Dokhtouroff 1883) LM87
         |    |--C. (A.) crassicornis Macleay 1888 G07
         |    |--C. (A.) doddi Sloane 1905 [incl. C. doddi semiviridis Sloane 1906] LM87
         |    |--C. (A.) ioscelis Hope 1841 (see below for synonymy) LM87
         |    `--C. (A.) sparsimpilosa Horn 1913 LM87
         |--C. (Archidela Rivalier 1963) LM87
         |    |--C. (*A.) nigrina Macleay 1863 [incl. C. nigrina rugosicollis Horn 1913, C. scitula Sloane 1909] LM87
         |    `--C. (A.) darwini Sloane 1909 LM87
         |--C. (Cylindera Westwood 1831) LM87
         |    |--C. (*C.) germanica Linnaeus 1758 LM87
         |    `--C. (C.) discreta Schaum 1863 [incl. C. discreta subfasciata Horn 1892, C. froggatti Macleay 1887] LM87
         |--C. (Euzona Rivalier 1963) LM87
         |    |--C. (*E.) tetragramma Boisduval 1835 [incl. C. lineifera Sloane 1913, C. macleayi Castelnau 1867] LM87
         |    |--C. (E.) aeneodorsis Sloane 1917 LM87
         |    |--C. (E.) albolineata Macleay 1888 [incl. C. queenslandica Sloane 1909] LM87
         |    |--C. (E.) aurita Sloane 1904 LM87
         |    |--C. (E.) gilesi Sloane 1914 LM87
         |    |--C. (E.) levitetragramma Freitag 1979 LM87
         |    `--C. (E.) trivittata Macleay 1888 LM87
         |--C. (Grandopronotalia Horn 1936) LM87
         |    `--C. (G.) carnarvona Freitag 1979 [=Prothyma (*G.) browni Horn 1936 non C. browni Sloane 1913] LM87
         |--C. (Hypaetha LeConte 1860) LM87
         |    |--C. (*H.) quadrilineata Fabricius 1781 LM87
         |    |--C. (H.) antiqua Lea 1917 LM87
         |    |--C. (H.) frenchi Sloane 1904 LM87
         |    |--C. (H.) rafflesia Chaudoir 1852 LM87
         |    |    |--C. r. rafflesia [incl. C. montraveli Blanchard 1853] LM87
         |    |    |--‘Hypaetha’ r. expandosa (Sumlin 1992) G07
         |    |    `--C. r. pseudorafflesia Horn 1925 LM87
         |    `--C. (H.) upsilon Dejean 1825 LM87
         |         |--C. u. upsilon LM87
         |         `--C. u. albicans Chaudoir 1854 LM87
         |--‘Cylindera’ (Ifasina Jeannel 1946) G07
         |    `--C. (I.) centropunctata (Dejean 1831) G07
         |--C. (Macfarlandia Sumlin 1981) LM87
         |    `--C. (*M.) arachnoides Sumlin 1981 LM87
         |--C. (Micromentignatha Sumlin 1981) LM87
         |    |--C. (*M.) leai Sloane 1905 LM87
         |    |    |--C. l. leai [inc. C. l. nigella Sloane 1906] LM87
         |    |    `--C. l. demarzi Mandl 1960 [=C. nigella demarzi] LM87
         |    `--C. (M.) oblongicollis Macleay 1888 LM87 (see below for synonymy)
         |--C. (Myriochile) LM87
         `--C. (Rivacindela) LM87

Cicindelinae incertae sedis:
  Oxychila M02
  Therates G89b
    |--T. basalis M86
    `--T. concinnus G89b
  Omus B90
  Amblycheila B90
    |--A. cylindriformis (Say 1823) B14
    `--A. hoversoni B14
  Lophyra reliqua [incl. L. obliquograciliaenea] B55
  Hipparidium interruptum B55
  Bennigsenium nubiferum [incl. B. flavipes (preoc.)] B55
  Cratohaerea confusa Basilewsky 1954 B55
  Prothyma concinna [incl. P. concinna var. anosignata] B55
  Calochroa Hope 1838 G07
  Odontochila Laporte 1834 F54
    `--O. salvini Bates 1874 F54
  Habrodera Motschulsky 1862 G07
    `--H. capensis (Linnaeus 1764) G07
  Tricondyla Latreille 1822 LM87
    `--*T. aptera (Olivier 1790) LM87 [=Cicindela aptera LM87; incl. T. connata M86]
  Rhysopleura Sloane 1906 LM87
    `--*R. orbicollis (Sloane 1904) [=Distypsidera orbicollis] LM87
  Nickerlea Horn 1899 G07
    |--*N. distypsideroides Horn 1899 LM87
    `--N. sloanei (Lea 1898) [=Cicindela sloanei] LM87
  Neocicindela H82
    |--N. latecincta (White 1846) E02
    `--N. tuberculata (Fabricius 1775) H82
  Lophyridia FG03
    |--L. caucasica (Adams 1817) [=Cicindela caucasica] FG03
    `--L. sturmi (Ménétriés 1832) [=Cicindela caucasica var. sturmi] FG03
  Rhopaloteres B55
    |--R. marshalli B55
    |--R. mechowi Quedenfeldt 1883 B55
    |    |--R. m. mechowi B55
    |    |--R. m. pseudomechowi Horn 1913 B55
    |    `--R. m. transversefasciatus Horn 1913 B55
    |--R. nysus B55
    `--R. regina B55
  Ophryodera B55
    |--O. foliicornis B55
    |    |--O. f. foliicornis B55
    |    |--O. f. divergentemaculata B55
    |    `--O. f. trimaculata B55
    `--O. rufomarginata B55
         |--O. r. rufomarginata (see below for synonymy) B55
         `--O. r. poggei [incl. O. maculatovittata, O. richteri] B55
  Distipsidera LM87
  Ctenostoma (Neoprocepalus) B14
    |--C. (N.) davidsoni B14
    |--C. (N.) guatemalensis B14
    |--C. (N.) laeticolor B14
    `--C. (N.) maculicorne (Chaudoir 1860) B14
  Habroscelimorpha dorsalis (Say 1817) B14
  Manticora B14
    |--M. latipennis Waterhouse 1837 B14
    `--M. maxillosa L02
  Phaeoxantha B14
    |--P. aequinoctialis Dejean 1825 B14
    |    |--P. a. aequinoctialis B14
    |    `--P. a. bifasciata B14
    `--P. cruciata B14
  Aniara B14

Cicindela (Antennaria) ioscelis Hope 1841 [incl. C. platycera Gestro 1879, *Antennaria platycera, C. ioscelis seminuda Mandl 1960, C. ioscelis setosoabdominalis Horn 1913] LM87

Cicindela (Micromentignatha) oblongicollis Macleay 1888 LM87 [incl. C. clarki Sloane 1921 LM87, C. minutissima Mandl 1967 LM87, Micromentignatha minutissima G07, C. tenuicollis Macleay 1888 LM87]

Megacephala australasiae Hope 1842 [incl. M. (Tetracha) humeralis Macleay 1863, Tetracha australasiae nickerli Srnka 1895] LM87

Megacephala murchisona murchisona LM87 [incl. M. murchisona corpulenta Horn 1907 LM87, M. (Pseudotetracha) corpulenta G07]

Megacephala (Australicapitona) basalis (Macleay 1866) G07 [=Tetracha basalis LM87; incl. T. basalis phaeoxantha Horn 1894 LM87]

Megacephala (Australicapitona) bostockii (Castelnau 1867) G07, LM87 [=Tetracha bostockii LM87; incl. T. excisilatera Sloane 1897 LM87]

Ophryodera rufomarginata rufomarginata [incl. O. bohemani, O. bradshawi, O. circumcinctoides, O. distanti, O. oberthueri] B55

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BB68] Basford, N. L., J. E. Butler, C. A. Leone & F. J. Rohlf. 1968. Immunologic comparisons of selected Coleoptera with analyses of relationships using numerical taxonomic methods. Systematic Zoology 17 (4): 388–406.

[B55] Basilewsky, P. 1955. Carabidae (Coleoptera) de l’Angola (première partie). Diamang Publicações Culturais 27: 91–137.

[B66] Bates, H. W. 1866. On a collection of Coleoptera from Formosa sent home by R. Swinhoe, Esq., H. B. M. Consul, Formosa. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 339–355.

[B90] Bell, R. T. 1990. Insecta: Coleoptera Carabidae adults and larvae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1053–1092. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[C90] Crawford, C. S. 1990. Scorpiones, Solifugae, and associated desert taxa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 421–475. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[E02] Emberson, R. M. 2002. The beetle (Coleoptera) fauna of the Chatham Islands: Additions and corrections. New Zealand Entomologist 25: 69–77.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F02] Foord, M. 2002. Entomological Society conference field trip 2002. Weta 24: 37–38.

[F54] Franz, E. 1954. Cicindelidae aus El Salvador (Ins. Col.) Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 351–352.

[FG03] Franzen, M. & J. Gebert. 2003. Distribution of the tiger beetle Lophyridia caucasica (Adams, 1817) in Iran (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae). Zoology in the Middle East 29: 79–82.

[G89a] Gestro, R. 1889a. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso «Esploratore» dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 5–72.

[G89b] Gestro, R. 1889b. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XV.—Primo studio delle cicindele. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 77–91.

[G07] Golding, M. R. 2007. A Pictorial Field Guide to the Beetles of Australia. Part 2: Cicindelidae. Ocean Publishing.

[H82] Helmore, D. W. 1982. Drawings of New Zealand insects. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of New Zealand 8: 1–52.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: a textbook for students and research workers, vol. 2, pp. 543-683. Melbourne University Press.

[LM87] Lawrence, J. F., B. P. Moore, J. E. Pyke & T. A. Weir. 1987. Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 4. Coleoptera: Archostemata, Myxophaga and Adephaga. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M02] Machado, G. 2002. Maternal care, defensive behavior, and sociality in Neotropical Goniosoma harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones). Insectes Sociaux 49: 388–393.

[M86] Macleay, W. 1886. The insects of the Fly River, New Guinea, "Coleoptera". Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 136–157.

[TKM93] Thaler, K., B. Knoflach & E. Meyer. 1993. Fragmenta faunistica Tirolensia—X. Berichte des Naturwissenschaftlich-Medizinischen Vereins in Innsbruck 80: 311–325.

[VD94] Vogler, A. P., & R. Desalle. 1994. Diagnosing units of conservation management. Conservation Biology 8 (2): 354–363.

Last updated: 11 June 2017.

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