Black-eyed Susan Rudbeckia hirta, copyright Matt Lavin.

Belongs within: Asteroideae.
Contains: Helianthus, Verbesininae, Ambrosiinae.

The Heliantheae are a group of composite-flowered plants distinguished by their scaled receptacles and (usually) stiff pappuses. Molecular studies indicate the presence of two major clades within the Heliantheae; interestingly, the morphologically similar genera Montanoa and Rojasianthe, sharing such characters as chromosome number, opposite phyllotaxy, accrescent pales, blackish disc corollas and neutral ray flowers with white corollas, are each placed basally on oppposite clades (Panero & Funk 2002). Montanoa is a genus of trees, shrubs and vines found in South and Central America. Other members of the Heliantheae include the coneflowers of the genus Rudbeckia, native to North America with some species being cultivated for their showy flower with contrasting golden rays and black disc. Zinnia species are native to dry regions of North and South America and have solitary, often colourful, long-stemmed flowers. The Ecliptinae are found in the Old World and North America, particularly in arid habitats, and have radiate or discoid heads and usually persistent pappi, most commonly of scales.

Characters (from Black & Robertson 1965): Receptacle with chaffy scales; involucral bracts without scarious margins; heads mostly heterogamous-radiate; pappus of scales, awns or stiff plumose bristles, rarely absent; style-branches flattish, not truncate; leaves often opposite.

    |--+--Montanoa PF02
    |  |    |--M. bipinnatifida Z02
    |  |    |--M. hibiscifolia H06
    |  |    |--M. liebmannii PF02
    |  |    `--M. pteropoda PF02
    |  `--Ecliptinae PF02
    |       |--Salmea PF02
    |       |--Melanthera niver N10, G38
    |       |--Lasianthaea N10
    |       `--Eclipta BR65
    |            |--E. erecta C55
    |            |--E. platyglossa BR65
    |            `--E. prostrata [incl. E. alba] H93
    `--+--Rojasianthe Standley & Steyermark 1940 [Rojasianthinae] PF02
       `--+--Zaluzania YY22 [Zaluzaniinae PF02]
          |--Engelmaniinae PF02
          |--Helianthus PF02
          |--Verbesininae PF02
          |--Ambrosiinae PF02
          |--Zinnia M99 [Zinniinae PF02]
          |    |--Z. acerosa BT87
          |    |--Z. elegans M99
          |    |--Z. grandiflora C01
          |    `--Z. pumila BTA75
          `--Rudbeckia H93 [Rudbeckiinae PF02]
               |--R. californica H93
               |    |--R. c. var. californica H93
               |    |--R. c. var. glauca H93
               |    `--R. c. var. intermedia H93
               |--R. hirta H93
               |    |--R. h. var. hirta H93
               |    `--R. h. var. pulcherrima H93
               `--R. occidentalis H93

Heliantheae incertae sedis:
  Spilanthes paniculata PF02, BB07
  Galinsoga [Galinsoginae] BR65
    |--G. parviflora BR65
    `--G. quadriradiata H93
  Otopappus N10
  Perymenium N10
  Aspilia eenii N10, CV06
  Heliomeris N10
    |--H. hispida [incl. Viguiera ciliata] H93
    `--H. multiflora H93
         |--H. m. var. multiflora H93
         `--H. m. var. nevadensis [=Viguiera multiflora var. nevadensis] H93
  Synedrella nodiflora N10
  Borrichia frutescens N10
  Espeletia hartwegiana N10, R96
    |--E. h. var. hartwegiana R96
    `--E. h. var. centroandina R96
  Smallanthus N10
  Guizotia abyssinica M99
  Lagascea angustifolia S06, BTA75
  Stachycephalum S06
  Acanthospermum hispidum S06, LK14
  Parthenium S06
    |--P. hysterophorus PP07
    `--P. incanum BT72
  Podanthus S06
  Sanvitalia abertii S06, H93
  Jaegeria S06
  Enhydra fluctuans S06, KLG05
  Eleuteranthera S06
  Zexmenia S06
  Oyedaea S06
  Vigueira S06
  Flourensia cernua S06, MB86
  Encelia S06
    |--E. actoni [=E. virginensis ssp. actoni] H93
    |--E. californica H93
    |--E. farinosa [incl. E. farinosa var. phenicodonta] H93
    |--E. frutescens H93
    `--E. virginensis H93
  Chaenocephalus S06
  Synedrellopsis S06
  Heterospermum S06
  Thelesperma megapotamicum S06, H93
  Isostigma S06
  Chrysanthellum S06

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[BT87] Baker, E. W., & D. M. Tuttle. 1987. The false spider mites of Mexico (Tenuipalpidae: Acari). United States Department of Agriculture, Technical Bulletin 1706: 1–237.

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[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[KLG05] Kumar, S., J. Lal & P. Gupta. 2005. Ricciocarpos Corda (Hepaticae) from Maldah district, West Bengal: a new generic record for Gangetic Plain. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47: 131–132.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[MB86] Matson, J. O., & R. H. Baker. 1986. Mammals of Zacatecas. Special Publications, Museum of Texas Tech University 24: 1–88.

[M99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

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[PF02] Panero, J. L., & V. A. Funk. 2002. Toward a phylogenetic subfamilial classification for the Compositae (Asteraceae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 115 (4): 909–922.

[R96] Righi, G. 1996. Colombian earthworms. Studies on Tropical Andean Ecosystems 4: 485–607.

[S06] Stuckert, T. 1906. Distribución geográfica de la flora Argentina. Géneros de la familia de las compuestas. Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires, serie 3, 6: 303–309.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

[Z02] Zhang, Z.-Q. 2002. Taxonomy of Tetranychus ludeni (Acari: Tetranychidae) in New Zealand and its ecology on Sechium edule. New Zealand Entomologist 25: 27–34.

Last updated: 22 March 2020.

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