Field of Science

Geadephaga

Trachypachus inermis, copyright University of Alaska Museum.


Belongs within: Adephaga.
Contains: Geocharis, Amarini, Pseudomorphinae, Scaritinae, Anchomeninae, Elaphrinae, Conjunctae, Carabinae.

The Geadephaga is a lineage of terrestrial, mostly predatory, adephagan beetles supported, albeit weakly, by molecular analysis. Most Geadephaga are classified in the large and diverse family Carabidae, but the group also includes the small relictual family Trachypachidae, whose members lack the rocking hind coxae of the Carabidae. Modern trachypachids are restricted to the Holarctic Trachypachus and South American Systolosoma (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). The Mesozoic Eodromeinae have mostly been included in the Trachypachidae but a phylogenetic analysis by Beutel et al. (2013) placed at least some eodromeines outside the geadephagan crown clade.

<==Geadephaga [Geodephaga]
    |--Eodromeinae BW13
    |    |--Sogdodromeus LM87
    |    |--Karadromeus BW13
    |    |--Eodromeus robustus BW13
    |    |--Sinodromeus liutiaogouensis Wang, Zhang & Ponomarenko 2012 BW13
    |    `--Ademosynoides asiaticus Martynov 1936 BW13
    `--+--Timarchopsis Brauer, Redtenbacher & Ganglbauer 1989 [=Necronectes Ponamarenko 1977 (preoc.)] BW13
       |    `--T. aquaticus (Ponomarenko 1977) BW13
       `--Carabidae [Carabici, Cicindeletae, Cicindelidae] BW13
            |  i. s.: Carabilarva R02
            |         Protorabus planus P02
            |         Ctenognathus novaezealandiae Fairmaire 1842 H82
            |         Holcaspis WH02
            |           |--H. augustula WH02
            |           |--H. delator WH02
            |           `--H. subaenea WH02
            |         Creobius MC94
            |         Cascellius MC94
            |         Triplosarus E04
            |         Procerus AM07
            |         Glycia castanea [=Cymindis castanea] G89
            |         Trichis pallida G89
            |         Blechrus G89
            |           |--B. infuscatus Motsch 1859 [incl. B. stricticollis Baudi 1864] G89
            |           `--B. minutulus C01b
            |         Lyonichus G89
            |           |--L. beccarii Gestro 1889 [=Lionychus beccarii] G89
            |           `--L. sulcatus Chaud. 1876 G89
            |         Distichus planus (Bonelli 1813) [=Scarites planus] G89
            |         Eccoptomenus eximius [=Chlaenius eximius] G89
            |         Penthimus obscurus G89
            |         Crasodactylus punctatus G89
            |         Dichirotrichus obsoletus [=Harpalus (Ophonus) obsoletus] G89
            |         Poecilus G89
            |           |--P. coerulescens C01b
            |           |--P. conformis G89
            |           |--P. cupreus [incl. P. cupreus ab. erythropus] C01b
            |           |--P. fortipes C01b
            |           |--P. gebleri C01b
            |           |--P. lepidus C01b
            |           |--P. numidicus Lucas 1846 E12
            |           `--P. punctulatus C01b
            |         Orthomus longulus (Reiche 1855) [=Feronia longula] G89
            |         Syrdenus grayi (Woll. 1862) [=Pogonus grayi; incl. P. fulvus Baudi 1864] G89
            |         Lamprophonus Bates 1889 B89
            |           `--*L. lucens Bates 1889 B89
            |         Liodaptus Bates 1889 B89
            |           `--*L. birmanicus Bates 1889 B89
            |         Daptus B89
            |         Oxycentrus Chaud. 1854 [incl. Aegreuter Schmidt-Goeb. 1846 (n. n.)] B89
            |           |--O. angustus Bates 1876 [incl. Argreuter melas Schmidt-Goeb. 1846 (n. n.)] B89
            |           `--O. parallelus B89
            |         Trigonotoma B89
            |           |--T. concinna B89
            |           |--T. dohrnii B89
            |           `--T. lewisii [incl. T. l. var. bhamoensis Bates 1889] B89
            |         Drimostoma rectangulum Chaudoir 1872 B89
            |         Pirantillus Bates 1889 B89
            |           `--*P. feae Bates 1889 B89
            |         Cyphocoleus B89
            |         Onycholabis B89
            |         Glyptolenus B89
            |         Peripristus ater [=Thyreopterus ater] B89
            |         Anchista binotata (see below for synonymy) B89
            |         Maoripamborus AY04
            |         Antilliscaris L88
            |         Prodyscherus L88
            |         Diachromus germanus (Linnaeus 1758) VPB11
            |         Metromenus O94
            |         Geocharis SA04
            |         Apoduvalius (Apoduvalius) anseriformis Salgado & Peláez 2004 F05
            |         Platyderus F05
            |           |--P. marduk Anichtchenko 2004 F05
            |           `--P. preciosae Campos & Novoa 2005 F05
            |         Typhlocharis F05
            |           |--T. fozcoaensis Serrano & Aguiar 2005 F05
            |           |--T. gonzaloi Ortuño 2005 F05
            |           `--T. passosi Serrano & Aguiar 2005 F05
            |         Eobroscus lutshniki Roubal 1928) L98
            |         Promecognathus [Promecognathini] B90
            |         Gehringia [Gehringiini] B90
            |           `--G. olympica B90
            |         Opisthius [Opisthiini] B90
            |           `--O. richardsoni B90
            |         Agra [Agriini] B90
            |           |--A. aenea L02
            |           `--A. oblongopunctatum B90
            |         Lachnophorini B90
            |           |--Ega B90
            |           |--Euphorticus pubescens B90
            |           `--Lachnophorus B90
            |         Amarini B90
            |         Inna [Eucheilini] B90
            |           `--I. texana B90
            |         Thlibops [Scapterini] B55
            |         Lorocera pilicornis C01b
            |         Tachypus C01b
            |           |--T. flavipes C01b
            |           `--T. pallipes C01b
            |         Pseudotaphoxenus dauricus C01b
            |         Zabrus trinii C01b
            |         Ophonus Stephens 1827 LM87
            |           |--O. azureus [incl. O. azureus var. coeruleipennis] C01a
            |           |--O. calceatus C01b
            |           |--O. cordatus C01b
            |           |--O. griseus C01b
            |           `--O. pubescens C01b
            |         Corsyra fusula C01b
            |         Lionedrya mongolica C01b
            |         Brachynus C01b
            |           |--B. barbarus Lucas 1846 E12
            |           |--B. explodens [incl. B. explodens var. glabratus] C01b
            |           |--B. fimbriolatus Lucas 1846 E12
            |           |--B. immaculicornis C01b
            |           `--B. sclopeta C01b
            |         Pseudophonus ruficornis (Fabricius 1775) [=Carabus ruficornis, Harpalus ruficornis] LM87
            |         Fortiseode pervalimand Jia et al. 2011 BW13
            |         Pseudomorphinae B08
            |         Scaritinae R-JC01
            |         Anchomeninae B89
            |         Elaphrinae B14
            |         Loricera Latreille 1802 [Loricerinae, Loricerini] L02
            |           `--*L. pilicornis (Fabricius 1775) L02, VPB11 [=Carabus pilicornis L02]
            |         Peleciinae B55
            |           |--Pelecium A71
            |           `--Disphericus tarsalis B55
            |         Thyreopterinae B55
            |           |--Thyreopterus flavosignatus [incl. T. flavosignatus var. lyratus] B55
            |           `--Thyreopterinus overlaeti [incl. T. overlaeti var. vaneyeni] B55
            |         Cicindinae B14
            |           |--Cicindis horni Bruch 1908 B14
            |           `--Archaeocindis johnbeckeri B14
            |         Collyris B66 [Collyridinae G07]
            |           |--C. filiformis Chaud. 1864 B66
            |           |--C. formosana Bates 1866 B66
            |           `--C. loochooensis Kano 1929 TYM08
            |         Siagona [Siagoninae] B14
            |           |--S. brunnipes G89
            |           |--S. dejeani B14
            |           `--S. europaea Dejean 1826 B14
            |         Omophroninae [Omophronini] B55
            |           |--Phrator nittulatus B55
            |           `--Omophron B55
            |                |--O. congoense B55
            |                |--O. limbatum [=Scolytus limbatus] L02
            |                `--O. tesselatum Say 1823 B14
            |         Orthogonius [Orthogoniinae] B55
            |           |--O. brevilabris B55
            |           |--O. clarkei B55
            |           |--O. davidis B89
            |           |--O. duplicatus [incl. O. alternans] B89
            |           `--O. profundestriatus B89
            |         Hiletinae B14
            |           |--Hiletus B14
            |           `--Eucamaragnathus B14
            |                |--E. amapa B14
            |                |--E. batesi (Chaudoir 1861) B14
            |                |--E. brasiliensis B14
            |                `--E. jaws B14
            |         Graphopterus [Graphopterinae] B55
            |           |--G. circumcinctus B55
            |           |    |--G. c. circumcinctus B55
            |           |    `--G. c. lineolatus B55
            |           |--G. congoensis B55
            |           |    |--G. c. congoensis B55
            |           |    `--G. c. monardi B55
            |           `--G. laticollis B55
            |         Pogonophorus Latreille 1802 L02
            |           `--*P. spinibarbis [=Carabus spinibarbis] L02
            |--Conjunctae MW15
            `--+--Carabinae MW15
               `--Trachypachidae [Trachypachinae, Trachypachini] MW15
                    |--Unda cursoria P02
                    |--Karatoma agilis P02
                    |--Evertus Z02
                    |--Systolosoma brevis R-JC01
                    |--Trachypachus inermis Motschulsky 1850 B14
                    `--Psacodromeus guttata GE05

Anchista binotata [=Plochionus binotatus; incl. Calleida discophora Chaudoir 1852, Paraphoea signifera Bates 1873] B89

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AM07] Acosta, L. E., & G. Machado. 2007. Diet and foraging. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 309–338. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects ‘Down Under’—diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216–234.

[B08] Baehr, M. 2008. New and rare pseudomorphine species from Western Australia (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae, Pseudomorphinae). Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (2): 151–180.

[B55] Basilewsky, P. 1955. Carabidae (Coleoptera) de l’Angola (première partie). Diamang Publicações Culturais 27: 91–137.

[B66] Bates, H. W. 1866. On a collection of Coleoptera from Formosa sent home by R. Swinhoe, Esq., H. B. M. Consul, Formosa. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 339–355.

[B89] Bates, H. W. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmani e regioni vicine. XVI.—On some Carabidae from Burma collected by Mr. L. Fea. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 100–111.

[B90] Bell, R. T. 1990. Insecta: Coleoptera Carabidae adults and larvae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1053–1092. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[BW13] Beutel, R. G., B. Wang, J.-J. Tan, S.-Q. Ge, D. Ren & X.-K. Yang. 2013. On the phylogeny and evolution of Mesozoic and extant lineages of Adephaga (Coleoptera, Insecta). Cladistics 29 (2): 147–165.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[C01a] Csiki, E. 1901a. Utivázlat [Reiseskizze]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. xii–xli. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[C01b] Csiki, E. 1901b. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[E04] Emberson, R. M. 2004. A European ground beetle, Harpalus tardus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Carabidae), in Canterbury, and the predisposition of European carabids to establish in exotic temperate locations. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 39–42.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso «Esploratore» dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 5–72.

[G07] Golding, M. R. 2007. A Pictorial Field Guide to the Beetles of Australia. Part 2: Cicindelidae. Ocean Publishing.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H82] Helmore, D. W. 1982. Drawings of New Zealand insects. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of New Zealand 8: 1–52.

[L98] Lafer, G. S. 1998. Supplementary accounts of the ground-beetles fauna (Coleoptera, Carabidae) of the Southern Kuril Islands. Far Eastern Entomologist 59: 19–20.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[LM87] Lawrence, J. F., B. P. Moore, J. E. Pyke & T. A. Weir. 1987. Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 4. Coleoptera: Archostemata, Myxophaga and Adephaga. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[L88] Liebherr, J. K. 1988. General patterns in West Indian insects, and graphical biogeographic analysis of some circum-Caribbean Platynus beetles (Carabidae). Systematic Zoology 37 (4): 385–409.

[MW15] McKenna, D. D., A. L. Wild, K. Kanda, C. L. Bellamy, R. G. Beutel, M. S. Caterino, C. W. Farnum, D. C. Hawks, M. A. Ivie, M. L. Jameson, R. A. B. Leschen, A. E. Marvaldi, J. V. McHugh, A. F. Newton, J. A. Robertson, M. K. Thayer, M. F. Whiting, J. F. Lawrence, A. Ślipiński, D. R. Maddison & B. D. Farrell. 2015. The beetle tree of life reveals that Coleoptera survived end-Permian mass extinction to diversify during the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Systematic Entomology 40 (4): 835–880.

[MC94] Morrone, J. J., & J. M. Carpenter. 1994. In search of a method for cladistic biogeography: An empirical comparison of component analysis, Brooks parsimony analysis, and three-area statements. Cladistics 10: 99–153.

[O94] Otte, D. 1994. The Crickets of Hawaii: origin, systematics and evolution. The Orthopterists’ Society: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

[P02] Ponomarenko, A. G. 2002. Superorder Scarabaeidea Laicharting, 1781. Order Coleoptera Linné, 1758. The beetles. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 164–176. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[R02] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002. Scope and approach. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 1–8. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[R-JC01] Roig-Juñent, S., & A. C. Cicchino. 2001. Chaltenia patagonica, new genus and species belonging to Chalteniina, a new subtribe of Zolini (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Canadian Entomologist 133: 651–670.

[SA04] Serrano, A. R. M., & C. A. S. Aguiar. 2004. Three new species of the genus Geocharis Ehlers, 1883 from Portugal (Coleoptera, Carabidae). Graellsia 60 (1): 71–80.

[TYM08] Tennent, W. J., M. Yasuda & K. Morimoto. 2008. Lansania Journal of arachnology and zoology—a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal. Archives of Natural History 35 (2): 252–280.

[VPB11] Varet, M., J. Pétillon & F. Burel. 2011. Comparative responses of spider and carabid beetle assemblages along an urban-rural boundary gradient. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 236–243.

[WH02] Worthy, T. H., & R. N. Holdaway. 2002. The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press: Bloomington (Indiana).

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Ecological history of the terrestrial insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 331–388. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

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