Field of Science

Geadephaga

Two-spotted ground beetle Thermophilum homoplatum, photographed by Ted MacRae.


Belongs within: Adephaga.
Contains: Carabini, Pterostichini, Geocharis, Cicindelinae, Conjunctae, Pseudomorphinae, Zuphiinae, Lebiinae, Scaritinae, Brachininae, Anchomeninae, Masoreinae, Chlaeniinae, Oodinae, Panagaeinae, Helluoninae.

The Geadephaga is a lineage of terrestrial, mostly predatory, adephagan beetles supported, albeit weakly, by molecular analysis. Most Geadephaga are classified in the large and diverse family Carabidae, but the group also includes the small relictual family Trachypachidae, whose members lack the rocking hind coxae of the Carabidae. Modern trachypachids are restricted to the Holarctic Trachypachus and South American Systolosoma, but the family was more diverse in the Mesozoic (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

<==Geadephaga [Caraboidea]
    |--Trachypachidae [Trachypachini] GE05
    |    |--Unda cursoria P02
    |    |--Karatoma agilis P02
    |    |--Evertus Z02
    |    |--Systolosoma brevis R-JC01
    |    |--Trachypachus GE05
    |    `--Psacodromeus guttata GE05
    `--Carabidae R-JC01
         |  i. s.: Metrius [Metriini] B90
         |         Carabilarva R02
         |         Protorabus planus P02
         |         Nebriini B90
         |           |--Leistus fulvibarbis (Dejean 1826) B90, VPB11
         |           `--Nebria VPB11
         |                |--N. brevicollis (Fabricius 1792) VPB11
         |                `--N. salina Fairmaire & Laboulbene 1854 VPB11
         |         Ctenognathus novaezealandiae Fairmaire 1842 H82
         |         Euthenaris M83
         |         Notagonum submetallicum M83
         |         Scopodes elaphroides M83
         |         Megadromus E02
         |           |--M. antarcticus (Chaudoir 1865) E02
         |           |--M. rectangulus WH02
         |           `--M. temukensis WH02
         |         Holcaspis WH02
         |           |--H. augustula WH02
         |           |--H. delator WH02
         |           `--H. subaenea WH02
         |         Creobius MC94
         |         Cascellius MC94
         |         Triplosarus E04
         |         Carabini B90
         |         Cychrini B90
         |           |--Cychrus AM07
         |           |--Maronetus B90
         |           |--Scaphinotus B90
         |           `--Spaheroderus B90
         |         Procerus AM07
         |         Notiophilus [Notiophilini] GE05
         |           |--N. biguttatus (Fabricius 1779) VPB11
         |           `--N. quadripunctatus (Dejean 1826) VPB11
         |         Glycia castanea [=Cymindis castanea] G89
         |         Trichis pallida G89
         |         Blechrus G89
         |           |--B. infuscatus Motsch 1859 [incl. B. stricticollis Baudi 1864] G89
         |           `--B. plagiatus [=Lebia plagiata] G89
         |         Lyonichus G89
         |           |--L. beccarii Gestro 1889 [=Lionychus beccarii] G89
         |           `--L. sulcatus Chaud. 1876 G89
         |         Siagona G89
         |           |--S. brunnipes G89
         |           `--S. europaea G89
         |         Graphipterus G89
         |           |--G. circumdatus Raffr. 1885 G89
         |           `--G. serrator (Forsk. 1775) [=Carabus serrator] G89
         |         Distichus planus (Bonelli 1813) [=Scarites planus] G89
         |         Eccoptomenus eximius [=Chlaenius eximius] G89
         |         Penthimus obscurus G89
         |         Crasodactylus punctatus G89
         |         Dichirotrichus obsoletus [=Harpalus (Ophonus) obsoletus] G89
         |         Abacetus B89
         |           |--A. aeneus [=Feronia (Argutor) aenea] G89
         |           |--A. amplicollis Bates 1889 B89
         |           |--A. bisignatus Bates 1889 B89
         |           |--A. quadriguttatus B89
         |           |--A. quadripustulatus B89
         |           `--A. salzmanni B89
         |         Poecilus G89
         |           |--P. conformis G89
         |           `--P. numidicus Lucas 1846 E12
         |         Orthomus longulus (Reiche 1855) [=Feronia longula] G89
         |         Syrdenus grayi (Woll. 1862) [=Pogonus grayi; incl. P. fulvus Baudi 1864] G89
         |         Epicosmus B89
         |           |--E. feae Bates 1889 B89
         |           `--E. transversalis B89
         |         Lamprophonus Bates 1889 B89
         |           `--*L. lucens Bates 1889 B89
         |         Notiobia B89
         |         Liodaptus Bates 1889 B89
         |           `--*L. birmanicus Bates 1889 B89
         |         Agonoderus B89
         |         Daptus B89
         |         Oxycentrus Chaud. 1854 [incl. Aegreuter Schmidt-Goeb. 1846 (n. n.)] B89
         |           |--O. angustus Bates 1876 [incl. Argreuter melas Schmidt-Goeb. 1846 (n. n.)] B89
         |           `--O. parallelus B89
         |         Anoplogenius B89
         |           |--A. microgonus B89
         |           `--A. rutilans Bates 1889 B89
         |         Trigonotoma B89
         |           |--T. concinna B89
         |           |--T. dohrnii B89
         |           `--T. lewisii [incl. T. l. var. bhamoensis Bates 1889] B89
         |         Triplogenius B89
         |           |--T. chalcothorax B89
         |           `--T. mouhotii B89
         |         Drimostoma rectangulum Chaudoir 1872 B89
         |         Morio orientalis B89
         |         Pirantillus Bates 1889 B89
         |           `--*P. feae Bates 1889 B89
         |         Cyphocoleus B89
         |         Onycholabis B89
         |         Glyptolenus B89
         |         Peripristus ater [=Thyreopterus ater] B89
         |         Dolichoctis B89
         |           |--D. ornatellus B89
         |           `--D. rotundatus B89
         |         Anchista binotata (see below for synonymy) B89
         |         Plagiotelum AY04
         |         Pamborus AY04
         |         Maoripamborus AY04
         |         Loricera [Loricerini] B90
         |           `--L. pilicornis (Fabricius 1775) VPB11
         |         Strategus N88
         |         Pterostichini L88
         |         Antilliscaris L88
         |         Prodyscherus L88
         |         Idacarabus G60
         |         Diachromus germanus (Linnaeus 1758) VPB11
         |         Metromenus O94
         |         Geocharis SA04
         |         Apoduvalius (Apoduvalius) anseriformis Salgado & Peláez 2004 F05
         |         Platyderus F05
         |           |--P. marduk Anichtchenko 2004 F05
         |           `--P. preciosae Campos & Novoa 2005 F05
         |         Teretrius (Teretrius) poneli Gomy 2005 F05
         |         Typhlocharis F05
         |           |--T. fozcoaensis Serrano & Aguiar 2005 F05
         |           |--T. gonzaloi Ortuño 2005 F05
         |           `--T. passosi Serrano & Aguiar 2005 F05
         |         Odacanthini B12
         |           |--Porocara Sloane 1917 B12
         |           |--Dicraspeda Chaudoir 1862 B12
         |           |--Eudalia Castelnau 1867 B12
         |           `--Colliuris B90
         |         Eobroscus lutshniki Roubal 1928) L98
         |         Promecognathus [Promecognathini] B90
         |         Gehringia [Gehringiini] B90
         |           `--G. olympica B90
         |         Ozaenini B90
         |         Opisthius [Opisthiini] B90
         |           `--O. richardsoni B90
         |         Elaphrini B90
         |           |--Elaphrus sugai Nakane 1987 I92
         |           |--Belthisa B90
         |           `--Diacheila B90
         |         Agra [Agriini] B90
         |           `--A. oblongopunctatum B90
         |         Lachnophorini B90
         |           |--Ega B90
         |           |--Euphorticus pubescens B90
         |           `--Lachnophorus B90
         |         Leptotrachelus [Ctenodactylini] B90
         |         Amarini B90
         |           |--Disamara arenaria B90
         |           `--Amara B90
         |         Morion [Morionini] B90
         |           `--M. japonicum (Bates 1883) I92
         |         Inna [Eucheilini] B90
         |           `--I. texana B90
         |         Thlibops [Scapterini] B55
         |--Cicindelinae GE05
         |--Conjunctae R-JC01
         |--Rhysodinae [Rhysodini] GE05
         |--Pseudomorphinae B08
         |--Zuphiinae B86
         |--Lebiinae GE05
         |--Scaritinae R-JC01
         |--Brachininae B12
         |--Paussus A61 [Paussinae GE05]
         |    `--P. lineatus A61
         |--Licininae [Licinini] BR05
         |    |--Licinus Fabricius 1802 BR05
         |    |--Badister bipustulatus (Fabricius 1792) B90, VPB11
         |    |--Diplocheila B90
         |    `--Dicaelus B90
         |--Anchomeninae B89
         |--Omophroninae [Omophronini] B55
         |    |--Omophron congoense B55
         |    `--Phrator nittulatus B55
         |--Perigoninae B55
         |    |--Perigona [Perigonini] B90
         |    |    |--P. congoana B55
         |    |    |--P. nigriceps B90
         |    |    `--P. ruficollis Motsch 1851 B89
         |    `--Trechicus nigriceps B55
         |--Hexagonia [Hexagoniinae] B55
         |    |--H. angustula B55
         |    `--H. scabricollis B55
         |--Peleciinae B55
         |    |--Pelecium A71
         |    `--Disphericus tarsalis B55
         |--Graphopterus [Graphopterinae] B55
         |    |--G. circumcinctus B55
         |    |    |--G. c. circumcinctus B55
         |    |    `--G. c. lineolatus B55
         |    |--G. congoensis B55
         |    |    |--G. c. congoensis B55
         |    |    `--G. c. monardi B55
         |    `--G. laticollis B55
         |--Masoreinae B55
         |--Chlaeniinae B55
         |--Oodinae B55
         |--Panagaeinae B55
         |--Orthogonius [Orthogoniinae] B55
         |    |--O. brevilabris B55
         |    |--O. clarkei B55
         |    |--O. davidis B89
         |    |--O. duplicatus [incl. O. alternans] B89
         |    `--O. profundestriatus B89
         |--Pentagonica [Pentagonicinae, Pentagonicini] B55
         |    |--P. conradti B55
         |    `--P. elegans B55
         |--Catascopus [Catascopinae] B55
         |    |--C. facialis B89
         |    `--C. senegalensis B55
         |--Thyreopterinae B55
         |    |--Thyreopterus flavosignatus [incl. T. flavosignatus var. lyratus] B55
         |    `--Thyreopterinus overlaeti [incl. T. overlaeti var. vaneyeni] B55
         |--+--Thermophilum Basilewsky 1950 B55
         |  |    |--T. crudele B55
         |  |    |    |--T. c. crudele B55
         |  |    |    |--T. c. bennigseni B55
         |  |    |    `--T. c. westermanni B55
         |  |    |--T. homoplatum B55
         |  |    `--T. limbatum B55
         |  |         |--T. l. limbatum B55
         |  |         |--T. l. machadoi Basilewsky 1955 B55
         |  |         `--T. l. ovampoa B55
         |  |--Anthia B55
         |  |    |--A. cinctipennis B55
         |  |    |    |--A. c. cinctipennis B55
         |  |    |    `--A. c. actaeon B55
         |  |    `--A. circumscripta B55
         |  |         |--A. c. circumscripta B55
         |  |         `--A. c. omostigma [incl. A. niveicincta] B55
         |  |--Microlestia B55
         |  |    |--M. atrata B55
         |  |    |--M. cribricollis B55
         |  |    `--M. immerita B55
         |  `--Netrodera formicaria B55
         |       |--N. f. formicaria B55
         |       |--N. f. damarensis B55
         |       `--N. f. peringueyi B55
         `--Helluoninae B55

Anchista binotata [=Plochionus binotatus; incl. Calleida discophora Chaudoir 1852, Paraphoea signifera Bates 1873] B89

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AM07] Acosta, L. E., & G. Machado. 2007. Diet and foraging. In Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones (R. Pinto-da-Rocha, G. Machado & G. Giribet, eds) pp. 309-338. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[A61] Andreae, H. 1961. Coleoptera: Cossyphodidae. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebeck. South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 198-216. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects 'Down Under' - diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216-234.

[B86] Baehr, M. 1986. Revision of the Australian Zuphiinae. 6. The genus Planetes Macleay. Supplement to the other genera (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae). Spixiana 9 (2): 151-168.

[B08] Baehr, M. 2008. New and rare pseudomorphine species from Western Australia (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae, Pseudomorphinae). Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (2): 151-180.

[B12] Baehr, M. 2012. A new species of the genus Pheropsophus (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Brachininae) from northern Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (1): 62-67.

[B55] Basilewsky, P. 1955. Carabidae (Coleoptera) de l'Angola (première partie). Diamang Publicações Culturais 27: 91-137.

[B89] Bates, H. W. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmani e regioni vicine. XVI. – On some Carabidae from Burma collected by Mr. L. Fea. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 100-111.

[B90] Bell, R. T. 1990. Insecta: Coleoptera Carabidae adults and larvae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1053-1092. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, J. Frýda, B. Hausdorf, W. Ponder, Á. Valdés & A. Warén. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1-397.

[E02] Emberson, R. M. 2002. The beetle (Coleoptera) fauna of the Chatham Islands: Additions and corrections. New Zealand Entomologist 25: 69-77.

[E04] Emberson, R. M. 2004. A European ground beetle, Harpalus tardus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Carabidae), in Canterbury, and the predisposition of European carabids to establish in exotic temperate locations. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 39-42.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261-282.

[G60] Gatenby, J. B. 1960. The Australasian mycetophilid glowworms. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 577-593.

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso «Esploratore» dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880. – IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 5-72.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H82] Helmore, D. W. 1982. Drawings of New Zealand insects. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of New Zealand 8: 1-52.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[L98] Lafer, G. S. 1998. Supplementary accounts of the ground-beetles fauna (Coleoptera, Carabidae) of the Southern Kuril Islands. Far Eastern Entomologist 59: 19-20.

[L88] Liebherr, J. K. 1988. General patterns in West Indian insects, and graphical biogeographic analysis of some circum-Caribbean Platynus beetles (Carabidae). Systematic Zoology 37 (4): 385-409.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: An annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1-98.

[MC94] Morrone, J. J., & J. M. Carpenter. 1994. In search of a method for cladistic biogeography: An empirical comparison of component analysis, Brooks parsimony analysis, and three-area statements. Cladistics 10: 99-153.

[N88] Noonan, G. R. 1988. Biogeography of North American and Mexican insects, and a critique of vicariance biogeography. Systematic Zoology 37 (4): 366-384.

[O94] Otte, D. 1994. The Crickets of Hawaii: origin, systematics and evolution. The Orthopterists' Society: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

[P02] Ponomarenko, A. G. 2002. Superorder Scarabaeidea Laicharting, 1781. Order Coleoptera Linné, 1758. The beetles. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 164-176. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[R02] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002. Scope and approach. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 1-8. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[R-JC01] Roig-Juñent, S., & A. C. Cicchino. 2001. Chaltenia patagonica, new genus and species belonging to Chalteniina, a new subtribe of Zolini (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Canadian Entomologist 133: 651-670.

[SA04] Serrano, A. R. M. & C. A. S. Aguiar. 2004. Three new species of the genus Geocharis Ehlers, 1883 from Portugal (Coleoptera, Carabidae). Graellsia 60 (1): 71-80.

[VPB11] Varet, M., J. Pétillon & F. Burel. 2011. Comparative responses of spider and carabid beetle assemblages along an urban-rural boundary gradient. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 236-243.

[WH02] Worthy, T. H., & R. N. Holdaway. 2002. The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press: Bloomington (Indiana).

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Ecological history of the terrestrial insects. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 331-388. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

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