Dasyrhicnoessa sp., from PaDIL.

Belongs within: Ephydroidea.

The Tethinidae are a group of small to medium-sized flies usually associated with coastal marine or saline habitats. They may be distinguished from similar flies by the absence of well-developed genal setae, the presence of a single costal break and a complete cell cup in the wing, and the absence of a preapical dorsal seta on the tibiae (Mathis 2010).

Characters (from Mathis 2010): Small to medium-sized flies, body length 1.6–4 mm; frequently invested with pale yellowish to brown microtomentum. With one to four orbital and zero to four fronto-orbital setae; postocellar setae convergent or absent. Vibrissal seta various, if present usually weak. With one proepisternal seta; one proepimeral seta; anepisternum with one or more setae and some setulae posteriorly. Precoxal bridge present. Wing hyaline to infuscate or pale yellow; C with Sc break only; cell cup present but small; A1 weakened apically, not reaching wing margin. Tibiae lacking preapical dorsal seta. Male terminalia with epandrium bearing two surstyli ventrally; anterior surstylus distinctive; posterior surstylus generally strongly setulose and lobe-like; phallapodeme long, slender; ejaculatory apodeme usually large; phallus usually elongate, ribbon-like, sinuous, subcylindrical, with a more or less dense ventral pubescence, often with several microscopic papillae. Female terminalia with two sclerotised spermathecae; cercus subcylindrical or compressed, sometimes bearing strong, spinelike setulae (pseudacanthophorites); tergites 7 and 7 mostly with characteristic pigmented areas; epiproct generally small, bearing pair of setulae dorsally on apical third; hypoproct large.

<==Tethinidae M10a
    |  i. s.: Listriomastax M10a
    |         Macrocanace V87
    |           |--M. australis V87
    |           `--M. littorea V87
    |--Suffomyia M10b [Zaleinae M10a]
    |--Horaismoptera V87 [Horaismopterinae M10a]
    |    `--H. hennigi V87
    |--Apetaenus [Apetaeninae] M10a
    |    |--A. littoreus M10a
    |    `--A. watsoni M10a
    |--Pelomyiinae M10a
    |    |--+--Pelomyiella mallochi M10a
    |    |  `--Neopelomyia rostrata M10a
    |    `--+--Pelomyia M10a
    |       |    |--P. coronata M10a
    |       |    `--P. occidentalis M10a
    |       `--Masoniella M10a
    |            |--M. advena M10a
    |            |--M. argentinaensis M10a
    |            `--M. richardsi M10a
    `--Tethininae M10a
         |--Afrotethina M04
         |--Plesiotethina Munari 2000 M04
         |    `--*P. australis Munari 2000 M04
         |--Thitena Munari 2004 M04
         |    `--*T. cadaverina Munari 2004 M04
         |--Sigaloethina Munari 2004 M04
         |    `--*S. phaia Munari 2004 M04
         |--Pseudorhicnoessa Malloch 1914 [incl. Macrotethina Malloch 1935] M04
         |    |--*P. spinipes Malloch 1914 [incl. Tethina (*Macrotethina) tibiseta Malloch 1935, P. tibiseta] M04
         |    `--P. rattii M10a
         |--Tethina Haliday in Curtis 1837 M04 [incl. Phycomyza V87]
         |    |  i. s.: T. albosetulosa M10a
         |    |         T. flavigenis M10a
         |    |         T. grisea M10a
         |    |         T. hirsuta Munari 2000 M04
         |    |         T. horripilans M10a
         |    |         T. nigriseta Malloch 1924 [=Rhicnoessa nigriseta] M04
         |    |         T. pallidiseta Malloch 1935 M04
         |    |         T. parvula M10a
         |    |--*T. (Tethina) illota (Haliday 1838) [=Opomyza (*Tethina) illota] M04
         |    `--T. (Rhicnoessa) C-T92
         |         |--T. (R.) alboguttata Strobl 1900 C-T92
         |         |--T. (R.) ochracea (Hendel 1913) C-T92 (see below for synonymy)
         |         `--T. (R.) simplex Collin 1966 C-T92
         `--Dasyrhicnoessa Hendel 1934 M04
              |  i. s.: D. serratula Malloch 1935 (n. d.) M04
              |--*D. fulva (Hendel 1913) [=Rhicnoessa fulva] M04
              |--D. aquila Munari 2002 M04
              |--D. atripes Munari 2004 M04
              |--D. bicolor Munari 2002 M04
              |--D. boninensis Sasakawa 1995 M04
              |--D. clandestina Munari 2002 M04
              |--D. ferruginea (Lamb 1914) [=Rhicnoessa ferruginea, Tethina ferruginea] M04
              |--D. fulvescens Malloch 1935 M04
              |--D. humilis Munari 2004 M04
              |--D. insularis (Aldrich 1931) (see below for synonymy) M04
              |--D. macalpinei Munari 2004 M04
              |--D. mathisi Munari 2002 M04
              |--D. ostentatrix Munari 2004 M04
              |--D. pallida Munari 2004 M04
              |--D. platypes Sasakawa 1986 M04
              |--D. sexseriata (Hendel 1913) (see below for synonymy) M04
              |--D. tripunctata Sasakawa 1974 [incl. D. phyllodes Sasakawa 1995] M04
              |--D. vockerothi Hardy & Delfinado 1980 [incl. D. occidentalis Munari 1986] M04
              |--D. yoshiyasui Sasakawa 1986 M04
              `--D. ciliata group M04
                   |--D. ciliata Munari 2004 M04
                   `--+--D. longisetosa Munari 2004 M04
                      `--D. priapus Munari 2004 M04

Dasyrhicnoessa insularis (Aldrich 1931) [=Tethina insularis, Rhicnoessa insularis; incl. Dasyrhicnoessa freidbergi Munari 1994, Tethina lasiophthalma Malloch 1933, D. lasiophthalma] M04

Dasyrhicnoessa sexseriata (Hendel 1913) [=Rhicnoessa sexstriata, Tethina sexstriata; incl. Dasyrhicnoessa asymbasia Sasakawa 1995] M04

Tethina (Rhicnoessa) ochracea (Hendel 1913) C-T92 [=Rhicnoessa ochracea M04; incl. T. canzonerii Munari 1981 M04, T. chilensis Malloch 1934 M04, Rhicnoessa texana Malloch 1913 M04, T. texana M04]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[C-T92] Carles-Tolr√°, M. 1992. New and interesting records of Diptera Acalyptrata from Spain. Part I: Acartophthalmidae, Opomyzidae, Anthomyzidae, Asteiidae, Carnidae, Tethinidae, Milichiidae and Cryptochetidae. Bull. Annls Soc. R. Belge Ent. 128: 343–353.

[M10a] Mathis, W. N. 2010a. Tethinidae (beach flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1109–1114. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[M10b] Mathis, W. N. 2010b. Canacidae (surf flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1115–1119. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[M04] Munari, L. 2004. Beach flies (Diptera: Tethinidae: Tethininae) from Australia and Papua New Guinea, with descriptions of two new genera and ten new species. Records of the Australian Museum 56: 29–56.

[V87] Vockeroth, J. R. 1987. Tethinidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1073–1078. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

Last updated: 11 July 2021.

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