Melolonthinae

Emerald eucalyptus chafer Xylonichus piliger, copyright Mark Ridgway.


Belongs within: Scarabaeoidea.
Contains: Rhizotrogus, Diphucephala, Automolius, Aplopsis, Maechidius, Heteronyx, Neoheteronyx, Phyllotocus, Lepidiota, Antitrogus, Rhopaea, Melolontha, Gnaphalopoda, Sericesthis, Scitala, Liparetrus, Colpochila.

The Melolonthinae, chafers, is a cosmopolitan group of scarabaeid beetles with soil-dwelling larvae that feed on roots and hummus. Though larvae may live for up to two years, the adult life period is relatively brief and lasts only a few days or weeks. Adults of some species feed on the leaves of trees; others do not feed as adults at all (Houston & Weir 1992).

Characters (from Houston & Weir 1992): Head and pronotum of males unarmed; mandibles completely concealed from above; abdominal spiracles diverging, with one pair exposed beneath edge of elytra; fore coxae transverse, mesothoracic epimera not visible from above; mid coxae transverse or only slightly oblique; tarsal claws equal. Larvae with apical antennal segment about as wide as penultimate segment; mandibles withouyt transverse granular ridges forming stridulatory areas; galea and lacinia either partly fused proximally or fitting tightly together; anal cleft usually Y-shaped or angulate.

<==Melolonthinae [Melolonthidae, Melolonthides]
    |--Comophorina Strand 1928 (see below for synonymy) HW92
    |    `--*C. testaceipennis (Blanchard 1850) [=*Comophorus testaceipennis, *Comophus testaceipennis] HW92
    |--Plectris Saint-Fargeau & Serville 1828 [Macrodactylini] HW92
    |    |--*P. tomentosa Saint-Fargeau & Serville 1828 HW92
    |    `--P. aliena Chapin 1934 HW92
    |--Phyllotocidium Blackburn 1898 [Phyllotocidiini] HW92
    |    |--*P. macleayi (Blackburn 1892) [=Cheiragra macleayi] HW92
    |    |--P. bimaculiflavum Lea 1917 HW92
    |    |--P. pictum Lea 1916 HW92
    |    `--P. viridis Britton 1957 HW92
    |--Diphucephalini [Diphucephalides] HW92
    |    |--Diphucephala HW92
    |    `--Cunderdinia Lea 1916 HW92
    |         |--*C. variabilis Lea 1916 HW92
    |         `--C. setistriata Lea 1916 HW92
    |--Pachytricha Hope 1841 [=Pachytrichia (l. c.); Pachytrichini] HW92
    |    |--*P. castanea Hope 1841 [incl. P. munda Sharp 1874, P. pallens Sharp 1874] HW92
    |    |--P. demarzi Frey 1966 HW92
    |    |--P. minor Sharp 1874 HW92
    |    |--P. robusta Sharp 1874 HW92
    |    `--P. tecta Sharp 1874 HW92
    |--Euchirini B14
    |    |--Euchirus B14
    |    |--Propomacrus B14
    |    `--Cheirotonus B14
    |         |--C. arnaudi B14
    |         |--C. battareli B14
    |         |--C. formosanus B14
    |         |--C. gestroi B14
    |         |--C. jambar Kurosawa 1984 I92
    |         |--C. jansoni B14
    |         |--C. macleayi Hope 1840 B14
    |         |--C. otai I92
    |         `--C. parryi B14
    |--Automoliini [Automolini] HW92
    |    |--Automolius B78
    |    |--Aplopsis HW92
    |    |--Bryantella Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |    `--*B. castaneua Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |--Maechidinus Lea 1919 HW92
    |    |    |--*M. latericollis Lea 1919 HW92
    |    |    |--M. marginalis Lea 1919 HW92
    |    |    `--M. sculptilis Britton 1957 HW92
    |    `--Phyllochlaenia Blanchard 1846 (see below for synonymy) HW92
    |         |--*P. rufescens Blanchard 1846 HW92 [=Caulobius rufescens M86; incl. C. advena Blackburn 1898 HW92]
    |         |--‘Caulobius’ cervinus Boisd. 1835 M86
    |         |--‘Caulobius’ modestus Blanch. 1850 M86
    |         |--‘Caulobius’ pubescens Erichs. 1842 M86
    |         `--P. villosus (Guillou 1844) (see below for synonymy) HW92
    |--Maechidiini [Maechidiides] B78
    |    |--Maechidius HW92
    |    |--Microcoenus Britton 1957 B78
    |    |    `--*M. nanus Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |--Harpechys Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |    `--*H. chilo Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |--Microthopus Burmeister 1855 HW92
    |    |    `--*M. castanopterus Burmeister 1855 [incl. Macleayia hybrida Blackburn 1888] HW92
    |    |--Termitophilus Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |    `--*T. spadix Britton 1957 HW92
    |    `--Epholcis Waterhouse 1875 HW92
    |         |--*E. divergens Waterhouse 1875 [incl. Maechidius albertisi Fairmaire 1877] HW92
    |         |--E. bilobiceps (Fairmaire 1877) [=Maechidius bilobiceps] HW92
    |         |--E. gracilis (Waterhouse 1875) [=Maechidius gracilis] HW92
    |         |--E. longior Blackburn 1898 HW92
    |         `--E. uniformis Britton 1957 HW92
    |--Xylonychini HW92
    |    |--Exostethus Britton 1979 HW92
    |    |    `--*E. brunneus Britton 1979 HW92
    |    |--Nitorellus Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |    `--*N. splendidus (Lea 1919) [=Colymbomorpha splendida] HW92
    |    |--Phyllococerus Waterhouse 1876 HW92
    |    |    `--*P. purpurascens Waterhouse 1876 HW92
    |    |--Chariochilus Brenske 1898 [incl. Lepidostethaspis Arrow 1924] HW92
    |    |    |--*C. metallescens Brenske 1898 HW92
    |    |    `--C. costipennis Moser 1907 [incl. Stethaspis squamosus Lea 1919, *Lepidostethaspis squamosus] HW92
    |    |--Colymbomorpha Blanchard 1850 HW92
    |    |    |--*C. lineata Blanchard 1850 HW92 [=Calonota lineata M86; incl. Ca. hilaris M86]
    |    |    |--C. uniformis Britton 1959 B78
    |    |    `--C. vittata Britton 1959 B78
    |    `--Xylonichus Boisduval 1835 [=Stethaspis Hope 1837, Xylonychus (l. c.)] HW92
    |         |--*X. eucalypti Boisduval 1835 [=*Stethaspis eucalypti] HW92
    |         |    |--X. e. eucalypti (see below for synonymy) HW92
    |         |    `--X. e. pentaphyllus (Arrow 1924) [=Stethaspis laetus pentaphyllus] HW92
    |         |--X. dispar (Arrow 1924) [=Stethaspis dispar] HW92
    |         |--X. monticola (Blackburn 1911) [=Stethaspis monticola] HW92
    |         |--X. nigrescens Blanchard 1851 HW92
    |         |--X. orpheus Fauvl. 1862 M86
    |         |--X. piliger Blanchard 1851 HW92
    |         `--X. sternalis (Blackburn 1912) [=Stethaspis sternalis] HW92
    |--Systellopini B78
    |    |--Chilodiplus Sharp 1877 HW92
    |    |    `--*C. albertisii Sharp 1877 HW92
    |    |--Metascelis Westwood 1842 HW92
    |    |    `--*M. flexilis Westwood 1842 HW92
    |    |--Systellopus Sharp 1877 HW92
    |    |    `--*S. obtusus Sharp 1877 [incl. S. ater Lea 1919, S. validus Sharp 1877] HW92
    |    |--Prochelyna Erichson 1847 [incl. Atholerus Sharp 1877, Tosotarsus Sharp 1877, Toxotarsus (l. c.)] HW92
    |    |    |--*P. heterodoxa Erichson 1847 [incl. *Atholerus obscurus Sharp 1877] HW92
    |    |    |--P. houstoni Allsopp 1990 HW92
    |    |    `--P. velutina (Sharp 1877) [=*Tosotarsus velutinus] HW92
    |    |--Sarothromerus Blackburn 1907 HW92
    |    |    |--*S. sharpi (Blackburn 1905) [=Enamillus sharpi] HW92
    |    |    |--S. aranda Allsopp 1990 HW92
    |    |    `--S. niger Allsopp 1990 HW92
    |    |--Sphyrocallus Sharp 1877 HW92
    |    |    |--*S. brunneus Sharp 1877 HW92
    |    |    |--S. desertus Allsopp 1990 HW92
    |    |    `--S. lloydi Allsopp 1990 HW92
    |    `--Enamillus Sharp 1877 [incl. Trichelasmus Sharp 1877] HW92
    |         |--*E. striatus Sharp 1877 HW92
    |         |--E. basalis (Blackburn 1907) [=Trichelasmus basalis] HW92
    |         |--E. bicolor (Blackburn 1905) [=Sphyrocallus bicolor] HW92
    |         |--E. clavensis Allsopp 1990 HW92
    |         |--E. mauricei Blackburn 1907 HW92
    |         |--E. pilicollis (Sharp 1877) [=*Trichelasmus pilicollis] HW92
    |         |--E. rectus Allsopp 1990 HW92
    |         `--E. septus Allsopp 1990 HW92
    |--Heteronycini B78
    |    |--Heteronyx HW92
    |    |--Neoheteronyx HW92
    |    |--Callabonica Blackburn 1895 HW92
    |    |    `--*C. propria Blackburn 1895 HW92
    |    |--Cubidens Britton in Houston & Weir 1992 [=Paraheteronyx Britton 1988 non Moser 1924] HW92
    |    |    `--*C. unguiculatus (Burmeister 1855) [=Heteronyx unguiculata, *Paraheteronyx unguiculata] HW92
    |    |--Eurychelus Blanchard 1850 HW92
    |    |    `--*E. marmoratus Blanchard 1850 HW92
    |    |--Nepytis Erichson 1842 HW92
    |    |    `--*N. russula Erichson 1842 HW92
    |    |--Proborhinus Britton 1988 HW92
    |    |    `--*P. cornutus (Blackburn 1910) [=Heteronyx cornutus] HW92
    |    |--Odontotonyx Macleay 1871 HW92
    |    |    |--*O. brunneipennis Macleay 1871 HW92
    |    |    `--O. ruficeps Lea 1919 HW92
    |    |--Webbella Britton 1988 HW92
    |    |    |--*W. firma (Blackburn 1909) [=Heteronyx firmus] HW92
    |    |    `--W. labralis (Blackburn 1908) HW92 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--Acheilo Britton 1988 HW92
    |    |    |--*A. capitalis (Blackburn 1910) [=Heteronyx capitalis] HW92
    |    |    |--A. clypeatus Britton 1988 HW92
    |    |    `--A. pedarius (Blackburn 1910) [=Heteronyx pedarius] HW92
    |    `--Pseudoheteronyx Blackburn 1892 HW92
    |         |--*P. baldiensis (Blackburn 1892) [=Heteronyx baldiensis] HW92
    |         |--P. basicollis Lea 1919 HW92
    |         |--P. creber Blackburn 1908 [incl. P. seticollis Lea 1919] HW92
    |         |--P. helaeoides Blackburn 1892 HW92
    |         |--P. laticollis Blackburn 1908 HW92
    |         `--P. puncticollis Lea 1919 HW92
    |--Sericini [Phyllotocides, Sericides] B78
    |    |--Phyllotocus HW92
    |    |--Sphaeroscelis Burmeister 1855 [incl. Cheirrhamphica Blackburn 1898] HW92
    |    |    `--*S. pectoralis (Burmeister 1855) (see below for synonymy) HW92
    |    |--Cheirora Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |    `--*C. interstitialis (Blackburn 1898) (see below for synonymy) HW92
    |    |--Opsitocus Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |    `--*O. obscurus (Lea 1920) [=Phyllotocus obscurus] HW92
    |    |--Cheirodontus Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |    |--*C. basicollis (Lea 1919) [=Phyllotocus basicollis] HW92
    |    |    `--C. bilobus (Lea 1920) [=Phyllotocus bilobus] HW92
    |    |--Ancylonyx Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |    |--*A. vittatus (Macleay 1887) HW92 [=Phyllotocus vittatus HW92, Cheiragra vittata L19]
    |    |    |--A. melanurus Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |    `--A. sobrinus Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |--Anthotocus Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |    |--*A. luridus (Macleay 1864) HW92 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--A. antennalis (Lea 1919) [=Phyllotocus antennalis] HW92
    |    |    |--A. cribriceps (Lea 1919) [=Phyllotocus cribriceps] HW92
    |    |    |--A. fugitivus (Lea 1920) [=Phyllotocus fugitivus] HW92
    |    |    `--A. perissus Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |--Cheiragra Macleay 1864 HW92
    |    |    |--*C. pusilla (Blanchard 1850) (see below for synonymy) HW92
    |    |    |--C. leai Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |    |--C. ruficollis Macleay 1864 (see below for synonymy) HW92
    |    |    |--C. septentrionalis Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |    `--C. sericeipennis Lea 1919 HW92
    |    `--Neophyllotocus Blackburn 1898 [=Macrothops Macleay 1864 non Boisduval 1835] HW92
    |         |--N. cuspis Britton 1959 B78
    |         |--N. dispar (Blackburn 1890) [=Phyllotocus dispar] HW92
    |         |--N. legnotus Britton 1957 HW92
    |         |--N. pallidipennis (Macleay 1864) [=Macrothops pallidipennis] HW92
    |         |--N. rostratus (Macleay 1864) [=Macrothops rostrata] HW92
    |         |--N. undarus Allsopp 1976 HW92
    |         `--N. xanthipennis Britton 1957 HW92
    |--Melolonthini B78
    |    |--Holotrichia serrata [incl. Neolepidiota obscura Blackburn 1890] B78
    |    |--Lepidiota B78
    |    |--Antitrogus B78
    |    |--Rhopaea B78
    |    |--Phyllophaga helleri B14, MHG04
    |    |--Melolontha E12
    |    |--Zietzia Blackburn 1894 B78
    |    |    `--*Z. geologa Blackburn 1894 B78
    |    |--Holorhopaea Britton 1978 B78
    |    |    `--*H. sagata Britton 1978 B78
    |    |--Nanorhopaea Britton 1978 B78
    |    |    `--*N. testacea Britton 1978 B78
    |    |--Microrhopaea Lea 1920 B78
    |    |    `--*M. flavipennis Lea 1920 B78
    |    |--Othnonius Olliff 1891 HW92
    |    |    `--*O. batesii Olliff 1891 HW92
    |    |--Megarhopaea Britton 1978 B78
    |    |    `--*M. gigas (Lea 1916) [=Pararhopaea gigas; incl. Rhopaea demarzi Frey 1969] B78
    |    |--Hypolepida Britton 1978 B78
    |    |    `--*H. wilsoni Britton 1978 B78
    |    |--Megacoryne Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    `--*M. carnabyorum Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |--Allothnonius Britton 1978 B78
    |    |    |--*A. brooksi Britton 1978 B78
    |    |    `--A. barretti Britton 1978 B78
    |    |--Metatrogus Britton 1978 B78
    |    |    |--*M. septuosus Britton 1978 B78
    |    |    |--M. castaneus Britton 1978 B78
    |    |    `--M. praeceps Britton 1978 B78
    |    |--Dermolepida Arrow 1941 [=Lepidoderma Waterhouse 1875 non Reuss 1855] B78
    |    |    |--*D. albohirtum (Waterhouse 1875) (see below for synonymy) HW92
    |    |    |--D. lixi (Nonfried 1894) [=Lepidoderma lixi; incl. L. glaber Brenske 1895] HW92
    |    |    `--D. nigrum B78
    |    |--Pararhopaea Blackburn 1911 B78
    |    |    |--*P. callabonensis (Blackburn 1894) [=Rhopaea callabonensis] B78
    |    |    |--P. minor Britton 1978 B78
    |    |    |--P. moffatensis Allsop 1990 HW92
    |    |    `--P. rhipidocera Lea 1916 B78
    |    |--Pseudholophylla Blackburn 1911 (see below for synonymy) HW92
    |    |    |--*P. furfuracea (Burmeister 1855) [=Holophylla furfuracea] B78
    |    |    |--P. castaneipennis (Macleay 1888) [=Rhopaea castaneipennis] B78
    |    |    |--P. cavifrons (Lea 1919) [=Paralepidiota cavifrons] B78
    |    |    |--P. lepidoptera (Blackburn 1912) [=*Paralepidiota lepidoptera] HW92
    |    |    `--P. soror Britton 1978 B78
    |    `--Xenotrogus Britton 1978 B78
    |         |--*X. vitiensis (Fairmaire 1879) [=Rhopaea vitiensis] B78
    |         |--X. bisquamulatus (Moser 1919) [=Rhopaea bisquamulata] B78
    |         |--X. solomonensis (Moser 1919) [=Rhopaea solomonensis] B78
    |         |--X. subnitidus (Arrow 1915) [=Rhopaea subnitida] B78
    |         `--X. vestitus (Arrow 1915) [=Rhopaea vestita] B78
    |--Scitalini B78
    |    |--Sericoides HW92
    |    |--Gnaphalopoda HW92
    |    |--Sericesthis HW92
    |    |--Scitala HW92
    |    |--Colpochelyne Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    `--*C. dux Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |--Idanastes Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    `--*I. abditus Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |--Phorine Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    `--*P. anomala (Blackburn 1907) [=Byrrhomorpha anomala] HW92
    |    |--Synchilus Britton 1955 HW92
    |    |    `--*S. gisleni Britton 1955 HW92
    |    |--Xyrodes Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    `--*X. calorata (Blackburn 1907) [=Frenchella calorata] HW92
    |    |--Protelura Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    |--*P. nana Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    `--P. guttata Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |--Hadrops Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    |--*H. halei Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    `--H. flavus (Lea 1919) [=Engyops flavus] HW92
    |    |--Colpochilodes Blackburn 1898 HW92
    |    |    |--*C. raucipennis Blackburn 1898 HW92
    |    |    `--C. peregrina Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |--Xyrine Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    |--*X. carnei Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    `--X. inusitatus Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |--Byrrhomorpha Blackburn 1892 HW92
    |    |    |--*B. verres Blackburn 1892 HW92
    |    |    |--B. basicollis Lea 1919 HW92
    |    |    `--B. ponderosa Blackburn 1892 [incl. B. rudis Lea 1919] HW92
    |    |--Ophropyx Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    |--*O. hispida (Blackburn 1898) [=Frenchella hispida] HW92
    |    |    |--O. approximans (Blackburn 1898) [=Frenchella approximans] HW92
    |    |    `--O. ciliata (Boisduval 1835) HW92 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--Xyroa Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    |--*X. polita Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    |--X. alta Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    |--X. amoena Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    `--X. nitida Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |--Homolotropus Macleay 1871 [=Homalotropus (l. c.)] HW92
    |    |    |--*H. luridipennis Macleay 1871 HW92
    |    |    |--H. metallicus Britton 1970 HW92
    |    |    |--H. sagus Britton 1970 HW92
    |    |    |--H. sericeus Britton 1970 HW92
    |    |    `--H. taylori Britton 1970 HW92
    |    `--Telura Erichson 1842 HW92
    |         |--*T. vitticollis Erichson 1842 HW92
    |         |--T. alta Britton 1987 HW92
    |         |--T. imparilis Britton 1987 HW92
    |         |--T. monticola Britton 1987 HW92
    |         `--T. petiolata Britton 1987 HW92
    `--Liparetrini [Colpochilini] B80
         |  i. s.: ‘Melolontha’ astrolabei Boisduval 1835 [=Haplonycha astrolabei] HW92
         |--Liparetrus B80
         |--Colpochila HW92
         |--Dysphanochila Blackburn 1898 HW92
         |    `--*D. pilosipennis Blackburn 1898 HW92
         |--Parasciton Britton 1990 HW92
         |    `--*P. inermis Britton 1990 HW92
         |--Allara Britton 1955 HW92
         |    `--*A. insularis Britton 1955 HW92
         |--Anacanthodes Britton 1990 [=Anacanthopus Blackburn 1898 non Montandon 1894] HW92
         |    `--*A. inermis (Blackburn 1898) [=*Anacanthopus inermis] HW92
         |--Macleayella Britton 1990 [=Macleayia Blackburn 1888 non Haswell 1830] HW92
         |    `--*M. singularis (Blackburn 1888) [=*Macleayia singularis] HW92
         |--Aneucomides Blackburn 1898 HW92
         |    `--*A. coloratus Blackburn 1898 [incl. Haplonycha mauricei Blackburn 1906] HW92
         |--Aphanesia Britton 1990 HW92
         |    `--*A. grayi Britton 1990 HW92
         |--Astibicola Britton 1990 HW92
         |    `--*A. bicolor Britton 1990 HW92
         |--Cheilo Britton 1990 HW92
         |    `--*C. liparetroides Britton 1990 HW92
         |--Dikellites Britton 1990 HW92
         |    `--*D. abditus Britton 1990 HW92
         |--Engyopsina Britton 1990 [=Engyops Blackburn 1898 non Bauer & Bergenstamm 1889] HW92
         |    `--*E. spectans (Blackburn 1898) [=Engyops spectans] HW92
         |--Hadropechys Britton 1990 HW92
         |    `--*H. victoriae (Blackburn 1897) [=Pachygastra victoriae] HW92
         |--Ictigaster Britton 1986 HW92
         |    `--*I. ruficollis (Lea 1917) [=Haplonycha ruficollis] HW92
         |--Leonotus Britton 1986 HW92
         |    `--*L. pilosicollis (Lea 1930) [=Haplonycha pilosicollis] HW92
         |--Pachygastra Germar 1848 HW92
         |    `--*P. tasmanica Germar 1848 [incl. Prochelyna rubella Schaufuss 1882] HW92
         |--Paronyx Britton 1990 HW92
         |    `--*P. setifera Britton 1990 HW92
         |--Petinopus Blackburn 1898 HW92
         |    `--*P. aegrotus Blackburn 1898 HW92
         |--Scitaloides Britton 1990 HW92
         |    `--*S. malanda Britton 1990 HW92
         |--Stenochelyne Britton 1990 HW92
         |    `--*S. noctis Britton 1990 HW92
         |--Xyridea Britton 1990 HW92
         |    `--*X. hirticollis (Blackburn 1912) [=Aneucomides hirticollis] HW92
         |--Nosphisthis Blackburn 1898 HW92
         |    |--*N. parvicornis Blackburn 1898 HW92
         |    `--N. perkinsi Blackburn 1907 HW92
         |--Biphyllocera White 1841 [=Diphyllocera Agassiz 1847] HW92
         |    |--*B. kirbyana White 1841 HW92 [=Diphyllocera kirbyana M86]
         |    `--B. fabriciana White 1841 HW92
         |--Glossocheilifer Blackburn 1898 HW92
         |    |--*G. labialis Blackburn 1898 [incl. G. addendus Blackburn 1907] HW92
         |    `--G. bidentatus Lea 1919 HW92
         |--Teluroides Britton 1990 HW92
         |    |--*T. suturalis (Lea 1920) [=Telura suturalis] HW92
         |    `--T. clypealis (Lea 1919) [=Telura clypealis] HW92
         |--Sciton Blackburn 1892 HW92
         |    |--*S. ruber Blackburn 1892 HW92
         |    |--S. flavocastaneus Lea 1917 HW92
         |    |--S. paullus Blackburn 1898 HW92
         |    `--S. variicollis Blackburn 1907 HW92
         |--Neso Blackburn 1898 HW92
         |    |--*N. usta Blackburn 1898 HW92
         |    |--N. castaneus (Lea 1920) [=Engyops castaneus] HW92
         |    |--N. ducalis Blackburn 1907 HW92
         |    |--N. flavipennis (Macleay 1887) [=Platydesmus flavipennis; incl. N. planicollis Blackburn 1898] HW92
         |    |--N. minuta (Lea 1926) HW92 [=Haplonycha minuta HW92, Pteroplatydesmus minutus B86]
         |    `--N. yorkensis Blackburn 1898 HW92
         |--Frenchella Blackburn 1892 HW92
         |    |--*F. lubrica Blackburn 1892 HW92
         |    |--F. cribriceps Lea 1919 HW92
         |    |--F. fimbriata Lea 1919 HW92
         |    |--F. gagatina Lea 1919 HW92
         |    |--F. hirticillis Blackburn 1898 HW92
         |    |--F. iridescens (Blanchard 1850) [=Haplonycha iridescens] HW92
         |    `--F. russula Britton 1959 HW92
         `--Colobostoma Blanchard 1840 (see below for synonymy) HW92
              |--*C. rufipennis (Boisduval 1835) (see below for synonymy) HW92
              |--C. castaneus (Lea 1919) [=Platydesmus castaneus] HW92
              |--C. hirsuta (Frey 1966) [=Frenchella hirsuta] HW92
              |--C. inamoenus (Blackburn 1907) [=Platydesmus inamoenus] HW92
              |--C. inusitatus (Blackburn 1907) [=Platydesmus inusitatus] HW92
              |--C. major (Blackburn 1907) [=Platydesmus major] HW92
              |--C. obscuricornis (Blanchard 1850) [=Haplonycha obscuricornis] HW92
              `--C. punctulaticeps (Blackburn 1908) [=Platydesmus punctulaticeps] HW92

Melolonthinae incertae sedis:
  Pyronota festiva T27
  Chasmatopterus annamariae Branco 2004 F05
  Maladera castanea T90
  Ancistrosoma klugii Curtis 1835 B14
  Hoplia B14
    |--H. aureola [incl. H. aureola var. sibirica] C01
    |--H. coerulea (Drury 1773) B14
    |--H. parvula C01
    `--H. sulphurea Chevrolat 1847 E12
  Polyphylla decemlineata (Say 1824) B14
  Sparrmannia B14
    |--S. alopex B14
    |--S. flava Arrow 1917 B14
    |--S. similis B14
    `--S. vicinus B14
  Chlorochiton suturalis [=Stethaspis suturalis] L19
  Rhizotrogus M86

*Anthotocus luridus (Macleay 1864) HW92 [=Cheiragra lurida HW92, Phyllotocus luridus L19; incl. P. truncatidens Lea 1920 HW92]

*Cheiragra pusilla (Blanchard 1850) [=Phyllotocus pusillus; incl. C. aphodioides Macleay 1864, C. atra Macleay 1864, C. pygmaea Macleay 1864] HW92

Cheiragra ruficollis Macleay 1864 [=Phyllotocus collaris Harold 1869; incl. C. pallida Macleay 1864, C. variabilis Lea 1919] HW92

*Cheirora interstitialis (Blackburn 1898) [=Cheirrhamphica interstitialis; incl. Cheirr. coxalis Lea 1919, Cheirr. insularis Lea 1919, Cheirr. tuberculata Lea 1919] HW92

Colobostoma Blanchard 1840 [incl. Platydesmus Macleay 1887 non Lucas 1843, Pteroplatydesmus Dalla Torre 1912] HW92

*Colobostoma rufipennis (Boisduval 1835) [=Sericesthis rufipennis; incl. Frenchella sparsiceps Blackburn 1898, Platydesmus sulcipennis Macleay 1887, *Pteroplatydesmus sulcipennis] HW92

Comophorina Strand 1928 [=Comophorus Blanchard 1850 non Agassiz 1846, Comophus Britton 1978; Comophini, Comophorini, Comophorinini] HW92

*Dermolepida albohirtum (Waterhouse 1875) [=*Lepidoderma albohirtum; incl. Rhopaea aruense Lansberge 1879, L. lansbergei Brenske 1894, L. waterhousei Brenske 1894] HW92

Ophropyx ciliata (Boisduval 1835) HW92 [=Melolontha ciliata HW92, Aplonycha ciliata B86, Haplonycha ciliata B86, Heteronyx ciliata B86; incl. Frenchella aspericollis Blackburn 1898 HW92, Ha. rugosa Burmeister 1855 HW92]

Phyllochlaenia Blanchard 1846 [=Philochlaenia (l. c.); incl. Caulobius Guillou 1844 non Duponchel 1838, Deuterocaulobius Dalla Torre 1912] HW92

Phyllochlaenia villosus (Guillou 1844) HW92 [=*Caulobius villosus HW92, *Deuterocaulobius villosus HW92; incl. Hymenoplia villigera Blanchard 1846 HW92, Caulobius villiger M86]

Pseudholophylla Blackburn 1911 [=Holophylla Burmeister 1844 non Erichson 1847; incl. Paralepidiota Blackburn 1911] HW92

*Sphaeroscelis pectoralis (Burmeister 1855) [=Phyllotocus (*Sphaeroscelis) pectoralis; incl. Cheirrhamphica pubescens Blackburn 1898] HW92

Webbella labralis (Blackburn 1908) HW92 [=Heteronyx labralis HW92; incl. H. anomalus Blackburn 1908 B00, HW92, H. leai Blackburn 1909 B00, HW92]

Xylonichus eucalypti eucalypti Boisduval 1835 [incl. Xylonychus laetus Blanchard 1851, Xylonychus metrosideri Burmeister 1855] HW92

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[B78] Britton, E. B. 1978. A revision of the Australian chafers (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) vol. 2. Tribe Melolonthini. Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 60: 1–150.

[B80] Britton, E. B. 1980. A revision of the Australian chafers (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) vol. 3. Tribe Liparetrini: genus Liparetrus. Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 76: 1–209.

[B86] Britton, E. B. 1986. A revision of the Australian chafers (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) vol. 4. Tribe Liparetrini: genus Colpochila. Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 118: 1–135.

[B00] Britton, E. B. 2000. A review of Heteronyx Guérin-Méneville (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae). Invertebrate Taxonomy 14: 465–589.

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901b. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[HW92] Houston, W. W. K., & T. A. Weir. 1992. Melolonthinae. In: Houston, W. W. K. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 9. Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea pp. 174–358. AGPS Press: Canberra.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[L19] Lea, A. M. 1919. Notes on some miscellaneous Coleoptera with descriptions of new species.—Part V. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 43: 166–261, pls 25–27.

[M86] Masters, G. 1886. Catalogue of the described Coleoptera of Australia. Part III. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 21–126.

[MHG04] Maynard, G. V., J. G. Hamilton & J. F. Grimshaw. 2004. Quarantine—phytosanitary, sanitary and incursion management: an Australian entomological perspective. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 318–328.

[T90] Tashiro, H. 1990. Insecta: Coleoptera Scarabaeidae larvae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1191–1209. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[T27] Thomson, G. M. 1927. The pollination of New Zealand flowers by birds and insects. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 106–125.

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