Melolonthinae

Hoplia coerulea, copyright Frank Vassen.


Belongs within: Scarabaeoidea.
Contains: Rhizotrogus, Automolius, Aplopsis, Maechidius, Systellopini, Liparetrus, Colpochila, Phyllotocus, Xylonichini, Dynastinae, Euchirini, Melolonthini, Rutelinae, Cetoniinae, Diphucephala, Sericini, Heteronyx, Neoheteronyx, Gnaphalopoda, Sericesthis, Scitala.

The Melolonthinae, chafers, is a cosmopolitan group of scarabaeid beetles with soil-dwelling larvae that feed on roots and hummus. Though larvae may live for up to two years, the adult life period is relatively brief and lasts only a few days or weeks. Adults of some species feed on the leaves of trees; others do not feed as adults at all (Houston & Weir 1992). As currently recognised, the melolonthines are probably not monophyletic with other phytophagous scarabaeid subfamilies such as Dynastinae, Rutelinae and Cetoniinae nested within the group. Members of the Melolonthinae are divided between several tribes. In many of these tribes, the posterior tibia has two apical spurs that are placed above and below the tibia so that the tarsus passes between the spurs when moved from side to side, but both spurs are placed ventrally in Plectris, Pachytricha, Diphucephalini and Melolonthini (Britton 1978).

Characters (from Houston & Weir 1992): Head and pronotum of males unarmed; mandibles completely concealed from above; abdominal spiracles diverging, with one pair exposed beneath edge of elytra; fore coxae transverse, mesothoracic epimera not visible from above; mid coxae transverse or only slightly oblique; tarsal claws equal. Larvae with apical antennal segment about as wide as penultimate segment; mandibles withouyt transverse granular ridges forming stridulatory areas; galea and lacinia either partly fused proximally or fitting tightly together; anal cleft usually Y-shaped or angulate.

<==Melolonthinae [Chasmatopterinae, Melolonthidae, Melolonthides, Sericinae]
    |--Hoplia [Hopliini] A06
    |    |--H. aureola [incl. H. aureola var. sibirica] C01
    |    |--H. coerulea (Drury 1773) B14
    |    |--H. equina LeConte 1880 A06
    |    |--H. farinosa [=Melolontha farinosa] G20
    |    |--H. graminicola (Fabricius 1792) A06
    |    |--H. parvula C01
    |    `--H. sulphurea Chevrolat 1846 E12
    |--Phyllotocini [Phylloticides, Phyllotocina] A06
    |    |--Phyllotocus A06
    |    `--Anthotocus Britton 1957 A06, HW92
    |         |--*A. luridus (Macleay 1864) HW92 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |--A. antennalis (Lea 1919) [=Phyllotocus antennalis] HW92
    |         |--A. cribriceps (Lea 1919) [=Phyllotocus cribriceps] HW92
    |         |--A. fugitivus (Lea 1920) [=Phyllotocus fugitivus] HW92
    |         `--A. perissus Britton 1957 HW92
    |--+--Xylonichini A06
    |  `--+--Chasmatopterus [Chasmatopterini] A06
    |     |    |--C. annamariae Branco 2004 F05
    |     |    `--C. hirtus (Illiger 1803) A06
    |     |--Pachydemini A06
    |     |    |--Tanyproctus persicus (Ménétries 1832) A06
    |     |    `--+--Elaphocera A06
    |     |       |    |--E. capdeboni Schauffuss 1882 A06
    |     |       |    `--E. tangerina Kraatz 1888 A06
    |     |       `--+--Acoma Casey 1881 A06, N02
    |     |          |--Europteron gracile Marseul 1867 A06
    |     |          `--Pachypus [Pachypodinae] A06
    |     |               `--P. candidae (Petagna 1786) A06
    |     `--+--Dynastinae A06
    |        |--Euchirini A06
    |        |--Melolonthini A06
    |        |--+--Rutelinae A06
    |        |  `--Cetoniinae A06
    |        `--Pleocominae [Pleocomidae] MW15
    |             |--Crecotoma Nikolajev 2002 [Cretocomini] N02
    |             |    `--*C. tologoica Nikolajev 2002 N02
    |             `--Pleocoma Le Conte 1856 [Pleocomini] N02
    |                  `--P. australis Fall 1911 B14
    `--+--Diphucephalini [Diphucephalides] HW92
       |    |--Diphucephala A06
       |    `--Cunderdinia Lea 1916 HW92
       |         |--*C. variabilis Lea 1916 HW92
       |         `--C. setistriata Lea 1916 HW92
       `--+--+--Sericoides [Sericoidini] A06
          |  `--+--+--Athlia rustica Erichson 1835 A06
          |     |  `--+--Sericini A06
          |     |     `--Ablaberini [Camentini] A06
          |     |          |--Ablabera hirsuta Blanchard 1850 A06
          |     |          |--Cyrtocamenta A06
          |     |          |    |--C. pygidialis Frey 1968 A06
          |     |          |    `--C. pygmaea Brenske 1897 A06
          |     |          `--+--Empecamenta buettikeri Ahrens 2000 A06
          |     |             `--Camenta A06
          |     |                  |--C. elongata Frey 1960 A06
          |     |                  `--C. westermanni Harold 1878 A06
          |     `--Heteronycini B78
          |          |--Heteronyx A06
          |          |--Neoheteronyx HW92
          |          |--Callabonica Blackburn 1895 HW92
          |          |    `--*C. propria Blackburn 1895 HW92
          |          |--Cubidens Britton in Houston & Weir 1992 [=Paraheteronyx Britton 1988 non Moser 1924] HW92
          |          |    `--*C. unguiculatus (Burmeister 1855) (see below for synonymy) HW92
          |          |--Eurychelus Blanchard 1850 HW92
          |          |    `--*E. marmoratus Blanchard 1850 HW92
          |          |--Nepytis Erichson 1842 HW92
          |          |    `--*N. russula Erichson 1842 HW92
          |          |--Proborhinus Britton 1988 HW92
          |          |    `--*P. cornutus (Blackburn 1910) [=Heteronyx cornutus] HW92
          |          |--Odontotonyx Macleay 1871 HW92
          |          |    |--*O. brunneipennis Macleay 1871 HW92
          |          |    `--O. ruficeps Lea 1919 HW92
          |          |--Webbella Britton 1988 HW92
          |          |    |--*W. firma (Blackburn 1909) [=Heteronyx firmus] HW92
          |          |    `--W. labralis (Blackburn 1908) HW92 (see below for synonymy)
          |          |--Acheilo Britton 1988 HW92
          |          |    |--*A. capitalis (Blackburn 1910) [=Heteronyx capitalis] HW92
          |          |    |--A. clypeatus Britton 1988 HW92
          |          |    `--A. pedarius (Blackburn 1910) [=Heteronyx pedarius] HW92
          |          `--Pseudoheteronyx Blackburn 1892 HW92
          |               |--*P. baldiensis (Blackburn 1892) [=Heteronyx baldiensis] HW92
          |               |--P. basicollis Lea 1919 HW92
          |               |--P. creber Blackburn 1908 [incl. P. seticollis Lea 1919] HW92
          |               |--P. helaeoides Blackburn 1892 HW92
          |               |--P. laticollis Blackburn 1908 HW92
          |               `--P. puncticollis Lea 1919 HW92
          `--Scitalini HW92
               |--Gnaphalopoda HW92
               |--Sericesthis HW92
               |--Scitala HW92
               |--Colpochelyne Britton 1987 HW92
               |    `--*C. dux Britton 1987 HW92
               |--Idanastes Britton 1987 HW92
               |    `--*I. abditus Britton 1987 HW92
               |--Phorine Britton 1987 HW92
               |    `--*P. anomala (Blackburn 1907) [=Byrrhomorpha anomala] HW92
               |--Synchilus Britton 1955 HW92
               |    `--*S. gisleni Britton 1955 HW92
               |--Xyrodes Britton 1987 HW92
               |    `--*X. calorata (Blackburn 1907) [=Frenchella calorata] HW92
               |--Protelura Britton 1987 HW92
               |    |--*P. nana Britton 1987 HW92
               |    `--P. guttata Britton 1987 HW92
               |--Hadrops Britton 1987 HW92
               |    |--*H. halei Britton 1987 HW92
               |    `--H. flavus (Lea 1919) [=Engyops flavus] HW92
               |--Colpochilodes Blackburn 1898 HW92
               |    |--*C. raucipennis Blackburn 1898 HW92
               |    `--C. peregrina Britton 1987 HW92
               |--Xyrine Britton 1987 HW92
               |    |--*X. carnei Britton 1987 HW92
               |    `--X. inusitatus Britton 1987 HW92
               |--Byrrhomorpha Blackburn 1892 HW92
               |    |--*B. verres Blackburn 1892 HW92
               |    |--B. basicollis Lea 1919 HW92
               |    `--B. ponderosa Blackburn 1892 [incl. B. rudis Lea 1919] HW92
               |--Ophropyx Britton 1987 HW92
               |    |--*O. hispida (Blackburn 1898) [=Frenchella hispida] HW92
               |    |--O. approximans (Blackburn 1898) [=Frenchella approximans] HW92
               |    `--O. ciliata (Boisduval 1835) HW92 (see below for synonymy)
               |--Xyroa Britton 1987 HW92
               |    |--*X. polita Britton 1987 HW92
               |    |--X. alta Britton 1987 HW92
               |    |--X. amoena Britton 1987 HW92
               |    `--X. nitida Britton 1987 HW92
               |--Homolotropus Macleay 1871 [=Homalotropus (l. c.)] HW92
               |    |--*H. luridipennis Macleay 1871 HW92
               |    |--H. metallicus Britton 1970 HW92
               |    |--H. sagus Britton 1970 HW92
               |    |--H. sericeus Britton 1970 HW92
               |    `--H. taylori Britton 1970 HW92
               `--Telura Erichson 1842 A06, HW92
                    |--*T. vitticollis Erichson 1842 HW92
                    |--T. alta Britton 1987 HW92
                    |--T. imparilis Britton 1987 HW92
                    |--T. monticola Britton 1987 HW92
                    `--T. petiolata Britton 1987 HW92

Melolonthinae incertae sedis:
  Pyronota T27
    |--P. festiva T27
    |--P. laeta B35
    `--P. refulgens Dupont in Boisduval 1835 B35
  Ancistrosoma klugii Curtis 1835 B14
  Polyphylla B14
    |--P. decemlineata (Say 1824) B14
    `--P. fullo B28
  Chlorochiton suturalis [=Stethaspis suturalis] L19
  Rhizotrogus M86
  Chnaunanthus S38
  Comophorina Strand 1928 (see below for synonymy) HW92
    `--*C. testaceipennis (Blanchard 1850) [=*Comophorus testaceipennis, *Comophus testaceipennis] HW92
  Plectris Saint-Fargeau & Serville 1828 [Macrodactylini] HW92
    |--*P. tomentosa Saint-Fargeau & Serville 1828 HW92
    `--P. aliena Chapin 1934 HW92
  Phyllotocidium Blackburn 1898 [Phyllotocidiini] HW92
    |--*P. macleayi (Blackburn 1892) [=Cheiragra macleayi] HW92
    |--P. bimaculiflavum Lea 1917 HW92
    |--P. pictum Lea 1916 HW92
    `--P. viridis Britton 1957 HW92
  Pachytricha Hope 1841 [=Pachytrichia (l. c.); Pachytrichini] HW92
    |--*P. castanea Hope 1841 [incl. P. munda Sharp 1874, P. pallens Sharp 1874] HW92
    |--P. demarzi Frey 1966 HW92
    |--P. minor Sharp 1874 HW92
    |--P. robusta Sharp 1874 HW92
    `--P. tecta Sharp 1874 HW92
  Automoliini [Automolini] HW92
    |--Automolius B78
    |--Aplopsis HW92
    |--Bryantella Britton 1957 HW92
    |    `--*B. castaneua Britton 1957 HW92
    |--Maechidinus Lea 1919 HW92
    |    |--*M. latericollis Lea 1919 HW92
    |    |--M. marginalis Lea 1919 HW92
    |    `--M. sculptilis Britton 1957 HW92
    `--Phyllochlaenia Blanchard 1846 (see below for synonymy) HW92
         |--*P. rufescens Blanchard 1846 HW92 (see below for synonymy)
         |--‘Caulobius’ cervinus Boisd. 1835 M86
         |--‘Caulobius’ modestus Blanch. 1850 M86
         |--‘Caulobius’ pubescens Erichs. 1842 M86
         `--P. villosus (Guillou 1844) (see below for synonymy) HW92
  Maechidiini [Maechidiides] B78
    |--Maechidius HW92
    |--Microcoenus Britton 1957 B78
    |    `--*M. nanus Britton 1957 HW92
    |--Harpechys Britton 1957 HW92
    |    `--*H. chilo Britton 1957 HW92
    |--Microthopus Burmeister 1855 HW92
    |    `--*M. castanopterus Burmeister 1855 [incl. Macleayia hybrida Blackburn 1888] HW92
    |--Termitophilus Britton 1957 HW92
    |    `--*T. spadix Britton 1957 HW92
    `--Epholcis Waterhouse 1875 HW92
         |--*E. divergens Waterhouse 1875 [incl. Maechidius albertisi Fairmaire 1877] HW92
         |--E. bilobiceps (Fairmaire 1877) [=Maechidius bilobiceps] HW92
         |--E. gracilis (Waterhouse 1875) [=Maechidius gracilis] HW92
         |--E. longior Blackburn 1898 HW92
         `--E. uniformis Britton 1957 HW92
  Systellopini B78
  Liparetrini [Colpochilini] B80
    |  i. s.: ‘Melolontha’ astrolabei Boisduval 1835 [=Haplonycha astrolabei] HW92
    |--Liparetrus B80
    |--Colpochila HW92
    |--Plectrodes S38
    |--Dysphanochila Blackburn 1898 HW92
    |    `--*D. pilosipennis Blackburn 1898 HW92
    |--Parasciton Britton 1990 HW92
    |    `--*P. inermis Britton 1990 HW92
    |--Allara Britton 1955 HW92
    |    `--*A. insularis Britton 1955 HW92
    |--Anacanthodes Britton 1990 [=Anacanthopus Blackburn 1898 non Montandon 1894] HW92
    |    `--*A. inermis (Blackburn 1898) [=*Anacanthopus inermis] HW92
    |--Macleayella Britton 1990 [=Macleayia Blackburn 1888 non Haswell 1830] HW92
    |    `--*M. singularis (Blackburn 1888) [=*Macleayia singularis] HW92
    |--Aneucomides Blackburn 1898 HW92
    |    `--*A. coloratus Blackburn 1898 [incl. Haplonycha mauricei Blackburn 1906] HW92
    |--Aphanesia Britton 1990 HW92
    |    `--*A. grayi Britton 1990 HW92
    |--Astibicola Britton 1990 HW92
    |    `--*A. bicolor Britton 1990 HW92
    |--Cheilo Britton 1990 HW92
    |    `--*C. liparetroides Britton 1990 HW92
    |--Dikellites Britton 1990 HW92
    |    `--*D. abditus Britton 1990 HW92
    |--Engyopsina Britton 1990 [=Engyops Blackburn 1898 non Bauer & Bergenstamm 1889] HW92
    |    `--*E. spectans (Blackburn 1898) [=Engyops spectans] HW92
    |--Hadropechys Britton 1990 HW92
    |    `--*H. victoriae (Blackburn 1897) [=Pachygastra victoriae] HW92
    |--Ictigaster Britton 1986 HW92
    |    `--*I. ruficollis (Lea 1917) [=Haplonycha ruficollis] HW92
    |--Leonotus Britton 1986 HW92
    |    `--*L. pilosicollis (Lea 1930) [=Haplonycha pilosicollis] HW92
    |--Pachygastra Germar 1848 HW92
    |    `--*P. tasmanica Germar 1848 [incl. Prochelyna rubella Schaufuss 1882] HW92
    |--Paronyx Britton 1990 HW92
    |    `--*P. setifera Britton 1990 HW92
    |--Petinopus Blackburn 1898 HW92
    |    `--*P. aegrotus Blackburn 1898 HW92
    |--Scitaloides Britton 1990 HW92
    |    `--*S. malanda Britton 1990 HW92
    |--Stenochelyne Britton 1990 HW92
    |    `--*S. noctis Britton 1990 HW92
    |--Xyridea Britton 1990 HW92
    |    `--*X. hirticollis (Blackburn 1912) [=Aneucomides hirticollis] HW92
    |--Nosphisthis Blackburn 1898 HW92
    |    |--*N. parvicornis Blackburn 1898 HW92
    |    `--N. perkinsi Blackburn 1907 HW92
    |--Biphyllocera White 1841 [=Diphyllocera Agassiz 1847] HW92
    |    |--*B. kirbyana White 1841 HW92 [=Diphyllocera kirbyana M86]
    |    `--B. fabriciana White 1841 HW92
    |--Glossocheilifer Blackburn 1898 HW92
    |    |--*G. labialis Blackburn 1898 [incl. G. addendus Blackburn 1907] HW92
    |    `--G. bidentatus Lea 1919 HW92
    |--Teluroides Britton 1990 HW92
    |    |--*T. suturalis (Lea 1920) [=Telura suturalis] HW92
    |    `--T. clypealis (Lea 1919) [=Telura clypealis] HW92
    |--Sciton Blackburn 1892 HW92
    |    |--*S. ruber Blackburn 1892 HW92
    |    |--S. flavocastaneus Lea 1917 HW92
    |    |--S. paullus Blackburn 1898 HW92
    |    `--S. variicollis Blackburn 1907 HW92
    |--Neso Blackburn 1898 HW92
    |    |--*N. usta Blackburn 1898 HW92
    |    |--N. castaneus (Lea 1920) [=Engyops castaneus] HW92
    |    |--N. ducalis Blackburn 1907 HW92
    |    |--N. flavipennis (Macleay 1887) (see below for synonymy) HW92
    |    |--N. minuta (Lea 1926) HW92 [=Haplonycha minuta HW92, Pteroplatydesmus minutus B86]
    |    `--N. yorkensis Blackburn 1898 HW92
    |--Frenchella Blackburn 1892 HW92
    |    |--*F. lubrica Blackburn 1892 HW92
    |    |--F. cribriceps Lea 1919 HW92
    |    |--F. fimbriata Lea 1919 HW92
    |    |--F. gagatina Lea 1919 HW92
    |    |--F. hirticillis Blackburn 1898 HW92
    |    |--F. iridescens (Blanchard 1850) [=Haplonycha iridescens] HW92
    |    `--F. russula Britton 1959 HW92
    `--Colobostoma Blanchard 1840 (see below for synonymy) HW92
         |--*C. rufipennis (Boisduval 1835) (see below for synonymy) HW92
         |--C. castaneus (Lea 1919) [=Platydesmus castaneus] HW92
         |--C. hirsuta (Frey 1966) [=Frenchella hirsuta] HW92
         |--C. inamoenus (Blackburn 1907) [=Platydesmus inamoenus] HW92
         |--C. inusitatus (Blackburn 1907) [=Platydesmus inusitatus] HW92
         |--C. major (Blackburn 1907) [=Platydesmus major] HW92
         |--C. obscuricornis (Blanchard 1850) [=Haplonycha obscuricornis] HW92
         `--C. punctulaticeps (Blackburn 1908) [=Platydesmus punctulaticeps] HW92
  Lithanomala A06
  Cretoserica A06

*Anthotocus luridus (Macleay 1864) HW92 [=Cheiragra lurida HW92, Phyllotocus luridus L19; incl. P. truncatidens Lea 1920 HW92]

*Cheiragra pusilla (Blanchard 1850) [=Phyllotocus pusillus; incl. C. aphodioides Macleay 1864, C. atra Macleay 1864, C. pygmaea Macleay 1864] HW92

Cheiragra ruficollis Macleay 1864 [=Phyllotocus collaris Harold 1869; incl. C. pallida Macleay 1864, C. variabilis Lea 1919] HW92

Colobostoma Blanchard 1840 [incl. Platydesmus Macleay 1887 non Lucas 1843, Pteroplatydesmus Dalla Torre 1912] HW92

*Colobostoma rufipennis (Boisduval 1835) [=Sericesthis rufipennis; incl. Frenchella sparsiceps Blackburn 1898, Platydesmus sulcipennis Macleay 1887, *Pteroplatydesmus sulcipennis] HW92

Comophorina Strand 1928 [=Comophorus Blanchard 1850 non Agassiz 1846, Comophus Britton 1978; Comophini, Comophorini, Comophorinini] HW92

*Cubidens unguiculatus (Burmeister 1855) [=Heteronyx unguiculata, *Paraheteronyx unguiculata] HW92

Neso flavipennis (Macleay 1887) [=Platydesmus flavipennis; incl. N. planicollis Blackburn 1898] HW92

Ophropyx ciliata (Boisduval 1835) HW92 [=Melolontha ciliata HW92, Aplonycha ciliata B86, Haplonycha ciliata B86, Heteronyx ciliata B86; incl. Frenchella aspericollis Blackburn 1898 HW92, Ha. rugosa Burmeister 1855 HW92]

Phyllochlaenia Blanchard 1846 [=Philochlaenia (l. c.); incl. Caulobius Guillou 1844 non Duponchel 1838, Deuterocaulobius Dalla Torre 1912] HW92

*Phyllochlaenia rufescens Blanchard 1846 HW92 [=Caulobius rufescens M86; incl. C. advena Blackburn 1898 HW92]

Phyllochlaenia villosus (Guillou 1844) HW92 [=*Caulobius villosus HW92, *Deuterocaulobius villosus HW92; incl. Hymenoplia villigera Blanchard 1846 HW92, Caulobius villiger M86]

Webbella labralis (Blackburn 1908) HW92 [=Heteronyx labralis HW92; incl. H. anomalus Blackburn 1908 B00, HW92, H. leai Blackburn 1909 B00, HW92]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

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[B28] Betrem, J. G. 1928. Monographie der Indo-Australischen Scoliiden mit zoogeographischen Betrachtungen. H. Veenman & Zonen: Wageningen.

[B35] Boisduval, J. B. 1835. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d'Urville. Faune entomologique de l'océan Pacifique, avec l'illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage vol. 2. Coléoptères et autres ordres. J. Tastu: Paris.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[B78] Britton, E. B. 1978. A revision of the Australian chafers (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) vol. 2. Tribe Melolonthini. Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 60: 1–150.

[B80] Britton, E. B. 1980. A revision of the Australian chafers (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) vol. 3. Tribe Liparetrini: genus Liparetrus. Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 76: 1–209.

[B86] Britton, E. B. 1986. A revision of the Australian chafers (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) vol. 4. Tribe Liparetrini: genus Colpochila. Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 118: 1–135.

[B00] Britton, E. B. 2000. A review of Heteronyx Guérin-Méneville (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae). Invertebrate Taxonomy 14: 465–589.

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