Melolonthinae

Emerald eucalyptus chafer Xylonichus piliger, copyright Mark Ridgway.


Belongs within: Scarabaeoidea.
Contains: Rhizotrogus, Diphucephala, Automolius, Aplopsis, Maechidius, Heteronyx, Neoheteronyx, Phyllotocus, Gnaphalopoda, Sericesthis, Scitala, Lepidiota, Antitrogus, Rhopaea, Melolontha,Liparetrus, Colpochila.

The Melolonthinae, chafers, is a cosmopolitan group of scarabaeid beetles with soil-dwelling larvae that feed on roots and hummus. Though larvae may live for up to two years, the adult life period is relatively brief and lasts only a few days or weeks. Adults of some species feed on the leaves of trees; others do not feed as adults at all (Houston & Weir 1992). The diverse subfamily is divided between several tribes. In many of these tribes, the posterior tibia has two apical spurs that are placed above and below the tibia so that the tarsus passes between the spurs when moved from side to side, but both spurs are placed ventrally in Plectris, Pachytricha, Diphucephalini and Melolonthini (Britton 1978).

Characters (from Houston & Weir 1992): Head and pronotum of males unarmed; mandibles completely concealed from above; abdominal spiracles diverging, with one pair exposed beneath edge of elytra; fore coxae transverse, mesothoracic epimera not visible from above; mid coxae transverse or only slightly oblique; tarsal claws equal. Larvae with apical antennal segment about as wide as penultimate segment; mandibles withouyt transverse granular ridges forming stridulatory areas; galea and lacinia either partly fused proximally or fitting tightly together; anal cleft usually Y-shaped or angulate.

<==Melolonthinae [Chasmatopterinae, Melolonthidae, Melolonthides]
    |--Comophorina Strand 1928 (see below for synonymy) HW92
    |    `--*C. testaceipennis (Blanchard 1850) [=*Comophorus testaceipennis, *Comophus testaceipennis] HW92
    |--Plectris Saint-Fargeau & Serville 1828 [Macrodactylini] HW92
    |    |--*P. tomentosa Saint-Fargeau & Serville 1828 HW92
    |    `--P. aliena Chapin 1934 HW92
    |--Phyllotocidium Blackburn 1898 [Phyllotocidiini] HW92
    |    |--*P. macleayi (Blackburn 1892) [=Cheiragra macleayi] HW92
    |    |--P. bimaculiflavum Lea 1917 HW92
    |    |--P. pictum Lea 1916 HW92
    |    `--P. viridis Britton 1957 HW92
    |--Diphucephalini [Diphucephalides] HW92
    |    |--Diphucephala HW92
    |    `--Cunderdinia Lea 1916 HW92
    |         |--*C. variabilis Lea 1916 HW92
    |         `--C. setistriata Lea 1916 HW92
    |--Pachytricha Hope 1841 [=Pachytrichia (l. c.); Pachytrichini] HW92
    |    |--*P. castanea Hope 1841 [incl. P. munda Sharp 1874, P. pallens Sharp 1874] HW92
    |    |--P. demarzi Frey 1966 HW92
    |    |--P. minor Sharp 1874 HW92
    |    |--P. robusta Sharp 1874 HW92
    |    `--P. tecta Sharp 1874 HW92
    |--Euchirini B14
    |    |--Euchirus B14
    |    |--Propomacrus B14
    |    `--Cheirotonus B14
    |         |--C. arnaudi B14
    |         |--C. battareli B14
    |         |--C. formosanus B14
    |         |--C. gestroi B14
    |         |--C. jambar Kurosawa 1984 I92
    |         |--C. jansoni B14
    |         |--C. macleayi Hope 1840 B14
    |         |--C. otai I92
    |         `--C. parryi B14
    |--Automoliini [Automolini] HW92
    |    |--Automolius B78
    |    |--Aplopsis HW92
    |    |--Bryantella Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |    `--*B. castaneua Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |--Maechidinus Lea 1919 HW92
    |    |    |--*M. latericollis Lea 1919 HW92
    |    |    |--M. marginalis Lea 1919 HW92
    |    |    `--M. sculptilis Britton 1957 HW92
    |    `--Phyllochlaenia Blanchard 1846 (see below for synonymy) HW92
    |         |--*P. rufescens Blanchard 1846 HW92 [=Caulobius rufescens M86; incl. C. advena Blackburn 1898 HW92]
    |         |--‘Caulobius’ cervinus Boisd. 1835 M86
    |         |--‘Caulobius’ modestus Blanch. 1850 M86
    |         |--‘Caulobius’ pubescens Erichs. 1842 M86
    |         `--P. villosus (Guillou 1844) (see below for synonymy) HW92
    |--Maechidiini [Maechidiides] B78
    |    |--Maechidius HW92
    |    |--Microcoenus Britton 1957 B78
    |    |    `--*M. nanus Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |--Harpechys Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |    `--*H. chilo Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |--Microthopus Burmeister 1855 HW92
    |    |    `--*M. castanopterus Burmeister 1855 [incl. Macleayia hybrida Blackburn 1888] HW92
    |    |--Termitophilus Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |    `--*T. spadix Britton 1957 HW92
    |    `--Epholcis Waterhouse 1875 HW92
    |         |--*E. divergens Waterhouse 1875 [incl. Maechidius albertisi Fairmaire 1877] HW92
    |         |--E. bilobiceps (Fairmaire 1877) [=Maechidius bilobiceps] HW92
    |         |--E. gracilis (Waterhouse 1875) [=Maechidius gracilis] HW92
    |         |--E. longior Blackburn 1898 HW92
    |         `--E. uniformis Britton 1957 HW92
    |--Xylonychini HW92
    |    |--Exostethus Britton 1979 HW92
    |    |    `--*E. brunneus Britton 1979 HW92
    |    |--Nitorellus Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |    `--*N. splendidus (Lea 1919) [=Colymbomorpha splendida] HW92
    |    |--Phyllococerus Waterhouse 1876 HW92
    |    |    `--*P. purpurascens Waterhouse 1876 HW92
    |    |--Chariochilus Brenske 1898 [incl. Lepidostethaspis Arrow 1924] HW92
    |    |    |--*C. metallescens Brenske 1898 HW92
    |    |    `--C. costipennis Moser 1907 [incl. Stethaspis squamosus Lea 1919, *Lepidostethaspis squamosus] HW92
    |    |--Colymbomorpha Blanchard 1850 HW92
    |    |    |--*C. lineata Blanchard 1850 HW92 [=Calonota lineata M86; incl. Ca. hilaris M86]
    |    |    |--C. uniformis Britton 1959 B78
    |    |    `--C. vittata Britton 1959 B78
    |    `--Xylonichus Boisduval 1835 [=Stethaspis Hope 1837, Xylonychus (l. c.)] HW92
    |         |--*X. eucalypti Boisduval 1835 [=*Stethaspis eucalypti] HW92
    |         |    |--X. e. eucalypti (see below for synonymy) HW92
    |         |    `--X. e. pentaphyllus (Arrow 1924) [=Stethaspis laetus pentaphyllus] HW92
    |         |--X. dispar (Arrow 1924) [=Stethaspis dispar] HW92
    |         |--X. monticola (Blackburn 1911) [=Stethaspis monticola] HW92
    |         |--X. nigrescens Blanchard 1851 HW92
    |         |--X. orpheus Fauvl. 1862 M86
    |         |--X. piliger Blanchard 1851 HW92
    |         `--X. sternalis (Blackburn 1912) [=Stethaspis sternalis] HW92
    |--Systellopini B78
    |    |--Chilodiplus Sharp 1877 HW92
    |    |    `--*C. albertisii Sharp 1877 HW92
    |    |--Metascelis Westwood 1842 HW92
    |    |    `--*M. flexilis Westwood 1842 HW92
    |    |--Systellopus Sharp 1877 HW92
    |    |    `--*S. obtusus Sharp 1877 [incl. S. ater Lea 1919, S. validus Sharp 1877] HW92
    |    |--Prochelyna Erichson 1847 [incl. Atholerus Sharp 1877, Tosotarsus Sharp 1877, Toxotarsus (l. c.)] HW92
    |    |    |--*P. heterodoxa Erichson 1847 [incl. *Atholerus obscurus Sharp 1877] HW92
    |    |    |--P. houstoni Allsopp 1990 HW92
    |    |    `--P. velutina (Sharp 1877) [=*Tosotarsus velutinus] HW92
    |    |--Sarothromerus Blackburn 1907 HW92
    |    |    |--*S. sharpi (Blackburn 1905) [=Enamillus sharpi] HW92
    |    |    |--S. aranda Allsopp 1990 HW92
    |    |    `--S. niger Allsopp 1990 HW92
    |    |--Sphyrocallus Sharp 1877 HW92
    |    |    |--*S. brunneus Sharp 1877 HW92
    |    |    |--S. desertus Allsopp 1990 HW92
    |    |    `--S. lloydi Allsopp 1990 HW92
    |    `--Enamillus Sharp 1877 [incl. Trichelasmus Sharp 1877] HW92
    |         |--*E. striatus Sharp 1877 HW92
    |         |--E. basalis (Blackburn 1907) [=Trichelasmus basalis] HW92
    |         |--E. bicolor (Blackburn 1905) [=Sphyrocallus bicolor] HW92
    |         |--E. clavensis Allsopp 1990 HW92
    |         |--E. mauricei Blackburn 1907 HW92
    |         |--E. pilicollis (Sharp 1877) [=*Trichelasmus pilicollis] HW92
    |         |--E. rectus Allsopp 1990 HW92
    |         `--E. septus Allsopp 1990 HW92
    |--Heteronycini B78
    |    |--Heteronyx HW92
    |    |--Neoheteronyx HW92
    |    |--Callabonica Blackburn 1895 HW92
    |    |    `--*C. propria Blackburn 1895 HW92
    |    |--Cubidens Britton in Houston & Weir 1992 [=Paraheteronyx Britton 1988 non Moser 1924] HW92
    |    |    `--*C. unguiculatus (Burmeister 1855) [=Heteronyx unguiculata, *Paraheteronyx unguiculata] HW92
    |    |--Eurychelus Blanchard 1850 HW92
    |    |    `--*E. marmoratus Blanchard 1850 HW92
    |    |--Nepytis Erichson 1842 HW92
    |    |    `--*N. russula Erichson 1842 HW92
    |    |--Proborhinus Britton 1988 HW92
    |    |    `--*P. cornutus (Blackburn 1910) [=Heteronyx cornutus] HW92
    |    |--Odontotonyx Macleay 1871 HW92
    |    |    |--*O. brunneipennis Macleay 1871 HW92
    |    |    `--O. ruficeps Lea 1919 HW92
    |    |--Webbella Britton 1988 HW92
    |    |    |--*W. firma (Blackburn 1909) [=Heteronyx firmus] HW92
    |    |    `--W. labralis (Blackburn 1908) HW92 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--Acheilo Britton 1988 HW92
    |    |    |--*A. capitalis (Blackburn 1910) [=Heteronyx capitalis] HW92
    |    |    |--A. clypeatus Britton 1988 HW92
    |    |    `--A. pedarius (Blackburn 1910) [=Heteronyx pedarius] HW92
    |    `--Pseudoheteronyx Blackburn 1892 HW92
    |         |--*P. baldiensis (Blackburn 1892) [=Heteronyx baldiensis] HW92
    |         |--P. basicollis Lea 1919 HW92
    |         |--P. creber Blackburn 1908 [incl. P. seticollis Lea 1919] HW92
    |         |--P. helaeoides Blackburn 1892 HW92
    |         |--P. laticollis Blackburn 1908 HW92
    |         `--P. puncticollis Lea 1919 HW92
    |--Sericini [Phyllotocides, Sericides] B78
    |    |--Phyllotocus HW92
    |    |--Sphaeroscelis Burmeister 1855 [incl. Cheirrhamphica Blackburn 1898] HW92
    |    |    `--*S. pectoralis (Burmeister 1855) (see below for synonymy) HW92
    |    |--Cheirora Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |    `--*C. interstitialis (Blackburn 1898) (see below for synonymy) HW92
    |    |--Opsitocus Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |    `--*O. obscurus (Lea 1920) [=Phyllotocus obscurus] HW92
    |    |--Cheirodontus Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |    |--*C. basicollis (Lea 1919) [=Phyllotocus basicollis] HW92
    |    |    `--C. bilobus (Lea 1920) [=Phyllotocus bilobus] HW92
    |    |--Ancylonyx Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |    |--*A. vittatus (Macleay 1887) HW92 [=Phyllotocus vittatus HW92, Cheiragra vittata L19]
    |    |    |--A. melanurus Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |    `--A. sobrinus Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |--Anthotocus Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |    |--*A. luridus (Macleay 1864) HW92 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--A. antennalis (Lea 1919) [=Phyllotocus antennalis] HW92
    |    |    |--A. cribriceps (Lea 1919) [=Phyllotocus cribriceps] HW92
    |    |    |--A. fugitivus (Lea 1920) [=Phyllotocus fugitivus] HW92
    |    |    `--A. perissus Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |--Cheiragra Macleay 1864 HW92
    |    |    |--*C. pusilla (Blanchard 1850) (see below for synonymy) HW92
    |    |    |--C. leai Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |    |--C. ruficollis Macleay 1864 (see below for synonymy) HW92
    |    |    |--C. septentrionalis Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |    `--C. sericeipennis Lea 1919 HW92
    |    `--Neophyllotocus Blackburn 1898 [=Macrothops Macleay 1864 non Boisduval 1835] HW92
    |         |--N. cuspis Britton 1959 B78
    |         |--N. dispar (Blackburn 1890) [=Phyllotocus dispar] HW92
    |         |--N. legnotus Britton 1957 HW92
    |         |--N. pallidipennis (Macleay 1864) [=Macrothops pallidipennis] HW92
    |         |--N. rostratus (Macleay 1864) [=Macrothops rostrata] HW92
    |         |--N. undarus Allsopp 1976 HW92
    |         `--N. xanthipennis Britton 1957 HW92
    |--Scitalini B78
    |    |--Sericoides HW92
    |    |--Gnaphalopoda HW92
    |    |--Sericesthis HW92
    |    |--Scitala HW92
    |    |--Colpochelyne Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    `--*C. dux Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |--Idanastes Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    `--*I. abditus Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |--Phorine Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    `--*P. anomala (Blackburn 1907) [=Byrrhomorpha anomala] HW92
    |    |--Synchilus Britton 1955 HW92
    |    |    `--*S. gisleni Britton 1955 HW92
    |    |--Xyrodes Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    `--*X. calorata (Blackburn 1907) [=Frenchella calorata] HW92
    |    |--Protelura Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    |--*P. nana Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    `--P. guttata Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |--Hadrops Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    |--*H. halei Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    `--H. flavus (Lea 1919) [=Engyops flavus] HW92
    |    |--Colpochilodes Blackburn 1898 HW92
    |    |    |--*C. raucipennis Blackburn 1898 HW92
    |    |    `--C. peregrina Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |--Xyrine Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    |--*X. carnei Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    `--X. inusitatus Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |--Byrrhomorpha Blackburn 1892 HW92
    |    |    |--*B. verres Blackburn 1892 HW92
    |    |    |--B. basicollis Lea 1919 HW92
    |    |    `--B. ponderosa Blackburn 1892 [incl. B. rudis Lea 1919] HW92
    |    |--Ophropyx Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    |--*O. hispida (Blackburn 1898) [=Frenchella hispida] HW92
    |    |    |--O. approximans (Blackburn 1898) [=Frenchella approximans] HW92
    |    |    `--O. ciliata (Boisduval 1835) HW92 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--Xyroa Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    |--*X. polita Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    |--X. alta Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    |--X. amoena Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    `--X. nitida Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |--Homolotropus Macleay 1871 [=Homalotropus (l. c.)] HW92
    |    |    |--*H. luridipennis Macleay 1871 HW92
    |    |    |--H. metallicus Britton 1970 HW92
    |    |    |--H. sagus Britton 1970 HW92
    |    |    |--H. sericeus Britton 1970 HW92
    |    |    `--H. taylori Britton 1970 HW92
    |    `--Telura Erichson 1842 HW92
    |         |--*T. vitticollis Erichson 1842 HW92
    |         |--T. alta Britton 1987 HW92
    |         |--T. imparilis Britton 1987 HW92
    |         |--T. monticola Britton 1987 HW92
    |         `--T. petiolata Britton 1987 HW92
    |--Melolonthini B78
    |    |--Lepidiota B78
    |    |--Antitrogus B78
    |    |--Rhopaea B78
    |    |--Phyllophaga B14
    |    |    |--P. helleri MHG04
    |    |    |--P. sociatus [=Listrochelus sociatus] S38b
    |    |    `--P. stohleri Saylor 1938 S38b
    |    |--Melolontha B14
    |    |--Zietzia Blackburn 1894 B78
    |    |    `--*Z. geologa Blackburn 1894 B78
    |    |--Holorhopaea Britton 1978 B78
    |    |    `--*H. sagata Britton 1978 B78
    |    |--Nanorhopaea Britton 1978 B78
    |    |    `--*N. testacea Britton 1978 B78
    |    |--Microrhopaea Lea 1920 B78
    |    |    `--*M. flavipennis Lea 1920 B78
    |    |--Othnonius Olliff 1891 HW92
    |    |    `--*O. batesii Olliff 1891 HW92
    |    |--Megarhopaea Britton 1978 B78
    |    |    `--*M. gigas (Lea 1916) [=Pararhopaea gigas; incl. Rhopaea demarzi Frey 1969] B78
    |    |--Hypolepida Britton 1978 B78
    |    |    `--*H. wilsoni Britton 1978 B78
    |    |--Megacoryne Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    `--*M. carnabyorum Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |--Holotrichia B78
    |    |    |--H. diomphalia F92
    |    |    `--H. serrata [incl. Neolepidiota obscura Blackburn 1890] B78
    |    |--Allothnonius Britton 1978 B78
    |    |    |--*A. brooksi Britton 1978 B78
    |    |    `--A. barretti Britton 1978 B78
    |    |--Metatrogus Britton 1978 B78
    |    |    |--*M. septuosus Britton 1978 B78
    |    |    |--M. castaneus Britton 1978 B78
    |    |    `--M. praeceps Britton 1978 B78
    |    |--Dermolepida Arrow 1941 [=Lepidoderma Waterhouse 1875 non Reuss 1855] B78
    |    |    |--*D. albohirtum (Waterhouse 1875) (see below for synonymy) HW92
    |    |    |--D. lixi (Nonfried 1894) [=Lepidoderma lixi; incl. L. glaber Brenske 1895] HW92
    |    |    `--D. nigrum B78
    |    |--Pararhopaea Blackburn 1911 B78
    |    |    |--*P. callabonensis (Blackburn 1894) [=Rhopaea callabonensis] B78
    |    |    |--P. minor Britton 1978 B78
    |    |    |--P. moffatensis Allsop 1990 HW92
    |    |    `--P. rhipidocera Lea 1916 B78
    |    |--Pseudholophylla Blackburn 1911 (see below for synonymy) HW92
    |    |    |--*P. furfuracea (Burmeister 1855) [=Holophylla furfuracea] B78
    |    |    |--P. castaneipennis (Macleay 1888) [=Rhopaea castaneipennis] B78
    |    |    |--P. cavifrons (Lea 1919) [=Paralepidiota cavifrons] B78
    |    |    |--P. lepidoptera (Blackburn 1912) [=*Paralepidiota lepidoptera] HW92
    |    |    `--P. soror Britton 1978 B78
    |    `--Xenotrogus Britton 1978 B78
    |         |--*X. vitiensis (Fairmaire 1879) [=Rhopaea vitiensis] B78
    |         |--X. bisquamulatus (Moser 1919) [=Rhopaea bisquamulata] B78
    |         |--X. solomonensis (Moser 1919) [=Rhopaea solomonensis] B78
    |         |--X. subnitidus (Arrow 1915) [=Rhopaea subnitida] B78
    |         `--X. vestitus (Arrow 1915) [=Rhopaea vestita] B78
    `--Liparetrini [Colpochilini] B80
         |  i. s.: ‘Melolontha’ astrolabei Boisduval 1835 [=Haplonycha astrolabei] HW92
         |--Liparetrus B80
         |--Colpochila HW92
         |--Dysphanochila Blackburn 1898 HW92
         |    `--*D. pilosipennis Blackburn 1898 HW92
         |--Parasciton Britton 1990 HW92
         |    `--*P. inermis Britton 1990 HW92
         |--Allara Britton 1955 HW92
         |    `--*A. insularis Britton 1955 HW92
         |--Anacanthodes Britton 1990 [=Anacanthopus Blackburn 1898 non Montandon 1894] HW92
         |    `--*A. inermis (Blackburn 1898) [=*Anacanthopus inermis] HW92
         |--Macleayella Britton 1990 [=Macleayia Blackburn 1888 non Haswell 1830] HW92
         |    `--*M. singularis (Blackburn 1888) [=*Macleayia singularis] HW92
         |--Aneucomides Blackburn 1898 HW92
         |    `--*A. coloratus Blackburn 1898 [incl. Haplonycha mauricei Blackburn 1906] HW92
         |--Aphanesia Britton 1990 HW92
         |    `--*A. grayi Britton 1990 HW92
         |--Astibicola Britton 1990 HW92
         |    `--*A. bicolor Britton 1990 HW92
         |--Cheilo Britton 1990 HW92
         |    `--*C. liparetroides Britton 1990 HW92
         |--Dikellites Britton 1990 HW92
         |    `--*D. abditus Britton 1990 HW92
         |--Engyopsina Britton 1990 [=Engyops Blackburn 1898 non Bauer & Bergenstamm 1889] HW92
         |    `--*E. spectans (Blackburn 1898) [=Engyops spectans] HW92
         |--Hadropechys Britton 1990 HW92
         |    `--*H. victoriae (Blackburn 1897) [=Pachygastra victoriae] HW92
         |--Ictigaster Britton 1986 HW92
         |    `--*I. ruficollis (Lea 1917) [=Haplonycha ruficollis] HW92
         |--Leonotus Britton 1986 HW92
         |    `--*L. pilosicollis (Lea 1930) [=Haplonycha pilosicollis] HW92
         |--Pachygastra Germar 1848 HW92
         |    `--*P. tasmanica Germar 1848 [incl. Prochelyna rubella Schaufuss 1882] HW92
         |--Paronyx Britton 1990 HW92
         |    `--*P. setifera Britton 1990 HW92
         |--Petinopus Blackburn 1898 HW92
         |    `--*P. aegrotus Blackburn 1898 HW92
         |--Scitaloides Britton 1990 HW92
         |    `--*S. malanda Britton 1990 HW92
         |--Stenochelyne Britton 1990 HW92
         |    `--*S. noctis Britton 1990 HW92
         |--Xyridea Britton 1990 HW92
         |    `--*X. hirticollis (Blackburn 1912) [=Aneucomides hirticollis] HW92
         |--Nosphisthis Blackburn 1898 HW92
         |    |--*N. parvicornis Blackburn 1898 HW92
         |    `--N. perkinsi Blackburn 1907 HW92
         |--Biphyllocera White 1841 [=Diphyllocera Agassiz 1847] HW92
         |    |--*B. kirbyana White 1841 HW92 [=Diphyllocera kirbyana M86]
         |    `--B. fabriciana White 1841 HW92
         |--Glossocheilifer Blackburn 1898 HW92
         |    |--*G. labialis Blackburn 1898 [incl. G. addendus Blackburn 1907] HW92
         |    `--G. bidentatus Lea 1919 HW92
         |--Teluroides Britton 1990 HW92
         |    |--*T. suturalis (Lea 1920) [=Telura suturalis] HW92
         |    `--T. clypealis (Lea 1919) [=Telura clypealis] HW92
         |--Sciton Blackburn 1892 HW92
         |    |--*S. ruber Blackburn 1892 HW92
         |    |--S. flavocastaneus Lea 1917 HW92
         |    |--S. paullus Blackburn 1898 HW92
         |    `--S. variicollis Blackburn 1907 HW92
         |--Neso Blackburn 1898 HW92
         |    |--*N. usta Blackburn 1898 HW92
         |    |--N. castaneus (Lea 1920) [=Engyops castaneus] HW92
         |    |--N. ducalis Blackburn 1907 HW92
         |    |--N. flavipennis (Macleay 1887) [=Platydesmus flavipennis; incl. N. planicollis Blackburn 1898] HW92
         |    |--N. minuta (Lea 1926) HW92 [=Haplonycha minuta HW92, Pteroplatydesmus minutus B86]
         |    `--N. yorkensis Blackburn 1898 HW92
         |--Frenchella Blackburn 1892 HW92
         |    |--*F. lubrica Blackburn 1892 HW92
         |    |--F. cribriceps Lea 1919 HW92
         |    |--F. fimbriata Lea 1919 HW92
         |    |--F. gagatina Lea 1919 HW92
         |    |--F. hirticillis Blackburn 1898 HW92
         |    |--F. iridescens (Blanchard 1850) [=Haplonycha iridescens] HW92
         |    `--F. russula Britton 1959 HW92
         |--Plectrodes S38a
         `--Colobostoma Blanchard 1840 (see below for synonymy) HW92
              |--*C. rufipennis (Boisduval 1835) (see below for synonymy) HW92
              |--C. castaneus (Lea 1919) [=Platydesmus castaneus] HW92
              |--C. hirsuta (Frey 1966) [=Frenchella hirsuta] HW92
              |--C. inamoenus (Blackburn 1907) [=Platydesmus inamoenus] HW92
              |--C. inusitatus (Blackburn 1907) [=Platydesmus inusitatus] HW92
              |--C. major (Blackburn 1907) [=Platydesmus major] HW92
              |--C. obscuricornis (Blanchard 1850) [=Haplonycha obscuricornis] HW92
              `--C. punctulaticeps (Blackburn 1908) [=Platydesmus punctulaticeps] HW92

Melolonthinae incertae sedis:
  Pyronota T27
    |--P. festiva T27
    |--P. laeta B35
    `--P. refulgens Dupont in Boisduval 1835 B35
  Chasmatopterus annamariae Branco 2004 F05
  Maladera castanea T90
  Ancistrosoma klugii Curtis 1835 B14
  Hoplia B14
    |--H. aureola [incl. H. aureola var. sibirica] C01
    |--H. coerulea (Drury 1773) B14
    |--H. parvula C01
    `--H. sulphurea Chevrolat 1846 E12
  Polyphylla decemlineata (Say 1824) B14
  Sparrmannia B14
    |--S. alopex B14
    |--S. flava Arrow 1917 B14
    |--S. similis B14
    `--S. vicinus B14
  Chlorochiton suturalis [=Stethaspis suturalis] L19
  Rhizotrogus M86
  Chnaunanthus S38a

*Anthotocus luridus (Macleay 1864) HW92 [=Cheiragra lurida HW92, Phyllotocus luridus L19; incl. P. truncatidens Lea 1920 HW92]

*Cheiragra pusilla (Blanchard 1850) [=Phyllotocus pusillus; incl. C. aphodioides Macleay 1864, C. atra Macleay 1864, C. pygmaea Macleay 1864] HW92

Cheiragra ruficollis Macleay 1864 [=Phyllotocus collaris Harold 1869; incl. C. pallida Macleay 1864, C. variabilis Lea 1919] HW92

*Cheirora interstitialis (Blackburn 1898) [=Cheirrhamphica interstitialis; incl. Cheirr. coxalis Lea 1919, Cheirr. insularis Lea 1919, Cheirr. tuberculata Lea 1919] HW92

Colobostoma Blanchard 1840 [incl. Platydesmus Macleay 1887 non Lucas 1843, Pteroplatydesmus Dalla Torre 1912] HW92

*Colobostoma rufipennis (Boisduval 1835) [=Sericesthis rufipennis; incl. Frenchella sparsiceps Blackburn 1898, Platydesmus sulcipennis Macleay 1887, *Pteroplatydesmus sulcipennis] HW92

Comophorina Strand 1928 [=Comophorus Blanchard 1850 non Agassiz 1846, Comophus Britton 1978; Comophini, Comophorini, Comophorinini] HW92

*Dermolepida albohirtum (Waterhouse 1875) [=*Lepidoderma albohirtum; incl. Rhopaea aruense Lansberge 1879, L. lansbergei Brenske 1894, L. waterhousei Brenske 1894] HW92

Ophropyx ciliata (Boisduval 1835) HW92 [=Melolontha ciliata HW92, Aplonycha ciliata B86, Haplonycha ciliata B86, Heteronyx ciliata B86; incl. Frenchella aspericollis Blackburn 1898 HW92, Ha. rugosa Burmeister 1855 HW92]

Phyllochlaenia Blanchard 1846 [=Philochlaenia (l. c.); incl. Caulobius Guillou 1844 non Duponchel 1838, Deuterocaulobius Dalla Torre 1912] HW92

Phyllochlaenia villosus (Guillou 1844) HW92 [=*Caulobius villosus HW92, *Deuterocaulobius villosus HW92; incl. Hymenoplia villigera Blanchard 1846 HW92, Caulobius villiger M86]

Pseudholophylla Blackburn 1911 [=Holophylla Burmeister 1844 non Erichson 1847; incl. Paralepidiota Blackburn 1911] HW92

*Sphaeroscelis pectoralis (Burmeister 1855) [=Phyllotocus (*Sphaeroscelis) pectoralis; incl. Cheirrhamphica pubescens Blackburn 1898] HW92

Webbella labralis (Blackburn 1908) HW92 [=Heteronyx labralis HW92; incl. H. anomalus Blackburn 1908 B00, HW92, H. leai Blackburn 1909 B00, HW92]

Xylonichus eucalypti eucalypti Boisduval 1835 [incl. Xylonychus laetus Blanchard 1851, Xylonychus metrosideri Burmeister 1855] HW92

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B35] Boisduval, J. B. 1835. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d'Urville. Faune entomologique de l'océan Pacifique, avec l'illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage vol. 2. Coléoptères et autres ordres. J. Tastu: Paris.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[B78] Britton, E. B. 1978. A revision of the Australian chafers (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) vol. 2. Tribe Melolonthini. Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 60: 1–150.

[B80] Britton, E. B. 1980. A revision of the Australian chafers (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) vol. 3. Tribe Liparetrini: genus Liparetrus. Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 76: 1–209.

[B86] Britton, E. B. 1986. A revision of the Australian chafers (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) vol. 4. Tribe Liparetrini: genus Colpochila. Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 118: 1–135.

[B00] Britton, E. B. 2000. A review of Heteronyx Guérin-Méneville (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae). Invertebrate Taxonomy 14: 465–589.

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[HW92] Houston, W. W. K., & T. A. Weir. 1992. Melolonthinae. In: Houston, W. W. K. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 9. Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea pp. 174–358. AGPS Press: Canberra.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[L19] Lea, A. M. 1919. Notes on some miscellaneous Coleoptera with descriptions of new species.—Part V. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 43: 166–261, pls 25–27.

[M86] Masters, G. 1886. Catalogue of the described Coleoptera of Australia. Part III. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 21–126.

[MHG04] Maynard, G. V., J. G. Hamilton & J. F. Grimshaw. 2004. Quarantine—phytosanitary, sanitary and incursion management: an Australian entomological perspective. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 318–328.

[S38a] Saylor, L. W. 1938a. Revision of the subfamily Oncerinae with description of a new genus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 40 (4): 99–103.

[S38b] Saylor, L. W. 1938b. A new Phyllophaga from Nevada (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 40 (5): 129–131.

[T90] Tashiro, H. 1990. Insecta: Coleoptera Scarabaeidae larvae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1191–1209. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[T27] Thomson, G. M. 1927. The pollination of New Zealand flowers by birds and insects. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 106–125.

Last updated: 6 October 2018.

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