Pair of Dicranolasma soerensenii, copyright Salvatore Canu.

Belongs within: Palpatores.
Contains: Nemastomatidae, Trogulidae.

The Troguloidea is a clade of harvestmen found in Holarctic region, primarily characterised by features of the genitalia. Members of this clade possess two muscles in the penis, and aciniform vaginal glands and outer circular muscles in the ovipositor (Giribet & Kury 2007).

<==Troguloidea [Eupagosterni, Troguloidae]
    |  i. s.: Eotrogulus [Eotrogulidae] K13
    |           `--E. fayoli Thevenin 1901 D07
    |         Nemastomoides Thevenin 1901 D07 [incl. Protopilio D07; Nemastomoididae K13]
    |           |--N. elaveris Thevenin 1901 D07
    |           `--N. longipes (Petrunkevitch 1913) [=Protopilio longipes] D07
    |--Nipponopsalis Martens & Suzuki 1966 M76 [Nipponopsalididae GE02]
    |    |--*N. abei (Sato & Suzuki 1939) S73 [=Ischyropsalis abei M76]
    |    |    |--N. a. abei S73
    |    |    `--N. a. longipes Suzuki 1973 S73
    |    |--N. coreana (Suzuki 1966) [=Ischyropsalis coreana] S13
    |    `--N. yezoensis (Suzuki 1958) [=Ischyropsalis yezoensis] S13
    `--+--+--Nemastomatidae GE02
       |  `--Ameticos Garwood, Dunlop et al. 2011 GS14, GD11
       |       `--*A. scolos Garwood, Dunlop et al. 2011 GD11
       `--+--Trogulidae GE02
          `--Dicranolasma Sørensen 1873 GE02, R23 (see below for synonymy)
               |--*D. scabrum (Herbst 1799) [=Opilio scaber; incl. D. schmidti Hadži 1928] S13
               |--D. apuanum Marcellino 1971 G98
               |--D. cretaeum Gruber 1998 G98
               |--D. cristatum Thorell 1876 G98
               |--D. giljarovi Šilhavý 1966 G98
               |--D. hirtum Loman 1894 (see below for synonymy) S13
               |--D. hoberlandti Šilhavý 1956 G98
               |--D. kurdistanum Staręga 1970 G98
               |--D. mladeni Karaman 1990 G98
               |--D. opilionoides (Koch 1867) (see below for synonymy) S13
               |--D. pauper Dahl 1903 G98
               |--D. ponticum Gruber 1998 G98
               |--D. ressli Gruber 1998 G98
               |--D. soerensenii Thorell 1876 S13 (see below for synonymy)
               |--D. thracium Staręga 1976 G98
               `--D. verhoeffi Dahl 1903 G98

Dicranolasma Sørensen 1873 GE02, R23 [incl. Amopaum Sørensen 1873 R23; Dicranolasmatidae, Dicranolasmatinae, Dicranolasmatini, Dicranolasmidae]

Dicranolasma hirtum Loman 1894 [incl. D. diomedeum Kulczyński 1907, D. diomedaeum (l. c.), D. napoli Goodnight & Goodnight 1944] S13

Dicranolasma opilionoides (Koch 1867) [=Trogulus opilionoides; incl. D. kettyi Marcellino 1968, D. kettyae, *Amopaum spinipalpe Sørensen 1873] S13

Dicranolasma soerensenii Thorell 1876 S13 [=Amopaum soerenseni D04, D. soerenseni S13; incl. D. latifrons Simon 1879 D04, D. wiehlei Kraus 1959 D04]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[D04] Delfosse, E. 2004. Catalogue préliminaire des Opilions de France métropolitaine (Arachnida Opiliones). Bulletin de Phyllie 20: 34–58.

[D07] Dunlop, J. A. 2007. Paleontology. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 247–265. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[GD11] Garwood, R. J., J. A. Dunlop, G. Giribet & M. D. Sutton. 2011. Anatomically modern Carboniferous harvestmen demonstrate early cladogenesis and stasis in Opiliones. Nature Communications 2 (444): 1–7.

[GS14] Garwood, R. J., P. P. Sharma, J. A. Dunlop & G. Giribet. 2014. A Paleozoic stem group to mite harvestmen revealed through integration of phylogenetics and development. Current Biology 24 (9): 1017–1023.

[GE02] Giribet, G., G. D. Edgecombe, W. C. Wheeler & C. Babbitt. 2002. Phylogeny and systematic position of Opiliones: a combined analysis of chelicerate relationships using morphological and molecular data. Cladistics 18: 5–70.

Giribet, G., & A. B. Kury. 2007. Phylogeny and biogeography. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 62–87. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[G98] Gruber, J. 1998. Beiträge zur Systematik der Gattung Dicranolasma (Arachnida: Opiliones, Dicranolasmatidae). I. Dicranolasma thracium Staręga und verwandte Formen aus Südosteuropa und Südwestasien. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museum in Wien. Serie B. Botanik und Zoologie 100: 489–537.

[K13] Kury, A. B. 2013. Order Opiliones Sundevall, 1833. Zootaxa 3703: 27–33.

[M76] Martens, J. 1976. Genitalmorphologie, System und Phylogenie der Weberknechte (Arachnida: Opiliones). Entomologica Germanica 3 (1–2): 51–68.

[R23] Roewer, C.-F. 1923. Die Weberknechte der Erde: Systematische Bearbeitung der bisher bekannnten Opiliones. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[S13] Schönhofer, A. L. 2013. A taxonomic catalogue of the Dyspnoi Hansen and Sørensen, 1904 (Arachnida: Opiliones). Zootaxa 3679 (1): 1–68.

[S73] Suzuki, S. 1973. Opiliones from the South-west Islands, Japan. Journal of Science of the Hiroshima University, Series B, Division 1, 24: 205–279.

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