Male Leiobunum rotundum, copyright Stu's Images.

Belongs within: Sclerosomatidae.

Leiobunum has been recognised has a widespread Holarctic genus of generalised sclerosomatid harvestmen; however, recent phylogenetic analyses have indicated that this genus is widely polyphyletic. The type species is L. rotundum which is widespread in Europe; males of this species are solidly brick red whereas females are yellowish-red with a black saddle (Martens 1978).

Characters (from Roewer 1923): Eyemound as long as broad and high, dorsally smooth or finely granulate or denticulate. Anterior margin of carapace without a median protrusion; dorsum of carapace and opisthosoma usually unarmed; tergites 1–5 of opisthosoma sometimes forming a hard scutum in male. Coxae I–IV each with one anterior and one posterior marginal row of denticles, rarely only anterior margin of coxa I and posterior margin of coxa IV with denticle row. Supracheliceral lamellae usually smooth. Cheliceral segment I dorsally smooth. Pedipalp without apico-medial apophyses on patella and tibia (very rare incipient apophysis on patella). Legs very long and very thin; femur I usually much longer than body, very rarely only as long as body.

<==Leiobunum Koch 1839 S08 [=Leiobunus Meade 1855 C92, Liobunum Agassiz 1846 CZ04]
    |--*L. rotundum (Latreille 1798) S08 (see below for synonymy)
    |--L. albigenum Sørensen 1911 [=Liobunum albigenum] R23
    |--L. alvarezi Goodnight & Goodnight 1945 GG45
    |--L. anatolicum Roewer 1957 K14
    |--L. apenninicum (Martens 1969) [=Nelima apenninica] MS16
    |--L. argentipalpe Prieto & Fernández 2007 PW17
    |--L. biseriatum Roewer 1910 [=Liobunum biseriatum] R23
    |--L. bolivari Goodnight & Goodnight 1945 GG46
    |--L. bruchi Mello-Leitao 1933 GG45
    |--L. coccineum Simon 1878 [=Liobunum coccineum] R23
    |--L. consimile Banks 1900 GG45 [=Liobunum consimile R23; incl. Li. dugesi Banks 1908 GG45]
    |--L. cretatum Crosby & Bishop 1924 D34 [incl. L. lineatum Edgar 1962 E90]
    |--L. cupreum Simon 1878 [=Liobunum cupreum] R23
    |--L. davisi Roewer 1952 CZ04
    |--L. defectivum Rambla 1959 PW17
    |--L. denticulatum Banks 1900 GG46 [=Liobunum denticulatum R23]
    |--L. depressum Davis 1934 D34
    |--L. desertum Goodnight & Goodnight 1944 GG45
    |--L. dromedarium Cambridge 1904 GG46 [=Liobunum dromedarium R23]
    |--L. ephippiatum Roewer 1910 D34 [=Liobunum ephippiatum R23]
    |--L. escondidum Chamberlin 1925 GG46
    |--L. fuscum Roewer 1910 [=Liobunum fuscum] R23
    |--L. ghigii Di Caporiacco 1929 K14
    |--L. gracile Thorell 1876 (see below for synonymy) MS16
    |--L. granulosum Prieto & Fernández 2007 PW17
    |--L. guerreroensis Goodnight & Goodnight 1946 GG46
    |--L. incantaturbs Prieto & Wijnhoven 2017 PW17
    |--L. insignitum Roewer 1910 [=Liobunum insignitum] R23
    |--L. ischionotatum (Dugès 1884) (see below for synonymy) R23
    |    |--L. i. ischionotatum R23
    |    `--L. i. luteovittatum Roewer 1912 [=Liobunum luteovittatum] R23
    |--L. leiopenis Davis 1934 T85, D34 [=L. flavum leiopenis D34]
    |--L. levantinum Prieto & Fernández 2007 PW17
    |--L. limbatum Koch 1861 N05 (see below for synonymy)
    |--L. lindbergi Roewer 1959 K14
    |--L. longipes Menge 1854 PP19 (see below for synonymy)
    |--L. lusitanicum Roewer 1923 [=Liobunum lusitanicum] R23
    |--L. marmoratum Cambridge 1904 [=Liobunum marmoratum] R23
    |--L. mesopunctatum Goodnight & Goodnight 1942 GG42a
    |--L. metallicum GG42b
    |--L. mexicanum Banks 1898 [=Liobunum mexicanum] R23
    |--L. nigrigenum Goodnight & Goodnight 1945 GG45
    |--L. nigripalpe Simon 1889 MS16 (see below for synonymy)
    |--L. nycticorpum Goodnight & Goodnight 1942 GG46
    |--L. oregonense Goodnight & Goodnight 1943 GG43
    |--L. religiosum Simon 1879 [=Liobunum religiosum, Nelima religiosa] M78
    |--L. roseum Koch 1839 [=Liobunum roseum] M78
    |--L. rumelicum Šilhavý 1965 N05
    |--L. rupestre (Herbst 1799) K14 (see below for synonymy)
    |--L. seriatum Simon 1878 K14 [=Liobunum seriatum R23]
    |--‘Lejobunum’ (l. c.) seriepunctatum Doleschall 1852 (n. d.) R23
    |--L. socialissimum Koch 1873 [=Liobunum socialissimum] R23
    |--L. subalpinum Komposch 1998 MS16
    |--L. trimaculatum Goodnight & Goodnight 1943 GG43
    |--L. viridorsum Goodnight & Goodnight 1942 GG42a
    `--L. zimmermani Roewer 1952 CZ04

Nomen nudum: Leiobunum luteum TM00

Leiobunum gracile Thorell 1876 [=Liobunum gracile, Nelima gracilis; incl. Li. laeve Thorell 1876, Nelima laevis, N. melanogranulata Morin 1931 (n. n.), Liobunum norvegicum Strand 1900, N. norvegica, Li. norwegicum (l. c.), N. norwegica (l. c.), Leiobunum tisciae Avram 1968] MS16

Leiobunum ischionotatum (Dugès 1884) [=Opilio ischionotatus, Liobunum ischionotatus; incl. Egaenus mexicanus Becker 1886 non Leiobunum mexicanum Banks 1898] R23

Leiobunum limbatum Koch 1861 N05 [=Liobunum limbatum D04, Liobunus limbatus D04; incl. Liobunum limbatum var. fischeri Heller 1903 D04, Liobunum hassiae Müller 1914 D04, Leiobunum hassiae R23, Liobunum purpurissatum Koch 1869 D04]

Leiobunum longipes Menge 1854 PP19 [=L. saparum Menge in Koch & Berendt 1854 (n. n.) D07; incl. L. inclusum Roewer 1939 S02]

Leiobunum nigripalpe Simon 1889 MS16 [=Liobunum nigripalpe M78, Nelima nigripalpis M78, Nelimus (Liobunum) nigripalpis D04]

*Leiobunum rotundum (Latreille 1798) S08 [=Phalangium rotundum S08, *Leiobunus rotundus C92, *Liobunum rotundum C92; incl. Phalangium decemmaculatum Razoumowsky 1789 D04, Opilio fasciatus Herbst 1798 D04, Li. fasciatum D04, Phalangium filipes Lucas 1847 D04, Opilio hemisphaericus Herbst 1799 D04, P. hemisphaericum D04, P. longipes Hahn 1834 non Leiobunum longipes Menge in Koch & Berendt 1854 D04, Cerastoma longipes R12, P. rufum Hermann 1804 D04, Leiobunum rufum D04]

Leiobunum rupestre (Herbst 1799) K14 [=Opilio rupestris D04, Liobunum rupestre D04, Liobunus rupestris D04; incl. Phalangium annulatum Hermann 1804 non Olivier 1791 D04, Leiobunum bicolor Koch 1848 D04, Liobunum glabrum Koch 1869 MS16, Nelima glabra MS16, Leiobunum ovale Koch 1848 MS16]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[CZ04] Cokendolpher, J. C., & K. R. Zeiders. 2004. Clarence Moores Weed (1864–1947) and notes on his species of Opiliones (Arachnida). Occasional Papers Museum of Texas Tech University 237: 1–14.

[C92] Crawford, R. L. 1992. Catalogue of the genera and type species of the harvestman superfamily Phalangioidea (Arachnida). Burke Museum Contributions in Anthropology and Natural History 8: 1–60.

[D34] Davis, N. W. 1934. A revision of the genus Leiobunum (Opiliones) of the United States. American Midland Naturalist 15 (6): 662–705.

[D04] Delfosse, E. 2004. Catalogue préliminaire des Opilions de France métropolitaine (Arachnida Opiliones). Bulletin de Phyllie 20: 34–58.

[D07] Dunlop, J. A. 2007. Paleontology. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 247–265. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[E90] Edgar, A. L. 1990. Opiliones (Phalangida). In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 529–581. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[GG42a] Goodnight, C. J., & M. L. Goodnight. 1942a. New and little known Phalangida from Mexico. American Museum Novitates 1163: 1–16.

[GG42b] Goodnight, C. J., & M. L. Goodnight. 1942b. Phalangida from Mexico. American Museum Novitates 1211: 1–18.

[GG43] Goodnight, C. J., & M. L. Goodnight. 1943. New and little known phalangids from the United States. American Midland Naturalist 29 (3): 643–656.

[GG45] Goodnight, C. J., & M. L. Goodnight. 1945. Additional Phalangida from Mexico. American Museum Novitates 1281: 1–17.

[GG46] Goodnight, C. J., & M. L. Goodnight. 1946. Additional studies of the phalangid fauna of Mexico. 1. American Museum Novitates 1310: 1–17.

[K14] Kurt, K. 2014. Updated checklist of harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones) in Turkey. Arch. Biol. Sci. 66 (4): 1617–1631.

[M78] Martens, J. 1978. Spinnentiere, Arachnida: Weberknechte, Opiliones. Gustav Fischer Verlag: Jena.

[MS16] Martens, J., & A. L. Schönhofer. 2016. The Leiobunum rupestre species group: resolving the taxonomy of four widespread European taxa (Opiliones: Sclerosomatidae). European Journal of Taxonomy 216: 1–35.

[N05] Novak, T. 2005. An overview of harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones) in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Natura Croatica 14 (4): 301–350.

[PP19] Palencia, L., E. Peñalver, C. E. Prieto & F. J. Poyato-Ariza. 2019. First fossil harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones) from Spain and notes on the fossil record of Opiliones. Palaeontologica Electronica 22.1.5A: 1–18.

[PW17] Prieto, C. E., & H. Wijnhoven. 2017. A new Leiobunum species from the Iberian Peninsula (Opiliones: Sclerosomatidae: Leiobuninae). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología 30: 3–10.

[R12] Roewer, C.-F. 1912. Revision der Opiliones Palpatores (=Opiliones Plagiostethi). II. Teil: Familie der Phalangiidae. (Subfamilien: Sclerosomini, Oligolophini, Phalangiini). Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der Naturwissenschaften, herausgegeben vom Naturwissenschaftlichen Verein in Hamburg 20 (1): 1–295.

[R23] Roewer, C.-F. 1923. Die Weberknechte der Erde: Systematische Bearbeitung der bisher bekannnten Opiliones. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[S08] Shultz, J. W. 2008. Leiobunum nigripes is a junior synonym of Leiobunum verrucosum (Opiliones, Sclerosomatidae). Journal of Arachnology 36 (1): 184–186.

[S02] Staręga, W. 2002. Baltic amber harvestmen (Opiliones) from Polish collections. Annales Zoologici 52 (4): 601–604.

[T85] Tsurusaki, N. 1985. Taxonomic revision of the Leiobunum curvipalpe-group (Arachnida, Opiliones, Phalangiidae). I. hikocola-, hiasai-, kohyai-, and platypenis-subgroups. Journal of the Faculty of Science of the Hokkaido University VI, Zoology 24: 1–42.

[TM00] Tsurusaki, N., & H. Minato. 2000. Opiliones of Wakayama Prefecture, Honshu, Japan. Nankiseibutu 42 (1): 3–8.

Last updated: 25 May 2019.

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