Male Pseudoryctes turritus, copyright Hungarian Natural History Museum.

Belongs within: Melolonthinae.
Contains: Oryctes, Cryptodus, Corynophyllus, Teinogenys, Cheiroplatys, Cryptoryctes, Neodon, Novapus, Pimelopus, Trissodon.

The Dynastinae are a group of scarabaeid beetles whose larvae mostly feed on roots or decaying vegetation in soil or rotten logs. Members are often sexually dimorphic with males bearing prominent horns and/or other protuberances or concavities on the head and pronotum. The majority of species are univoltine though some larger species may require two or three years to develop (Cassis & Weir 1992).

Characters (from Cassis & Weir 1992): Adult with mandibles usually at least partly visible from above; elytra without narrow membranous margin, pygidium at least partly exposed; mid coxae transverse, not produced ventrally; mesothoracic epimera not visible from above; tarsal claws equal; abdominal spiracles diverging, several lying on abdominal sternites, at least two pairs exposed beneath elytra; sexual dimorphism often markedly developed, head and/or pronotum of males usually bearing horns, tubercles, or complex excavations and elevations. Larva with head usually strongly punctated; apical antennal segment as wide as penultimate; labrum symmetrical with deeply pigmented notch on right side of midline; mandible with ventral stridulatory area; maxilla with stridulatory teeth on dorsal edge bluntly rounded; galea and lacinia fused to form mala; legs long, hind coxa larger than width of clypeus; sternum 9 without raster of longitudinal row of spines; anal cleft transverse.

<==Dynastinae [Dynastidae, Dynastides]
    |--Oryctoderus Boisduval 1835 [Oryctoderini] CW92
    |    `--*O. latitarsis Boisduval 1835 [incl. O. obtusilobus Fairmaire 1877] CW92
    |--Hexodon [Hexodontini] B14
    |    |--H. reticulatum L02
    |    `--H. unicolor Olivier 1789 B14 [=Rutela unicolor G20]
    |--Oryctini CW92
    |    |--Oryctes CW92
    |    `--Oryctoderinus Endrödi 1978 CW92
    |         `--*O. walfordorum Endrödi 1978 CW92
    |--Cyclocephala Latreille 1829 [Cyclocephalini] CW92
    |    |--*C. amazona (Linnaeus 1767) [=Melolontha amazona] CW92
    |    |--C. borealis T90
    |    |--C. immaculata T90
    |    `--C. signaticollis Burmeister 1847 CW92
    |--Phileurini CW92
    |    |--Cryptodus CW92
    |    |--Phileurus valgus (Linnaeus 1758) G20, L58 [=Scarabaeus valgus G20]
    |    `--Eophileurus Arrow 1908 [incl. Trionychus Fairmaire 1898 non Burmeister 1847] CW92
    |         |--*E. planatus (Weidemann 1823) [=Geotrupes planatus] CW92
    |         |--‘Trionychus’ assamensis Fairmaire 1898 CW92
    |         |--E. convexus (Arrow 1900) [=Phileurus convexus] CW92
    |         |--E. dentatus (Blackburn 1895) [=Semanopterus dentatus; incl. E. australicus Prell 1913] CW92
    |         `--‘Trionychus’ poteli Fairmaire 1898 CW92
    |--Dynastini CW92
    |    |--Beckius B14
    |    |--Pachyoryctes B14
    |    |--Xyloscaptes B14
    |    |--Allomyrina B14
    |    |--Xylotrupes Hope 1837 CW92
    |    |    `--*X. gideon (Linnaeus 1767) CW92 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--Haploscapanes Arrow 1908 [incl. Liteupatorus Prell 1911] CW92
    |    |    |--*H. barbarossa (Fabricius 1775) CW92 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--H. australicus (Arrow 1908) [=Eupatorus australicus, *Liteupatorus australicus] CW92
    |    |    `--H. inermis (Prell 1911) [=Liteupatorus inermis] CW92
    |    |--Eupatorus gracilicornis Arrow 1908 B14
    |    |    |--E. g. gracilicornis B14
    |    |    |--E. g. edai B14
    |    |    `--E. g. kimioi B14
    |    |--Trypoxylus dichotomus (Linnaeus 1771) B14
    |    |    |--T. d. dichotomus B14
    |    |    |--T. d. septentrionalis B14
    |    |    `--T. d. tsunobosonis B14
    |    |--Chalcosoma B14
    |    |    |--C. atlas (Linnaeus 1758) (see below for synonymy) B14
    |    |    |--C. chiron B14
    |    |    |--C. engganensis B14
    |    |    `--C. moellenkampi B14
    |    `--Dynastes B14
    |         |--D. granti B14
    |         |--D. hercules (Linnaeus 1758) B14
    |         |--D. hyllus B14
    |         |--D. maya B14
    |         |--D. moroni B14
    |         |--D. neptunus B14
    |         |--D. satanas B14
    |         `--D. tityus (Linnaeus 1763) B14
    `--Pentodontini CW92
         |--Corynophyllus CW92
         |--Teinogenys CW92
         |--Cheiroplatys CW92
         |--Neodon CW92
         |--Novapus CW92
         |--Pimelopus CW92
         |--Trissodon CW92
         |--Hyphoryctes Blackburn 1895 CW92
         |    `--*H. maculatus Blackburn 1895 CW92
         |--Neocorynophyllus Carne 1985 CW92
         |    `--*N. aputaringus Carne 1985 CW92
         |--Nephrodopus Sharp 1873 CW92
         |    `--*N. enigma Sharp 1873 [incl. N. enigma niger Lea 1917, N. thauma Prell 1912] CW92
         |--Orthocavonus Carne 1957 CW92
         |    `--*O. occidentalis (Blackburn 1888) [=Neocavonus occidentalis] CW92
         |--Phylliocephala Blackburn 1890 CW92
         |    `--*P. nigrohirta Blackburn 1890 CW92
         |--Pseudocavonus Blackburn 1890 CW92
         |    `--*P. antennalis Blackburn 1890 CW92
         |--Temnorrhynchus Hope 1837 CW92
         |    `--*T. retusus (Fabricius 1781) [=Scarabaeus retusus, Geotrupes retusus] CW92
         |--Xynedria Blackburn 1894 CW92
         |    `--*X. interioris Blackburn 1894 [incl. Novapus bidentatus Blackburn 1895] CW92
         |--Anomalomorpha Arrow 1908 CW92
         |    |--*A. anthracina Arrow 1908 [incl. A. flavipes Arrow 1908, A. geotrupina Arrow 1908] CW92
         |    `--A. giveni Carne 1957 CW92
         |--Heteronychus Burmeister 1847 CW92
         |    |--*H. arator (Fabricius 1775) (see below for synonymy) CW92
         |    `--H. parumpunctatus Burmeister 1847 CW92
         |--Neatocnemis Prell 1936 [=Neocnemis Sharp 1875 non Crotch 1867] CW92
         |    |--*N. punctata (Sharp 1875) [=*Neocnemis punctata] CW92
         |    `--N. minor Carne 1957 CW92
         |--Neonastes Carne 1957 CW92
         |    |--*N. glabricollis (Macleay 1887) [=Isodon glabricollis] CW92
         |    `--N. uptoni Carne 1985 CW92
         |--Papuana Arrow 1911 CW92
         |    |--*P. semistriata Arrow 1911 CW92
         |    `--P. woodlarkiana (Montrouzier 1855) [=Scarabaeus woodlarkianus] CW92
         |--Phyllognathus Eschscholtz 1830 CW92
         |    |--‘Scarabaeus’ excavatus Forster 1771 [incl. S. silenus Fabricius 1775, *Phyllognathus silenus] CW92
         |    `--P. carnei Allsopp 1990 CW92
         |--Adoryphorus Blackburn 1889 CW92
         |    |--*A. coulonii (Burmeister 1847) [=Dasygnathus coulonii] CW92
         |    |--A. canei Carne 1957 CW92
         |    `--A. mellori Carne 1957 CW92
         |--Epironastes Carne 1957 CW92
         |    |--*E. nigrisetosus Carne 1957 CW92
         |    |--E. abruptus Carne 1957 CW92
         |    `--E. limbatus Carne 1957 CW92
         |--Neodasygnathus Carne 1957 CW92
         |    |--*N. juba (Kirby 1818) [=Scarabaeus juba; incl. Dasygnathus australis Boisduval 1835] CW92
         |    |--N. corynophylloides Carne 1957 CW92
         |    `--N. davidsoni Carne 1957 CW92
         |--Pentodon Hope 1837 CW92
         |    |--*P. punctatum (Villers 1789) [=Geotrupes punctatus] CW92
         |    |--P. algerinum (Herbst 1789) [=Scarabaeus algerinus] CW92
         |    |--P. guba Kirby 1818 Mas86
         |    `--P. idiota (Herbst 1789) A06
         |--Dasygnathus Macleay 1819 CW92
         |    |--*D. dejeani Macleay 1819 CW92 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--D. blattocomes Carne 1978 CW92
         |    |--D. globosus Arrow 1914 CW92
         |    `--D. trituberculatus Blackburn 1889 (see below for synonymy) CW92
         |--Metanastes Arrow 1911 CW92
         |    |--*M. australis (Fauvel 1862) [=Heteronychus australis] CW92
         |    |--M. bicornis Lea 1919 CW92
         |    |--M. irregularis (Macleay 1871) [=Heteronychus irregularis] CW92
         |    |--M. picipes (Macleay 1871) [=Heteronychus picipes] CW92
         |    `--M. vulgivagus (Olliff 1889) (see below for synonymy) CW92
         |--Cavonus Sharp 1875 [incl. Coelothorax Ancey 1880, Neocavonus Blackburn 1888] CW92
         |    |--*C. armatus Sharp 1875 [incl. *Coelothorax oberthuri Ancey 1880] CW92
         |    |--C. acutifrons Lea 1917 CW92
         |    |--C. bidens (Blackburn 1896) [=Neocavonus bidens] CW92
         |    |--C. leai Carne 1957 CW92
         |    |--C. niger (Blackburn 1888) [=*Neocavonus niger] CW92
         |    |--C. sculpturatus Blackburn 1888 CW92
         |    `--C. sharpi Blackburn 1888 [incl. C. parvus Blackburn 1888] CW92
         |--Semanopterus Hope 1847 (see below for synonymy) CW92
         |    |--*S. subcostatus (Castelnau 1840) (see below for synonymy) CW92
         |    |--S. angustatus Blackburn 1888 [incl. S. concentricus Blackburn 1896] CW92
         |    |--S. calabyi Carne 1957 CW92
         |    |--S. leai (Blackburn 1897) [=Asemantus leai; incl. A. pusillus Prell 1934] CW92
         |    |--S. rectangulus Blackburn 1895 (see below for synonymy) CW92
         |    |--S. solidus (Burmeister 1847) (see below for synonymy) CW92
         |    `--S. tricostatus Blackburn 1896 CW92
         |--Dipelicus Hope 1845 (see below for synonymy) CW92
         |    |--*D. cantori Hope 1842 [=Neodipelicus cantori] CW92
         |    |--D. bovilli (Blackburn 1888) [=*Palmerstonia bovilli; incl. D. trifidus Arrow 1937] CW92
         |    |--‘Geotrupes’ daedalus Fabricius 1792 (see below for synonymy) CW92
         |    |--D. duplex (Sharp 1875) [=Horonotus duplex] CW92
         |    |--D. geryon Drury 1773 [=Neodipelicus geryon] CW92
         |    |--D. lobatus Lansberge 1879 [=Neodipelicus lobatus] CW92
         |    |--D. montrouzieri (Montrouzier 1860) [=Camelonotus montrouzieri] CW92
         |    `--D. optatus (Sharp 1875) (see below for synonymy) CW92
         `--Pseudoryctes Sharp 1873 CW92
              |--P. dispar Sharp 1875 [incl. *P. mullerianus Sharp 1873 non Oryctes mullerianus White 1859] CW92
              |--P. bidentifrons Lea 1926 CW92
              |--P. etunus Carne 1957 CW92
              |--P. mullerianus (White 1859) [=Oryctes mullerianus] CW92
              |--P. semicrudus Lea 1917 CW92
              |--P. storeyi Carne 1980 CW92
              |--P. turritus (Macleay 1888) [=Cavonus turritus; incl. P. divisus Arrow 1941] CW92
              |--P. validus Lea 1917 CW92
              `--P. wilsoni Carne 1957 CW92

Dynastinae incertae sedis:
  Archon centaurus GE05
  Golofa B14
    |--G. pizarro GE05
    `--G. porteri Hope 1837 B14
  Megasoma B14
    |--M. elephas (Fabricius 1775) B14
    |--M. mars B14
    |--M. nogueirai B14
    `--M. occidentalis B14
  Spodistes B14
    |--S. batesi B14
    |--S. mniszechi (Thomson 1860) B14
    `--S. monzoni B14
  Strategus aloeus (Linnaeus 1758) B14
  Carneodon MC13
  Pericoptus truncatus Mas86
  Scapanes Mac86
    |--S. australis MHG04
    `--S. politus Mac86
  Megacerus Burmeister 1847 Z94
  Ligyrus tumulosus B28
  Coelosis RD77
  Hercules hercules C76

Chalcosoma atlas (Linnaeus 1758) [incl. C. atlas butonensis, C. atlas keyboh, C. atlas mantetsu, C. atlas simeleuensis, C. atlas sintae] B14

*Dasygnathus dejeani Macleay 1819 CW92 [=D. australis dejeani B28; incl. D. aristides Mas86, Scarabaeus curtus Guérin-Méneville in Lesson 1838 CW92, D. hospes Arrow 1914 CW92, D. impotens Arrow 1914 CW92, Scarabaeus ixion Boisduval 1835, D. mastersii Macleay 1871 CW92]

Dasygnathus trituberculatus Blackburn 1889 [incl. D. inermis Blackburn 1889, D. major Blackburn 1889, D. recticornis Blackburn 1889] CW92

Dipelicus Hope 1845 [incl. Camelonotus Fairmaire 1883, Horonotus Burmeister 1847, Neodipelicus Ritsema 1887, Oronotus Gemminger & Harold 1869 non Wesmael 1844, Palmerstonia Blackburn 1888] CW92

Dipelicus optatus (Sharp 1875) [=Horonotus optatus; incl. Palmerstonia minor Blackburn 1894, P. pusilla Blackburn 1896, Horonotus variolicollis Fairmaire 1879] CW92

‘Geotrupes’ daedalus Fabricius 1792 [=*Camelonotus daedalus, *Horonotus daedalus, *Oronotus daedalus] CW92

*Haploscapanes barbarossa (Fabricius 1775) CW92 [=Scarabaeus barbarossa CW92, Oryctes barbarossa L19; incl. Haploscapanes barbarossa similis Prell 1934 CW92]

*Heteronychus arator (Fabricius 1775) [=Scarabaeus arator; incl. H. arator australis Endrödi 1961 non H. australis Fauvel 1862, H. sanctaehelenae Blanchard 1846] CW92

Metanastes vulgivagus (Olliff 1889) [=Heteronychus vulgivagus, Pentodon australis Blackburn 1888 non H. australis Fauvel 1862, Metanastes blackburni Arrow 1911] CW92

Semanopterus Hope 1847 [=Semanotus (l. c.) non Mulsant 1839; incl. Asemantus Blackburn 1896 non Förster 1878, Asemopterus Prell 1936] CW92

Semanopterus rectangulus Blackburn 1895 [incl. S. carinatus Blackburn 1895, S. distributus Blackburn 1896, S. persimilis Blackburn 1895] CW92

Semanopterus solidus (Burmeister 1847) [=Scapanes solidus; incl. *Asemantus subaequalis Blackburn 1888 non Se. subaequalis Hope 1847, *Asemopterus subaequalis] CW92

*Semanopterus subcostatus (Castelnau 1840) [=Phileurus subcostatus; incl. S. adelaidae Hope 1847, S. convexiusculus Macleay 1871, S. depressiusculus Macleay 1871, S. depressus Hope 1847, S. longicollis Blackburn 1889, S. meridianus Blackburn 1896, S. minor Blackburn 1888, S. subaequalis Hope 1847] CW92

*Xylotrupes gideon (Linnaeus 1767) CW92 [=Scarabaeus gideon CW92; incl. S. gideon australicus Thomson 1859 CW92, Xylotrupes australicus Mas86]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A06] Ahrens, D. 2006. The phylogeny of Sericini and their position within the Scarabaeidae based on morphological characters (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Systematic Entomology 31: 113–144.

[B28] Betrem, J. G. 1928. Monographie der Indo-Australischen Scoliiden mit zoogeographischen Betrachtungen. H. Veenman & Zonen: Wageningen.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[CW92] Cassis, G., & T. A. Weir. 1992. Dynastinae. In: Houston, W. W. K. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 9. Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea pp. 383–425. AGPS Press: Canberra.

[C76] Costa, M. 1976. Dynastaspis hercules sp. n., a new gamasine mite associated with the Hercules beetles in Guadeloupe. Acarologia 18 (2): 187–193.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L19] Lea, A. M. 1919. Notes on some miscellaneous Coleoptera with descriptions of new species.—Part V. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 43: 166–261, pls 25–27.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[Mac86] Macleay, W. 1886. The insects of the Fly River, New Guinea, "Coleoptera". Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 136–157.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[Mas86] Masters, G. 1886. Catalogue of the described Coleoptera of Australia. Part III. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 21–126.

[MHG04] Maynard, G. V., J. G. Hamilton & J. F. Grimshaw. 2004. Quarantine—phytosanitary, sanitary and incursion management: an Australian entomological perspective. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 318–328.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[T90] Tashiro, H. 1990. Insecta: Coleoptera Scarabaeidae larvae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1191–1209. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[Z94] Zimmerman, E. C. 1994. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 2. Brentidae, Eurhynchidae, Apionidae and a chapter on immature stages by Brenda May. CSIRO Australia.

Last updated: 30 November 2020.

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