Sabacon cf. cavicolens, copyright Marshal Hedin.

Belongs within: Palpatores.
Contains: Ischyropsalis.

The Ischyropsalidoidea are a clade of harvestmen found in the Holarctic region, members of which have an unsegmented ovipositor in females, and a penis with a single muscle in males (Shultz 1998).

<==Ischyropsalidoidea [Ischropsalidae, Ischyropsalidae, Ischyropsalidoidae]
    |  i. s.: Piankhi Dunlop, Bartel & Mitov 2012 DBM12
    |           `--*P. steineri Dunlop, Bartel & Mitov 2012 DBM12
    |--Ischyropsalididae S13
    |    |--Ischyropsalis S13
    |    `--Ceratolasmatinae [Ceratolasmatidae] S13
    |         |--Ceratolasma Goodnight & Goodnight 1942 S98
    |         |    `--*C. tricantha Goodnight & Goodnight 1942 GG42
    |         `--Acuclavella Shear 1986 G07b, G07a
    |              |--*A. cosmetoides Shear 1986 S13
    |              |--A. merickeli Shear 1986 BH09
    |              |--A. quattuor Shear 1986 E90
    |              `--A. shoshone Shear 1986 E90
    `--+--Taracidae S13
       |    |--Taracus Simon 1879 GV09, S98
       |    |    |--*T. packardi Simon 1879 S79
       |    |    |--T. birsteini Ljovuschkin 1971 DBM12
       |    |    |--T. gertschi Goodnight & Goodnight 1942 GG42
       |    |    |--T. malkini Goodnight & Goodnight 1945 GG45
       |    |    |--T. nigripes Goodnight & Goodnight 1943 GG43
       |    |    |--T. pallipes Banks 1894 R23
       |    |    |--T. silvestrii Roewer 1929 S13
       |    |    `--T. spinosus Banks 1894 [=T. spinosa] R23
       |    `--+--Crosbycus Roewer 1914 S10
       |       |    |--*C. dasycnemus (Crosby 1911) [=Nemastoma dasycnemum] S13
       |       |    |--C. pentelicus Roewer 1951 (n. d.) S13
       |       |    `--C. speluncarum Roewer 1951 (n. d.) S13
       |       `--Hesperonemastoma Gruber 1970 GV09, S10
       |            |--*H. pallidimaculosum (Goodnight & Goodnight 1945) (see below for synonymy) S10
       |            |--H. kepharti (Crosby & Bishop 1924) [=Nemastoma kepharti] S13
       |            |--H. modestum (Banks 1894) BH09 [=Nemastoma modesta BH09, N. modestum R23]
       |            |--H. packardi (Roewer 1914) (see below for synonymy) S10
       |            `--H. smilax Shear 2010 S10
       `--Sabacon Simon 1879 (see below for synonymy) S13
            |--*S. paradoxus Simon 1879 G02 [=Sa. paradoxum G02, Scotolemon paradoxus D04]
            |--S. akiyoshiensis Suzuki 1963 [=S. akiyoshiense] S13
            |--S. altomontanus Martens 1983 [=S. altomontanum] S13
            |--S. astoriensis Shear 1975 E90
            |--S. briggsi Shear 1975 E90
            |--S. bryantii (Banks 1898) (see below for synonymy) S13
            |--S. cavicolens (Packard 1884) (see below for synonymy) S13
            |--S. chomolongmae Martens 1972 S13
            |--S. claviger (Menge 1854) [=Nemastoma clavigerum; incl. S. bachofeni Roewer 1939] D06
            |--S. crassipalpis (Koch 1879) G07a, CL00 (see below for synonymy)
            |--S. crassipes S66
            |--S. dentipalpis Suzuki 1949 [=S. dentipalpe] S13
            |--S. dhaulagiri Martens 1972 S13
            |--S. distinctus Suzuki 1974 [=S. distinctum] S13
            |--S. franzi Roewer 1953 S13
            |--S. gonggashan Tsurusaki & Song 1993 TS93
            |--S. imamurai Suzuki 1964 T06
            |--S. iriei Suzuki 1974 S13
            |--S. ishizuchi Suzuki 1974 S13
            |--S. jiriensis Martens 1972 S13
            |--S. makinoi Suzuki 1949 T06
            |    |--S. m. makinoi [incl. S. habei Suzuki 1965] S13
            |    `--S. m. sugimotoi Suzuki & Tsurusaki 1983 S13
            |--S. martensi Tsurusaki & Song 1993 TS93
            |--S. mitchelli Crosby & Bishop 1924 E90
            |--S. occidentalis (Banks 1894) [=Phlegmacera occidentalis] BH09
            |--S. okadai Suzuki 1941 DBM12
            |--S. palpogranulatus Martens 1972 [=S. palpogranulatum] S13
            |--S. pasonianus Luque 1991 (see below for synonymy) S13
            |--S. picosantrum Martens 1983 S13
            |--S. pygmaeus Miyosi 1942 TT05 [=S. pygmaeum TM00]
            |--S. relictus Marten 1972 [=S. relictum] S13
            |--S. satoikioi Miyosi 1942 S13
            |--S. sergeidedicatus Martens 1989 [=S. sergeidedicatum] S13
            |--S. sheari Cokendolpher 1984 E90
            |--S. simoni Dresco 1952 S13
            |--S. siskiyou Shear 1975 E90
            |--S. unicornis Martens 1972 DBM12
            `--S. viscayanus Simon 1881 [=S. viscayanum, S. viscayasanum, S. vizcayanus] S13
                 |--S. v. viscayanus [incl. S. inflatus Dresco 1955 (n. n.)] S13
                 `--S. v. ramblaianus Martens 1983 [=S. viscayanum ramblaianum] S13

Hesperonemastoma packardi (Roewer 1914) [=Nemastoma packardi, N. troglodytes Packard 1877 non Leiobunum troglodytes Wankel 1861] S10

*Hesperonemastoma pallidimaculosum (Goodnight & Goodnight 1945) [=Nemastoma pallidimaculosa, N. pallidimaculosum] S10

Sabacon Simon 1879 [incl. Parasabacon Hansen & Sørensen 1904, Phlegmacera Packard 1884, Tomicomerus Pavesi 1899; Sabaconidae] S13

Sabacon bryantii (Banks 1898) [=Phlegamacera bryantii, S. bryanti (l. c.), *Tomicomerus bryantii, T. bryanti (l. c.); incl. T. bispinosus Pavesi 1899] S13

Sabacon cavicolens (Packard 1884) [=*Phlegmacera cavicolens, P. cavicoleus (l. c.); incl. Nemastoma inops Packard 1884, Hesperonemastoma inops, Sabacon jonesi Goodnight & Goodnight 1942, S. spinosus Weed 1893] S13

Sabacon crassipalpis (Koch 1879) G07a, CL00 [=Nemastoma crassipalpe G07a, *Parasabacon crassipalpis G07a, Sabacon crassipalpe CL00]

Sabacon pasonianus Luque 1991 [=S. picosantrum pasonianum, S. picosantrum asonianum (l. c.), S. picosantrum asoniarum (l. c.)] S13

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BH09] Bragg, P. D., & R. G. Holmberg. 2009. The harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones) of British Columbia. J. Entomol. Soc. Brit. Columbia 106: 29–37.

[CL00] Chemeris, A. N., & D. V. Logunov. 2000. Notes on two species of Sabacon Simon, 1879 from the mountains of South Siberia (Arachnida: Opiliones: Sabaconidae). Arthropoda Selecta 9 (3): 207–213.

[D04] Delfosse, E. 2004. Catalogue préliminaire des Opilions de France métropolitaine (Arachnida Opiliones). Bulletin de Phyllie 20: 34–58.

[D06] Dunlop, J. A. 2006. Baltic amber harvestman types (Arachnida: Opiliones: Eupnoi and Dyspnoi). Fossil Record 9 (2): 167–182.

[DBM12] Dunlop, J. A., C. Bartel & P. G. Mitov. 2012. An enigmatic spiny harvestman from Baltic amber. Fossil Record 15 (2): 91–101.

[E90] Edgar, A. L. 1990. Opiliones (Phalangida). In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 529–581. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[GV09] Giribet, G., L. Vogt, A. Pérez González, P. Sharma & A. B. Kury. 2009. A multilocus approach to harvestman (Arachnida: Opiliones) phylogeny with emphasis on biogeography and the systematics of Laniatores. Cladistics 25: 1–30.

[GG42] Goodnight, C. J., & M. L. Goodnight. 1942. New American Phalangida. American Museum Novitates 1164: 1–4.

[GG43] Goodnight, C. J., & M. L. Goodnight. 1943. New and little known phalangids from the United States. American Midland Naturalist 29 (3): 643–656.

[GG45] Goodnight, C. J., & M. L. Goodnight. 1945. Phalangida from the United States. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 53: 239–245.

[G02] Gruber, J. 2002. Origin and gender of the name Sabacon Simon, 1879 (Opiliones: Palpatores: Ischyropsalidoidea). Newsl. Brit. Arachnol. Soc. 96: 6.

[G07a] Gruber, J. 2007a. Dyspnoi: historical systematic synopsis. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 131–135. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[G07b] Gruber, J. 2007b. Ceratolasmatidae Shear, 1986. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 136–142. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[R23] Roewer, C.-F. 1923. Die Weberknechte der Erde: Systematische Bearbeitung der bisher bekannnten Opiliones. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[S13] Schönhofer, A. L. 2013. A taxonomic catalogue of the Dyspnoi Hansen and Sørensen, 1904 (Arachnida: Opiliones). Zootaxa 3679 (1): 1–68.

[S10] Shear, W. A. 2010. Hesperonemastoma smilax, n. sp., a remarkable new harvestman from a cave in West Virginia, with comments on other reported cave-dwelling Hesperonemastoma species (Opiliones, Ischyropsalidoidea, Sabaconidae). Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 72 (2): 105–110.

[S98] Shultz, J. W. 1998. Phylogeny of the Opiliones (Arachnida): an assessment of the “Cyphopalpatores” concept. Journal of Arachnology 26: 257–272.

[S79] Simon, E. 1879. Descriptions d’Opiliones nouveaux. Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 22 (Comptes-Rendus): lxx–lxxv.

[S66] Suzuki, S. 1966. Four remarkable phalangids from Korea. Annotationes Zoologicae Japonenses 39 (2): 95–106.

[T06] Tsurusaki, N. 2006. Harvestmen of Shimane Prefecture, western Honshu, Japan: an annotated list of species with special reference to geographic variation (Arachnida: Opiliones). In: Board of the Shimane Meeting of the Japanese Society of Biological Education (ed.) Shin Shimane no Seibutsu pp. 153–170. Board of the Shimane Meeting of the Japanese Society of Biological Education: Izuno (Japan).

[TM00] Tsurusaki, N., & H. Minato. 2000. Opiliones of Wakayama Prefecture, Honshu, Japan. Nankiseibutu 42 (1): 3–8.

[TS93] Tsurusaki, N., & D. Song. 1993. Two new species of Sabacon from Sichuan Province, China (Arachnida: Opiliones: Sabaconidae). Zoological Science 10: 155–159.

[TT05] Tsurusaki, N., M. Takanashi, N. Nagase & T. Shimada. 2005. Fauna and biogeography of harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones) of the Oki Islands, Japan. Acta Arachnologica 54 (1): 51–63.

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