Heterorrhina imperatrix, photographed by Les Day.

Belongs within: Melolonthinae.
Contains: Mecynorhina, Theodosia, Dicronocephalus, Ichnestomina, Pseudoclithria, Lomapterina, Schizorhinina, Microvalgus, Cetonia, Glycyphana.

The Cetoniinae are a group of somewhat flattened scarab beetles which are usually strikingly patterned, metallic or enamelled in coloration. Larvae are found in soil, rotting wood or decaying vegetation whereas adults are nectar feeders (Cassis & Weir 1992). The Goliath beetles of the African genus Goliathus are among the largest insects in the world, sometimes reaching 15 centimetres in length (Bouchard 2014). In contrast, members of the tribe Valgini are small cetoniines, generally less than ten millimetres in length, with a dorsal covering of scales. The Trichiini are characterised by projecting fore coxae and weakly sclerotised mandibles.

Characters (from Cassis & Weir 1992): Adult with dorsum somewhat flattened; elytra without narrow membranous margin, somewhat truncate, pygidium exposed; fore coxae conical, produced ventrally; mid coxae transverse or only slightly oblique; mesothoracic epimera visible from above; tarsal claws equal; abdominal spiracles diverging, several lying on abdominal sternites with at least one exposed. Larva stout, very hairy; head partly covered by prothorax; apical antennal segment as wide as penultimate; labrum symmetrical with deeply pigmented notch on each side of midline; mandible with ventral stridulating area; galea and lacinia fused to form mala; legs short; sternum 9 without raster of longitudinal rows of spines; anal cleft transverse.

<==Cetoniinae [Cetoniidae, Cetoniides]
    |--Trichiini [Trichiinae] B14
    |    |--Giesbertiolus B14
    |    |--Dialithus B14
    |    |    |--D. magnificus Parry 1849 B14
    |    |    `--D. scintillans B14
    |    `--Trichius A06
    |         |--T. abdominalis B14
    |         |--T. fasciatus (Linnaeus 1758) B14 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |--T. lapeyrousei Dupont in Boisduval 1835 B35
    |         |--T. nobilis [=Cetonia (Trichius) nobilis] G20
    |         |--T. orientalis B14
    |         `--T. sexualis B14
    `--+--Osmoderma [Osmoderminae] A06
       |    |--O. eremita (Scopoli 1763) A06
       |    `--O. opicum Lewis 1887 I92
       |--Valgini [Valginae] CW92
       |    |--Microvalgus CW92
       |    `--Valgus A06
       |         |--V. hemipterus (Linnaeus 1758) A06
       |         |--V. modiglianii Gestro 1889 G89b
       |         `--V. novaeguineensis Boisduval 1835 B35
       `--Cetoniini [Cetoniina] CW92
            |--Cetonia CW92
            |--Glycyphana CW92
            |--Sternoplus schaumi G09
            |--Gametis plagiata G09
            `--Protaetia Burmeister 1842 A06, CW92
                 |--*P. spectabilis Schaum 1841 CW92
                 |--P. acuminata (Fabricius 1775) [=Cetonia acuminata] CW92
                 |--P. advena Janson 1877 CW92
                 |--P. andrewsi Gahan 1900 CW92
                 |--P. cuprea (Fabricius 1775) A06
                 `--P. (Heteroprotaetia) fusca (Herbst 1790) G09 (see below for synonymy)

Cetoniinae incertae sedis:
  Plectrone polita Jans. 1884 G89b
  Macronota suturalis Snell & Voll 1858 G89b
  Cotinis nitida T90 [=Allorrhina nitida B28]
  Heterosoma Schaum 1845 LT61
  Euchroea coelestis Burmeister 1842 B14
    |--E. c. coelestis B14
    `--E. c. peyrierasi B14
  Euphoria fascifera (LeConte 1861) B14
  Gnorimella maculosa (Enoch 1801) B14
  Trichiotinus B14
  Trigonopeltastes delta B14, AT01
  Gymnetosoma B14
  Inca B14
    |--I. beschkii B14
    |--I. bonplandi B14
    |--I. burmeisteri B14
    |--I. clathrata B14
    |    |--I. c. clathrata B14
    |    |--I. c. quesneli B14
    |    `--I. c. sommeri (Westwood 1845) B14
    |--I. irrorata B14
    `--I. pulverulenta B14
  Mecynorhina B14
  Panglaphyra duboulayi Rhomson 1879 CW92
  Diceros plagiatus Gory & Percheron 1833 CW92
  Gnathocera dorsalis Gory & Percheron 1833 CW92
  Euryomia Mac86
    |--E. lateralis Mac86
    `--E. rufitincta Macleay 1886 Mac86
  Phaedimini B14
    |--Theodosia B14
    `--Phaedimus B14
  Gymnetis [Gymnetini] B14
    |--G. mediana B14
    |--G. radiicollis B14
    `--G. stellata (Latreille 1813) B14
  Taenioderini G09
    |--Pseudochalcothea [Chalcotheina] G09
    |    `--P. spatthulifera G09
    `--Ixorida [Taenioderina] G09
         `--I. venerea G09
  Goliathini G09
    |--Dicronocephalus G09
    |--Ichnestomina G09
    |--Goliathus [Goliathina] G09
    |    |--G. albosignatus B14
    |    |--G. cacicus B14
    |    |--G. goliathus WK86
    |    |--G. orientalis G09
    |    |--G. polyphemus [=Cetonia (Goliath) polyphemus] G20
    |    `--G. regius Klug 1835 B14
    `--Coryphoceina G09
         |--Amourodes passerinii G09
         |--Neptunides polychromus G09
         |--Rhomborhina G09
         `--Heterorrhina G09
              |--H. decora [incl. Coryphocera sexmaculata Mohnike 1871] G89b
              |--H. dohrnii Lansb. 1883 G89b
              |--H. imperatrix G89b
              `--H. sexmaculata G09
  Schizorhinini CW92
    |  i. s.: Chalcopharis Heller 1901 CW92
    |           |--*C. nigroaenea Heller 1901 CW92
    |           `--C. lansbergei (Gestro 1876) [=Schizorhina lansbergei] CW92
    |         Dichrosoma Kraatz 1885 CW92
    |           |--*D. lansbergei Kraatz 1885 CW92
    |           `--D. pinguis (Janson 1887) [=Platedelosis pinguis] CW92
    |         Dysidiatheta Kraatz 1880 [incl. Ablacopus Thomson 1880, Anthracopharis Schoch 1895] CW92
    |           |--*D. vicina (Janson 1873) [=Diaphonia vicina] CW92
    |           |--D. atra (Schoch 1895) [=*Anthracopharis atra] CW92
    |           |--D. taeniatus (Schoch 1896) [=Anthracopharis taeniata] CW92
    |           |    |--D. t. taeniatus CW92
    |           |    `--D. t. melanopterus Lea 1915 CW92
    |           `--D. trapezifera (Thomson 1878) CW92 (see below for synonymy)
    |         Lomapteroides Schoch 1898 [=Neophonia Kraatz 1885 non Thomson 1878] CW92
    |           `--*L. duboulayi (Thomson 1878) (see below for synonymy) CW92
    |         Pseudoclithria CW92
    |         Schochidia Berg 1898 [=Lophostoma Schoch 1898 non d’Orbigny 1836] CW92
    |           `--*S. chlorotica (Schoch 1898) [=*Lophostoma chlorotica] CW92
    |--Lomapterina G09
    `--Schizorhinina G09
  Tropinota A06
    |--T. hirta (Poda 1761) A06
    `--T. squalida [=Scarabaeus squalidus] G89a
  Oxythyrea stictica RD77, B28
  Potosia RD77
    |--P. cuprea [incl. P. floricola] C01
    |--P. hungarica [incl. P. hungarica var. armeniaca] C01
    `--P. morio B28

Dysidiatheta trapezifera (Thomson 1878) CW92 [=Diaphonia trapezifera CW92, Ablacopus trapezifera Mas86]

*Lomapteroides duboulayi (Thomson 1878) [=Lomaptera duboulayi, *Neophonia duboulayi; incl. Lomaptera marginata Kraatz 1890] CW92

Protaetia (Heteroprotaetia) fusca (Herbst 1790) G09 [=Cetonia fusca CW92; incl. P. mandarinea Burmeister 1842 CW92, C. mandarinea G89b]

Trichius fasciatus (Linnaeus 1758) B14 [=Cetonia fasciata L02; incl. T. fasciatus var. bipunctatus C01, T. fasicatus var. lineatocollis C01, T. fasciatus var. scutellaris C01, T. fasciatus var. sibiricus C01]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A06] Ahrens, D. 2006. The phylogeny of Sericini and their position within the Scarabaeidae based on morphological characters (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Systematic Entomology 31: 113–144.

[AT01] Arnett, R. H., Jr & M. C. Thomas (eds) 2001. American Beetles vol. 1. Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga, Polyphaga: Staphyliniformia. CRC Press: Boca Raton.

[B28] Betrem, J. G. 1928. Monographie der Indo-Australischen Scoliiden mit zoogeographischen Betrachtungen. H. Veenman & Zonen: Wageningen.

[B35] Boisduval, J. B. 1835. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d'Urville. Faune entomologique de l'océan Pacifique, avec l'illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage vol. 2. Coléoptères et autres ordres. J. Tastu: Paris.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[CW92] Cassis, G., & T. A. Weir. 1992. Cetoniinae. In: Houston, W. W. K. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 9. Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea pp. 426–454. AGPS Press: Canberra.

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[G89a] Gestro, R. 1889a. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso “Esploratore” dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 5–72.

[G89b] Gestro, R. 1889b. Sopra alcune cetonie dell’isola Nias e della costa occidentale di Sumatra raccolte dal Dott. Elio Modigliani. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 93–99.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[G09] Golding, M. R. 2009. A Pictorial Field Guide to the Beetles of Australia. Part 5: Cetoniidae. Privately published.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[LT61] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1961. Remarks on the systematics of the Sarkodina (Protozoa), renamed homonyms and new and validated genera. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 213–234.

[Mac86] Macleay, W. 1886. The insects of the Fly River, New Guinea, "Coleoptera". Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 136–157.

[Mas86] Masters, G. 1886. Catalogue of the described Coleoptera of Australia. Part III. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 21–126.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[T90] Tashiro, H. 1990. Insecta: Coleoptera Scarabaeidae larvae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1191–1209. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[WK86] Walter, D. E., & G. W. Krantz. 1986. A review of the glaber-group (s. str.) species of the genus Macrocheles (Acari: Macrochelidae), and a discussion of species complexes. Acarologia 27 (4): 277–294.

Last updated: 1 May 2021.

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