Grylloidea

Female Myrmecophila acervorum, copyright Gunter Tschuch.


Belongs within: Apohaglida.
Contains: Gryllinae, Nemobiinae, Eneopterinae, Oecanthinae, Gryllotalpinae, Mogoplistinae, Anaxipha, Trigonidium, Laupala.

The Grylloidea include the crickets, a mostly dorsoventrally flattened, terrestrial group of orthopterans that are usually omnivorous. Authors have differed as to whether all living grylloids should be included in a single family Gryllidae, or whether distinctive groups such as the Gryllotalpinae and Myrmecophilinae should be placed in their own families. The Myrmecophilinae, ant crickets, are a group of very small, humpbacked crickets specialised for living in ant nests (Rentz 1996). The Baissogryllidae and Protogryllidae are two fossil families related to modern crickets known from the Late Jurassic (Gorochov & Rasnitsyn 2002).

Characters (from Gorochov & Rasnitsyn 2002): Fore wing with fan-like pleating intercalary triangle; RA, RS and 1MA1 fused completely or at least in part.

<==Grylloidea
    |--Baissogryllus [Baissogryllidae] GR02
    |    `--B. sibiricus GR02
    |--Angarogryllus [Protogryllidae] GR02
    |    `--A. angaricus GR02
    `--Gryllidae O94
         |  i. s.: Scobia FD01
         |         Coiblemmus FD01
         |         Conoblemmus FD01
         |         Homaloblemmus FD01
         |         Scapsipedus FD01
         |           |--S. limbatus RH15
         |           |    |--S. l. limbatus RH15
         |           |    `--S. l. africanus RH15
         |           `--S. saussurei FD01
         |         Velarifictorus FD01
         |           |--V. aspersus FD01
         |           |--V. horridus FD01
         |           `--V. sulcifrons FD01
         |         Petaloptila Pantel 1890 B04
         |           |  i. s.: P. andreini B04
         |           `--P. (Zapetaloptila Gorochov & Llorente 2001) B04
         |                |--P. (Z.) baenai Barranco 2004 B04
         |                |--P. (Z.) bolivari (Cazurro 1888) B04
         |                |--P. (Z.) carabajali Barranco 2004 B04
         |                |--P. (Z.) llorenteae Barranco 2004 B04
         |                |--P. (Z.) mogon Barranco 2004 B04
         |                `--P. (Z.) venosa Gorochov & Llorente 2001 B04
         |         Liogryllus campestris B01
         |         Phylloscyrtus canotus R15
         |--Gryllinae O94
         |--Nemobiinae O94
         |--Eneopterinae O94
         |--Oecanthinae O94
         |--Cachoplistinae R91
         |--Pentacentrus [Pentacentrinae] O94
         |    `--P. velutinus R96
         |--Pteroplistinae O94
         |    |--Pteroplistini O94
         |    `--Landrevini O94
         |         |--Mjobergella R91
         |         `--Copholandrevus R91
         |--Phalangopsinae [Phalangopsidae] O94
         |    |--Strinatia brevipenis M02
         |    |--Tathra R96
         |    |--Nesitathra philipensis R96
         |    |--Endotaria R96
         |    `--Endacusta R96
         |         |--E. major R96
         |         `--E. pindana R96
         |--Myrmecophilinae [Myrmecophilidae] O94
         |    |--Myrmecophilellus R96
         |    `--Myrmecophila O94
         |         |--M. acervorum K09
         |         |--M. americana Saussure 1877 O94
         |         |--M. keyi [incl. M. tindalei] R96
         |         |--M. manni TW05
         |         |--M. quadrispina Perkins 1899 O94
         |         `--M. testaceus R96
         |--Gryllotalpinae O94
         |--Mogoplistinae O94
         `--Trigonidiinae O94
              |--Anaxipha R96
              |--Trigonidium O94
              |--Parametioche R96
              |--Homeoxipha lycoides R96
              |--Trigonidomorpha sjostedti Chopard 1925 O94
              |--Laupala O94
              |--*Paratrigonidium nitidum O94
              |--Falcicula hebardi O94
              |--Metiochodes O94
              |--Cyrtoxiphoides O94
              |--Nudilla Gorochov 1988 (n. d.) O94
              |    `--*N. pacifica (n. d.) [=Paratrigonidium pacificum] O94
              |--Amusurgus R96
              |    |--A. kanyakis R91
              |    `--A. mubboonis R96
              |--Balamara R96
              |    |--B. albovittata R91
              |    `--B. gidya R96
              |--Metioche R96
              |    |--M. albovittata K70
              |    |--M. maoricum M83
              |    `--M. vittaticollis R96
              |--Cyrtoxipha O94
              |    |--C. columbiana O94
              |    `--C. gundlachi O94
              `--Prolaupala Otte 1994 O94
                   |--*P. kaalensis Otte 1994 O94
                   |--P. kukui Otte 1994 O94
                   `--P. perkinsi Otte 1994 O94

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B04] Barranco, P. 2004. Estudio del subgénero Zapetaloptila Gorochov & Llorente, 2001 y descripción de cuatro nuevas especies (Petaloptila Pantel, 1890, Orthoptera, Gryllidae). Graellsia 60 (1): 81–93.

[B01] Bolivar, I. 1901. Orthopterák [Orthoptères]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 223–243. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[FD01] Field, L. H., & N. A. Deans. 2001. Sexual selection and secondary sexual characters of wetas and king crickets. In: Field, L. H. (ed.) The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies pp. 179–204. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[GR02] Gorochov, A. V., & A. P. Rasnitsyn. 2002. Superorder Gryllidea Laicharting, 1781 (=Orthopteroidea Handlirsch, 1903). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 293–303. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[K70] Key, K. H. L. 1970. Orthoptera (grasshoppers, locusts, crickets). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 323–347. Melbourne University Press.

[K09] Köhler, G. 2009. Heuschrecken (Saltatoria) und Ohrwürmner (Dermaptera) im Immissionsgebiet des Düngemittelwerkes Steudnitz/Thüringen—eine Langzeitstudie (1978–2001). Mauritiana 20 (3): 601–646.

[M02] Machado, G. 2002. Maternal care, defensive behavior, and sociality in Neotropical Goniosoma harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones). Insectes Sociaux 49: 388–393.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[O94] Otte, D. 1994. The Crickets of Hawaii: origin, systematics and evolution. The Orthopterists' Society: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

[R15] Rehn, J. A. G. 1915. A further contribution to the knowledge of the Orthoptera of Argentina. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (2): 270–292.

[RH15] Rehn, J. A. G., & M. Hebard. 1915. The genus Gryllus (Orthoptera) as found in America. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (2): 293–322.

[R91] Rentz, D. C. F. 1991. Orthoptera (grasshoppers, locusts, katydids, crickets). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 369–393. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240–257.

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