Grylloidea

Female Myrmecophila acervorum, copyright Gunter Tschuch.


Belongs within: Apohaglida.
Contains: Gryllinae, Nemobiinae, Eneopterinae, Oecanthinae, Gryllotalpinae, Mogoplistinae, Anaxipha, Trigonidium, Laupala.

The Grylloidea include the crickets, a mostly dorsoventrally flattened, terrestrial group of orthopterans that are usually omnivorous. Authors have differed as to whether all living grylloids should be included in a single family Gryllidae, or whether distinctive groups such as the Gryllotalpinae and Myrmecophilinae should be placed in their own families. The Myrmecophilinae, ant crickets, are a group of very small, humpbacked crickets specialised for living in ant nests (Rentz 1996). The Trigonidiinae, sword-tailed crickets, are relatively small, slender crickets found primarily in damp habitats, whose vernacular name comes from the sword-shaped ovipositor of females, used for inserting eggs into plant tissue. The Baissogryllidae and Protogryllidae are two fossil families related to modern crickets known from the Late Jurassic (Gorochov & Rasnitsyn 2002).

Characters (from Gorochov & Rasnitsyn 2002): Fore wing with fan-like pleating intercalary triangle; RA, RS and 1MA1 fused completely or at least in part.

<==Grylloidea
    |--Baissogryllus [Baissogryllidae] GR02
    |    `--B. sibiricus GR02
    |--Angarogryllus [Protogryllidae] GR02
    |    `--A. angaricus GR02
    `--Gryllidae B04
         |  i. s.: Scobia FD01
         |         Coiblemmus FD01
         |         Conoblemmus FD01
         |         Homaloblemmus FD01
         |         Scapsipedus FD01
         |           |--S. limbatus RH15
         |           |    |--S. l. limbatus RH15
         |           |    `--S. l. africanus RH15
         |           `--S. saussurei FD01
         |         Velarifictorus FD01
         |           |--V. aspersus FD01
         |           |--V. horridus FD01
         |           `--V. sulcifrons FD01
         |         Petaloptila Pantel 1890 B04
         |           |  i. s.: P. andreini B04
         |           `--P. (Zapetaloptila Gorochov & Llorente 2001) B04
         |                |--P. (Z.) baenai Barranco 2004 B04
         |                |--P. (Z.) bolivari (Cazurro 1888) B04
         |                |--P. (Z.) carabajali Barranco 2004 B04
         |                |--P. (Z.) llorenteae Barranco 2004 B04
         |                |--P. (Z.) mogon Barranco 2004 B04
         |                `--P. (Z.) venosa Gorochov & Llorente 2001 B04
         |         Liogryllus campestris B01
         |         Phylloscyrtus canotus R15
         |--Gryllinae O94
         |--Nemobiinae O94
         |--Eneopterinae O94
         |--Oecanthinae O94
         |--Cachoplistinae R91
         |--Gryllotalpinae O94
         |--Mogoplistinae O94
         |--Pentacentrus [Pentacentrinae] O94
         |    `--P. velutinus R96
         |--Pteroplistinae O94
         |    |--Pteroplistini O94
         |    `--Landrevini O94
         |         |--Mjobergella R91
         |         `--Copholandrevus R91
         |--Phalangopsinae [Phalangopsidae] O94
         |    |--Strinatia brevipenis M02
         |    |--Tathra R96
         |    |--Nesitathra philipensis R96
         |    |--Endotaria R96
         |    `--Endacusta R96
         |         |--E. major R96
         |         `--E. pindana R96
         |--Myrmecophilinae [Myrmecophilidae] O94
         |    |--Myrmecophilellus R96
         |    `--Myrmecophila O94
         |         |--M. acervorum K09
         |         |--M. americana Saussure 1877 O94
         |         |--M. keyi [incl. M. tindalei] R96
         |         |--M. manni TW05
         |         |--M. quadrispina Perkins 1899 O94
         |         `--M. testaceus R96
         `--Trigonidiinae O94
              |--Anaxipha R96
              |--Trigonidium O94
              |--Parametioche R96
              |--Homeoxipha lycoides R96
              |--Trigonidomorpha sjostedti Chopard 1925 O94
              |--Laupala O94
              |--*Paratrigonidium nitidum O94
              |--Falcicula hebardi O94
              |--Metiochodes O94
              |--Cyrtoxiphoides O94
              |--Nudilla Gorochov 1988 (n. d.) O94
              |    `--*N. pacifica (n. d.) [=Paratrigonidium pacificum] O94
              |--Amusurgus R96
              |    |--A. kanyakis R91
              |    `--A. mubboonis R96
              |--Balamara R96
              |    |--B. albovittata R91
              |    `--B. gidya R96
              |--Cyrtoxipha O94
              |    |--C. columbiana O94
              |    `--C. gundlachi O94
              |--Metioche R96
              |    |--M. albovittata K70
              |    |--M. maoricum M83
              |    `--M. vittaticollis R96
              `--Prolaupala Otte 1994 O94
                   |--*P. kaalensis Otte 1994 O94
                   |--P. kukui Otte 1994 O94
                   `--P. perkinsi Otte 1994 O94

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B04] Barranco, P. 2004. Estudio del subgénero Zapetaloptila Gorochov & Llorente, 2001 y descripción de cuatro nuevas especies (Petaloptila Pantel, 1890, Orthoptera, Gryllidae). Graellsia 60 (1): 81–93.

[B01] Bolivar, I. 1901. Orthopterák [Orthoptères]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 223–243. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[FD01] Field, L. H., & N. A. Deans. 2001. Sexual selection and secondary sexual characters of wetas and king crickets. In: Field, L. H. (ed.) The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies pp. 179–204. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[GR02] Gorochov, A. V., & A. P. Rasnitsyn. 2002. Superorder Gryllidea Laicharting, 1781 (=Orthopteroidea Handlirsch, 1903). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 293–303. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[K70] Key, K. H. L. 1970. Orthoptera (grasshoppers, locusts, crickets). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 323–347. Melbourne University Press.

[K09] Köhler, G. 2009. Heuschrecken (Saltatoria) und Ohrwürmner (Dermaptera) im Immissionsgebiet des Düngemittelwerkes Steudnitz/Thüringen—eine Langzeitstudie (1978–2001). Mauritiana 20 (3): 601–646.

[M02] Machado, G. 2002. Maternal care, defensive behavior, and sociality in Neotropical Goniosoma harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones). Insectes Sociaux 49: 388–393.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[O94] Otte, D. 1994. The Crickets of Hawaii: origin, systematics and evolution. The Orthopterists' Society: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

[R15] Rehn, J. A. G. 1915. A further contribution to the knowledge of the Orthoptera of Argentina. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (2): 270–292.

[RH15] Rehn, J. A. G., & M. Hebard. 1915. The genus Gryllus (Orthoptera) as found in America. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (2): 293–322.

[R91] Rentz, D. C. F. 1991. Orthoptera (grasshoppers, locusts, katydids, crickets). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 369–393. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240–257.

Last updated: 23 October 2017.

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