Sandalwood Santalum lanceolatum, from here.

Belongs within: Santalales.

The Santalaceae are a cosmopolitan group of semi-parasitic or parasitic flowering plants. The ancestral habit of the family is as terrestrially growing root semi-parasites but aerial stem parastism has evolved within the Santalaceae on more than one occasion. Some members of the family such as Indian sandalwood Santalum album are valued for their highly aromatic wood, which has unfortunately lead to some species becoming endangered.

Characters (from Allan 1961): Trees, shrubs or herbs, sometimes parasitic, with usually opposite, entire, exstipulate, sometimes scale-like leaves. Inflorescence various, often of racemes or spikes; flowers minute, regular, perfect to unisexual. Perianth of one series of four or five sepaloid or petaloid valvate tepals; stamens opposite tepals; filaments short, anthers 2-celled, basifixed on short filaments. Ovary inferior, embedded in receptacle, or superior, 1-loculed; carpels (2)-3-5; ovules usually 3, pendulous on basal placentae; stigma capitate to 3-5-lobed. Fruit nut-like to drupaceous; seed without testa, embryo straight, endosperm fleshy.

<==Santalaceae [Amphorogynaceae, Cervantesiaceae, Comandraceae, Nanodeaceae, Thesiaceae, Viscaceae, Viscoideae] APG16
    |--Okoubaka T00
    |--Phacellaria YY22
    |--Anthobolus YY22
    |--Buckleya lanceolata LO98
    |--Pyrularia pubera YY22, EBS98
    |--Omphacomeria YY22
    |--Campereia YY22
    |--Colpoon YY22
    |--Nanodea YY22
    |--Osyris alba YY22, R-RR-GM-S98
    |--Scleromelum YY22
    |--Sclerophyron YY22
    |--Jordina rhombifolia MF05
    |--Quinchamalium NDA05
    |--Thesianthium inclusum Conwentz 1886 CBH93
    |--Santalumidtes cainozoicus CBH93
    |--Viscoxylon haustoria Selmeier 1975 CBH93
    |--Notothixos B00b
    |    |--N. incanus B00b
    |    `--N. leiophyllus B00a
    |--Mida Cunningham ex Engl. 1837 A61
    |    `--M. salicifolia Cunningham 1838 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |         |--M. s. var. salicifolia A61
    |         `--M. s. var. myrtifolia (Cunningham) Allan 1961 [=M. myrtifolia Cunningham 1838] A61
    |--Ginalloa H03
    |    |--G. arnottiana H03
    |    |--G. flagellaris H03
    |    `--G. nuda H03
    |--Comandra umbellata H93
    |    |--C. u. ssp. umbellata H93
    |    |--C. u. ssp. californica H93
    |    `--C. u. ssp. pallida H93
    |--Choretrum OS04
    |    |--C. glomeratum OS04
    |    |    |--C. g. var. glomeratum OS04
    |    |    `--C. g. var. chrysanthum OS04
    |    |--C. pritzelii Mol93
    |    `--C. spicatum C08
    |--Dendrophthora J87
    |    |--D. brachystacha J87
    |    |--D. carnosa J87
    |    |--D. cupressoides J87
    |    |--D. serpyllifolia J87
    |    `--D. versicolor J87
    |--Exocarpus Labill. 1798 A61
    |    |--E. aphylla MM09
    |    |--E. bidwillii Hooker 1854 A61
    |    |--E. cupressiformis MM09
    |    |--E. latifolius VT13
    |    |--E. sparteus MM09
    |    `--E. strictus B00a
    |--Thesium CV06
    |    |--T. bergeri Zuccarini 1837 PL04
    |    |--T. emodi O88
    |    |--T. himalense O88
    |    |--T. kernerianum H09
    |    |--T. linophyllon [incl. T. divaricatum] H91
    |    `--T. xerophyticum CV06
    |--Santalum BR65
    |    |--S. acuminatum OS04
    |    |--S. album SK02
    |    |--S. fernandezianum D81
    |    |--S. lanceolatum BR65
    |    |    |--S. l. var. lanceolatum BR65
    |    |    `--S. l. var. angustifolium BR65
    |    `--S. spicatum G04
    |--Leptomeria RL05
    |    |--L. cunninghamii RL05
    |    |--L. lehmannii GK00
    |    |--L. pauciflora GK00
    |    |--L. preissiana B00b
    |    |--L. scrobiculata GK00
    |    |--L. spinosa GK00
    |    `--L. squarrulosa GK00
    |--Korthalsella Tiegh. 1896 A61
    |    |--K. amentacea [=Heterixia amentacea] C06
    |    |--K. breviarticulata B00a
    |    |--K. japonica RR02
    |    |--K. lindsayi (Oliver) Engl. 1897 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |    |    |--K. l. var. lindsayi A61
    |    |    `--K. l. var. clavata (Kirk) Danser 1937 [=Viscum clavatum Kirk 1892, K. clavata Cheeseman 1906] A61
    |    |--K. rubra B00a
    |    `--K. salicornioides (Cunn.) Van Tieghem 1896 [=Viscum salicornioides Cunn. 1839] A61
    |--Viscum CD07
    |    |--V. album Linnaeus 1753 CD07
    |    |--V. articulatum P03
    |    |--V. cruciatum H03
    |    |--V. miquelii JD05
    |    |--V. orientale P03
    |    |--V. ovalifolium LK14
    |    `--V. whitei LK14
    |         |--V. w. ssp. whitei LK14
    |         `--V. w. ssp. flexicaule LK14
    |--Phoradendron J87
    |    |--P. anceps J87
    |    |--P. bolleanum BT72
    |    |--P. californicum [incl. P. californicum var. distans] H93
    |    |--P. densum [=P. bolleanum var. densum] H93
    |    |--P. juniperinum [incl. P. juniperinum var. ligatum] H93
    |    |--P. leucarpum MS10 [=P. californicum var. leucocarpum H93]
    |    |--P. libocedri [=P. juniperinum var. libocedri] H93
    |    |--P. macrophyllum [=P. flavescens var. macrophyllum, P. tomentosum var. macrophyllum] H93
    |    |--P. pauciflorum [=P. bolleanum var. pauciflorum] H93
    |    |--P. piperoides J87
    |    |--P. tomentosum H93
    |    `--P. villosum [=P. flavescens var. villosum] H93
    `--Arceuthobium NDA05
         |--A. abietinum [=A. campylopodum f. abietinum] H93
         |--A. americanum H93
         |--A. bicarinatum N96
         |--A. californicum H93
         |--A. campylopodum H93
         |--A. cryptopodum [=Razamofskya cryptopoda] N96
         |--A. cyanocarpum [=A. campylopodum f. cyanocarpum] H93
         |--A. divaricatum [=A. campylopodum f. divaricatum] H93
         |--A. douglasii H93
         |--A. littorum H93
         |--A. monticola H93
         |--A. occidentale H93
         |--A. pusillium Moc93
         |--A. siskiyouense H93
         `--A. tsugense [=A. campylopodum f. tsugense] H93
              |--A. t. ssp. tsugense H93
              `--A. t. ssp. mertensianae H93

Korthalsella lindsayi (Oliver) Engl. 1897 [=Viscum lindsayi Oliver ex Hooker 1864, Heterixia lindsayi Van Tieghem 1896] A61

Mida salicifolia Cunningham 1838 [incl. Santalum cunninghamii Hooker 1854, M. cunninghamii (Hooker) Chatin 1891, Fusanus cunninghamii Benth. & Hooker ex Kirk 1889, M. eucalyptoides Cunningham 1838, Santalum mida Hook. 1843] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[N96] Neunzig, H. H. 1996. New species of Phycitinae (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) from the Dominican Republic. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (4): 774–801.

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[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

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Last updated: 29 August 2020.

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