Santalaceae

Sandalwood Santalum lanceolatum, from here.


Belongs within: Santalanae.

The Santalaceae, sandalwoods, are a group of plants with semi-parasitic roots. Some members of the family such as Indian sandalwood Santalum album are valued for their highly aromatic wood, which has unfortunately lead to some species becoming endangered.

Characters (from Allan 1961): Trees, shrubs or herbs, sometimes parasitic, with usually opposite, entire, exstipulate, sometimes scale-like leaves. Inflorescence various, often of racemes or spikes; flowers minute, regular, perfect to unisexual. Perianth of one series of four or five sepaloid or petaloid valvate tepals; stamens opposite tepals; filaments short, anthers 2-celled, basifixed on short filaments. Ovary inferior, embedded in receptacle, or superior, 1-loculed; carpels (2)-3-5; ovules usually 3, pendulous on basal placentae; stigma capitate to 3-5-lobed. Fruit nut-like to drupaceous; seed without testa, embryo straight, endosperm fleshy.

<==Santalaceae
    |--Okoubaka T00
    |--Phacellaria YY22
    |--Anthobolus YY22
    |--Buckleya lanceolata LO98
    |--Henslowia YY22
    |--Pyrularia pubera YY22, EBS98
    |--Omphacomeria YY22
    |--Campereia YY22
    |--Colpoon YY22
    |--Nanodea YY22
    |--Osyris alba YY22, R-RR-GM-S98
    |--Scleromelum YY22
    |--Sclerophyron YY22
    |--Jordina rhombifolia MF05
    |--Mida Cunningham ex Engl. 1837 A61
    |    `--M. salicifolia Cunningham 1838 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |         |--M. s. var. salicifolia A61
    |         `--M. s. var. myrtifolia (Cunningham) Allan 1961 [=M. myrtifolia Cunningham 1838] A61
    |--Choretrum OS04
    |    |--C. glomeratum OS04
    |    |    |--C. g. var. glomeratum OS04
    |    |    `--C. g. var. chrysanthum OS04
    |    `--C. pritzelii M93
    |--Exocarpus Labill. 1798 A61
    |    |--E. aphylla MM09
    |    |--E. bidwillii Hooker 1854 A61
    |    |--E. cupressiformis MM09
    |    `--E. sparteus MM09
    |--Thesium CV06
    |    |--T. bergeri Zuccarini 1837 PL04
    |    |--T. emodi O88
    |    |--T. himalense O88
    |    |--T. kernerianum H09
    |    |--T. linophyllon [incl. T. divaricatum] H91
    |    `--T. xerophyticum CV06
    |--Leptomeria RL05
    |    |--L. cunninghamii RL05
    |    |--L. lehmannii GK00
    |    |--L. pauciflora GK00
    |    |--L. scrobiculata GK00
    |    |--L. spinosa GK00
    |    `--L. squarrulosa GK00
    `--Santalum BR65
         |--S. acuminatum OS04
         |--S. album SK02
         |--S. lanceolatum BR65
         |    |--S. l. var. lanceolatum BR65
         |    `--S. l. var. angustifolium BR65
         `--S. spicatum G04

Mida salicifolia Cunningham 1838 [incl. Santalum cunninghamii Hooker 1854, M. cunninghamii (Hooker) Chatin 1891, Fusanus cunninghamii Benth. & Hooker ex Kirk 1889, M. eucalyptoides Cunningham 1838, Santalum mida Hook. 1843] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae-Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175-189.

[EBS98] Elliott, K. J., L. R. Boring & W. T. Swank. 1998. Changes in vegetation structure and diversity after grass-to-forest succession in a southern Appalachian watershed. American Midland Naturalist 140: 219-232.

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35-47.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323-402.

[H09] Heltmann, H. 2009. Der Königstein (Piatra Craiului), die Perle der Burzenländer Gebirge. Mauritiana 20 (3): 515-527.

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255-260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263-276.

[M93] Mollemans, F. H. 1993. Drummondita wilsonii, Philotheca langei and P. basistyla (Rutaceae), new species from south-west Western Australia. Nuytsia 9: 95-109.

[MF05] Monserrat, V. J. & S. de Freitas. 2005. Contribución al conocimiento de los crisópidos de Coquimbo, Patagonia y Tierra del Fuego (Argentina, Chile) (Insecta, Neuroptera, Chrysopidae). Graellsia 61 (2): 163-179.

[MM09] Mound, L. A. & M. Masumoto. 2009. Australian Thripinae of the Anaphothrips genus-group (Thysanoptera), with three new genera and thirty-three new species. Zootaxa 2042: 1-76.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19-28.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209-223.

[RL05] Rafferty, C., & B. B. Lamont. 2005. Selective feeding by macropods on vegetation regenerating following fire. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 155-165.

[R-RR-GM-S98] Ramil-Rego, P., M. Rodríguez-Guitián & C. Muñoz-Sobrino. 1998. Sclerophyllous vegetation dynamics in the north of the Iberian peninsula during the last 16,000 years. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 7: 335-351.

[SK02] Sumithramma, N., A. R. V. Kumar, K. Chandrashekara & D. Rajagopal. 2002. Plant selection for nesting by Oecophylla smaragdina, Hymenoptera: Formicidae: do physical features affect the choice of the plant? Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 408-412.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

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