Acridoidea

Moroccan locust Dociostaurus maroccanus, copyright Quartl.


Belongs within: Caelifera.
Contains: Ommexechidae, Romaleidae, Pamphagidae, Stenobothrus, Acrydiinae, Oedipodinae, Ommatolampinae, Catantopinae, Oxyinae, Cyrtacanthacridinae, Melanoplus, Acridinae, Chorthippus.

The Acridoidea includes the typical grasshoppers and locusts. The latter are those species whose life cycle may include a gregarious phase in which they form dense migratory swarms, potentially causing significant damage to vegetation, including crops, where they occur (Rentz 1996). The composition of the primary family in the group, Acrididae, has varied significantly between authors, but Eades (2000) restricted it to those species whose males possess a strongly developed phallic arch sclerite, with a strongly sclerotised central portion but no lateral projections. The Acridoidea as a whole is characterised by the development of a gonopore separating the ejaculatory sac from the spermatophore; a process projecting from the endophallic sclerite functions to open and close the gonopore in a clade including the families Lithidiidae, Romaleidae, Dericorythidae, Pamphagidae, Charilaidae and Acrididae (Eades 2000). Other members of the Acridoidea include the Lentulidae, a group of wingless grasshoppers endemic to sub-Saharan Africa.

Characters (from Eades 2000; Rentz 1996 [as Acrididae]): Fastigium of vertex without medio-longitudinal sulcus. Tarsi of all legs three-segmented; hind tibia with all four apical spurs well developed. Endophallic apodemes turned laterally; gonopore developed as constriction separating ejaculatory sac from spermatophore sac.

<==Acridoidea
    |  i. s.: Pamphagodidae GE05
    |--Pyrgacris Descamps 1968 [Pyrgacrididae, Pyrgacridinae] E00
    |--Batrachidacris [Lathiceridae] E00
    |--Lentulidae E00
    |    |--Shelforditinae E00
    |    `--Lentulinae E00
    |         |--Betiscoides meridionalis E00
    |         |--Mecostibus nyassae E00
    |         `--Lentula obtusifrons E00
    |--+--Ommexechidae E00
    |  `--Tristiridae E00
    |       |--Atacamacris [Atacamacridinae] E00
    |       `--Tristirinae [Chilacridinae, Chilacrinae, Tristirae, Tristiri] E00
    |            |--Tristira E00
    |            |--Elasmoderus [incl. Chilacris] E00
    |            |--Moluchacris cinarescens E00
    |            |--Elysiacris angusticollis E00
    |            |--Tropodostethus bicarinatus E00
    |            `--Punacris peruviacris E00
    `--+--Lithidiidae [Lithidiinae] E00
       |    |--Lithidium pusillum E00
       |    `--Eneremius E00
       |--+--Romaleidae E00
       |  `--Dericorythidae E00
       |       |--Plotnikovia [Conophyminae, Conophymini] E00
       |       |    `--P. lanigera E00
       |       |--Iranella [Iranellinae, Iranellini] E00
       |       |    `--I. turcmena E00
       |       `--Dericorythinae [Anemesacrinae, Dericorythini] E00
       |            |--Dericorys albidula E00
       |            `--Anemesacris E00
       `--+--+--Pamphagidae E00
          |  `--Charilaus [Charilaidae] E00
          |       `--C. carinatus E00
          `--Acrididae [Catantopidae, Hemiacrididae, Locustariae, Locustidae] E00
               |  i. s.: Mioedipoda Z02
               |         Proschistocerca oligocaenica Z02
               |         Speleiacris tabulae L31
               |         Chondracris rosea MHG04
               |         Phlibostroma quadrimaculatum E70
               |         Cordillacris E70
               |           |--C. crenulata E70
               |           `--C. occipitalis E70
               |         Sisantum notochloris E70
               |         Clinocephalus elegans E70
               |         Dichromorpha E70
               |           |--D. robusta E70
               |           `--D. viridis E70
               |         Thisoicetrus annulosus (Walker 1870) D95
               |         Pezotettix giournai (Rossi 1794) D95
               |         Acanthacris ruficornis (Seville 1838) D95
               |         Thalpomena algeriana (Lucas 1849) D95
               |           |--T. a. algeriana D95
               |           `--T. a. coerulipennis Finot 1895 D95
               |         Ochrilidia filicornis Krauss 1902 D95
               |         Eunapiodes granosus D95
               |         Euryparyphes D95
               |           |--E. quadridentatus D95
               |           `--E. sitifiensis D95
               |         Ramburiella hispanica D95
               |         Tmethis pulchripennis D95
               |         Stenobothrus S66
               |         Habrocneminae E00
               |         Caryandinae E00
               |         Acrydiinae R18
               |         Brachystola magna Z94
               |         Platylactista aztecus Z94
               |         Rehnita capito Z94
               |         Xabthippus corallipes Z94
               |           |--X. c. corallipes Z94
               |           `--X. c. pantherinus Z94
               |         Psophus stridulus B01
               |         Pachytylus B01
               |           |--P. danicus [incl. P. cinerascens] B01
               |           `--P. migratorius B01
               |         Bryodema B01
               |           |--B. baicalensis B01
               |           |--B. barabensis B01
               |           |--B. brunneriana B01
               |           |--B. mongolica Bolivar 1901 B01
               |           |--B. rhodopa B01
               |           `--B. tuberculata B01
               |         Callirhipis davidiana B01
               |         Nocarodes serricollis B01
               |         Tettix B01
               |           |--T. australis O86
               |           |--T. bipunctatus B01
               |           |--T. depressus B01
               |           `--T. subulatus B01
               |         Zichyinae B01
               |           |--Bradyporus onos B01
               |           |--Zichya Bolivar 1901 B01
               |           |    `--*Z. vacca (Fischer de Waldheim 1846) [=Ephippiger vacca] B01
               |           `--Deracanthella Bolivar 1901 [=Deracantha Fischer de Waldheim 1883 (preoc.)] B01
               |                `--*D. aranea (Fischer de Waldheim 1833) (see below for synonymy) B01
               |         Hippiscus K-P91
               |         Caloptenopsis K-P91
               |         Hoplolopha K-P91
               |         Gomphocerippus rufus HR11
               |--Oedipodinae E00
               |--Paulinia [Pauliniidae, Pauliniinae] E00
               |    `--P. acuminata [=Coelopterna acuminata] R15
               |--+--Ommatolampinae E00
               |  |--Marellia [Marelliinae] E00
               |  |    `--M. remipes E00
               |  |--Copiocera [Copiocerinae] E00
               |  |    `--C. specularis E00
               |  |--Proctolabus [Proctolabinae] E00
               |  |    `--P. brachypterus E00
               |  |--Diexis [Diexinae] E00
               |  |    `--D. varentzovi E00
               |  |--Trichopaon [Rhytidochrotinae] E00
               |  |    `--T. tatei E00
               |  |--Leptysma R15 [Leptysminae E00]
               |  |    |--L. filiformis R15
               |  |    `--L. obscura R15
               |  `--Teratodinae E00
               |       |--Teratodes brachypterus E00
               |       `--Lyrotyloides viridis E00
               `--+--Catantopinae E00
                  |--Oxyinae E00
                  |--Egnatiinae E00
                  |--Aneuryphymus [Euryphyminae] E00
                  |    `--A. montanus E00
                  |--Eyprepocnemis TS04 [Eyprepocnemidinae E00]
                  |    `--E. plorans TS04
                  |--Podisma K81 [Podisminae E00]
                  |    `--P. pedestris K81
                  |--+--Cyrtacanthacridinae E00
                  |  `--Melanoplus E00
                  |--Calliptamus P05 [Calliptaminae E00]
                  |    |--C. barbarus (Costa 1836) P05
                  |    |--C. italicus (Linnaeus 1758) P05
                  |    `--C. wattenwyllianus (Pantel 1896) D95
                  `--+--Acridinae E00
                     |--Eremogryllinae E00
                     |--Epistaurus [Coptacridinae] E00
                     |    `--E. succineus E00
                     |--Truxalis R15 [Truxalinae E00]
                     |    |--T. brevicornis R15
                     |    `--T. nasutus L02
                     |--Hemiacridinae E00
                     |    |--Hieroglyphus banian E00
                     |    `--Euthymia fasciata E00
                     |--Spathosterninae [Spathosternini] E00
                     |    |--Laxabilla Re96
                     |    `--Spathosternum pygmaeum E00
                     |--Tropidopola [Tropidopolinae] E00
                     |    `--T. cylindrica E00
                     |         |--T. c. cylindrica E00
                     |         `--T. c. acuticeps E00
                     `--Gomphocerinae E00
                          |--Mermiria bivittata [incl. M. maculipennis] E00
                          |--Gomphocerus rufus E00
                          |--Chorthippus BM76
                          |--Dasyhippus BM76
                          |--Euchorthippus BM76
                          |--Omocestus BM76
                          |    |--O. raymondi Harz 1970 D95
                          |    `--O. viridulus F01
                          `--Dociostaurus Y70
                               |--D. genei Y70
                               |--D. jagoi Soltani 1978 D95
                               `--D. maroccanus (Thunberg 1815) P05

*Deracanthella aranea (Fischer de Waldheim 1833) [=Deracantha aranea, Ephippiger aranea; incl. E. antilope, E. verrucosus Fischer de Waldheim 1846] B01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[B01] Bolivar, I. 1901. Orthopterák [Orthoptères]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 223–243. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[D95] Damerdji, A. 1995. Bio-écologie du peuplement des orthoptères de la région de Ghazaouet (Tlemcen, Algérie). Mésogée 54: 73–80.

[E70] Eades, D. C. 1970. Theoretical and procedural aspects of numerical phyletics. Systematic Zoology 19 (2): 142–171.

[E00] Eades, D. C. 2000. Evolutionary relationships of phallic structures of Acridomorpha (Orthoptera). Journal of Orthoptera Research 9: 181–210.

[F01] Field, L. H. 2001. Stridulatory mechanisms and associated behaviour in New Zealand wetas. In: Field, L. H. (ed.) The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies pp. 271–295. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HR11] Heraty, J., F. Ronquist, J. M. Carpenter, D. Hawks, S. Schulmeister, A. P. Dowling, D. Murray, J. Munro, W. C. Wheeler, N. Schiff & M. Sharkey. 2011. Evolution of the hymenopteran megaradiation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 60: 73–88.

[K81] Key, K. H. L. 1981. Species, parapatry, and the morabine grasshoppers. Systematic Zoology 30 (4): 425–458.

[K-P91] Kukalová-Peck, J. 1991. Fossil history and the evolution of hexapod structures. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 141–179. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L31] Lawrence, R. F. 1931. The harvest-spiders (Opiliones) of South Africa. Annals of the South African Museum 29 (2): 341–508.

[MHG04] Maynard, G. V., J. G. Hamilton & J. F. Grimshaw. 2004. Quarantine—phytosanitary, sanitary and incursion management: an Australian entomological perspective. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 318–328.

[O86] Olliff, A. S. 1886. Notes and exhibits. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 163–164.

[P05] Papapavlou, K. P. 2005. New distributional data on the Orthoptera (Saltatoria) of the northern Dodecanese (“southern Sporadhes”) archipelago, Greece. Graellsia 61 (1): 3–11.

[R15] Rehn, J. A. G. 1915. A further contribution to the knowledge of the Orthoptera of Argentina. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (2): 270–292.

[R18] Rehn, J. A. G. 1918. On a collection of Orthoptera from the State of Pará, Brazil. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 144–236, pls 1–2.

Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[S66] Southcott, R. V. 1966. Revision of the genus Charletonia Oudemans (Acarina: Erythraeidae). Australian Journal of Zoology 14: 687–819.

[TS04] Tsurusaki, N., & T. Shimada. 2004. Geographic and seasonal variations of the number of B chromosomes and external morphology in Psathyropus tenuipes (Arachnida: Opiliones). Cytogenetic and Genome Research 106: 365–375.

[Y70] Yinon, U. 1970. Electrophysiological evidence of relationships in acridid insects. Systematic Zoology 19 (4): 397–398.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Ecological history of the terrestrial insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 331–388. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

Last updated: 29 October 2017.

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