Madonna lily Lilium candidum, copyright Zachi Evenor.

Belongs within: Liliales.
Contains: Disporum section Disporum.

The Liliaceae is a family of bulbous or rhizomatous monocotyledons that are most diverse in temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The family has been used in a much broader sense in the past than currently; at its broadest, it included a large proportion of the taxa now classed elsewhere in the Liliales and Asparagales. Many species of Liliaceae are widely cultivated as ornamentals; prominent examples include various species of Lilium (lilies) or Tulipa (tulips). Lilium species go to heights of two to six feet with the more or less funnel-shaped flowers produced in a raceme at the top of the stem.

Characters (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Flavonols present, chelidonic acid absent; raphides absent; bracteole lateral; tepals often spotted; anthers often centrifixed; stigma dry (rarely wet); ovules 2-many/carpel, more or less pendulous, nucellar cap (0-)1-3 cells across; antipodal cells not multinucleate; testal cells all more or less thickened, some with brown contents; cotyledon more or less photosynthetic, bifacial, hypocotyl absent; x = 8.

    |--Oceanoros YY22
    |--Schoenocaulon YY22
    |--Stenanthium YY22
    |--Zygadenus YY22
    |--Heterosmilax YY22
    |--Ruscus aculeatus H91, G98
    |--Trillidium govanianum O88
    |--Tricyrtis esquirolii (Léveillé) Hara 1988 (see below for synonymy) H88
    |--Ipheion uniflorum (Lindley) Rafinesque-Schmaltz 1837 HE80
    |--Bulbinopsis semibarbata HE80
    |--Rohdea japonica MH98
    |--Aspidistra elatior MH98
    |--Herpolirion Hook. f. 1853 ME70
    |    `--H. novae-zelandiae Hook. f. 1853 ME70 [incl. H. tasmaniae C06]
    |--Enargea Banks & Solander 1788 C06
    |    `--E. marginata [=Callixene marginata] C06
    |--Smilacina O88
    |    |--S. purpurea O88
    |    `--S. racemosa A16
    |--Notholirion O88
    |    |--N. bulbuliferum O88
    |    `--N. macrophyllum O88
    |--Ypsilandra yunnanensis O88
    |    |--Y. y. var. yunnanensis O88
    |    `--Y. y. var. himalaica O88
    |--Tulbaghia HE80
    |    |--T. calcarea CV06
    |    `--T. violacea HE80
    |--Cardiocrinum HE80
    |    |--C. cordatum T03
    |    `--C. giganteum HE80
    |--Iphigenia Kunth 1843 ME70
    |    |--I. indica LK14
    |    |--I. novae-zelandiae (Hooker) Baker 1879 [=Anguillaria novae-zelandiae Hooker in Kirk 1878] ME70
    |    `--I. stellata YG03
    |--Fritillaria FF01
    |    |--F. cirrhosa O88
    |    |--F. lanceolata RS98
    |    |--F. meleagris C55
    |    `--F. ruthenica ED02
    |--Nolina V01
    |    |--N. microcarpa V01
    |    |--N. parryi C90
    |    `--N. texana SZ03
    |--Streptopus H88
    |    |--S. amplexicaule H88
    |    |--S. parasimplex O88
    |    |--S. roseus A16
    |    `--S. simplex O88
    |--Clintonia DS04
    |    |--C. borealis DS04
    |    `--C. udensis O88
    |         |--C. u. var. udensis O88
    |         `--C. u. var. alpina O88
    |--Tulipa Y98
    |    |--T. gesneriana TG88
    |    |--T. goulimyi Y98
    |    |--T. oculus-solis C55
    |    `--T. sylvestris C55
    |--Gagea Y98
    |    |--G. arvensis H91
    |    |--G. bracteolaris [incl. Ornithogalum glaucum Dethard. ex Schult.f. 1702] MGF04
    |    |--G. elegans O88
    |    |--G. fibrosa Y98
    |    `--G. graeca PT98
    |--Lloydia O88
    |    |--L. flavonutans O88
    |    |--L. longiscapa O88
    |    `--L. serotina O88
    |         |--L. s. var. serotina O88
    |         `--L. s. var. parva O88
    |--Disporum Salisbury ex Don 1825 [incl. Drapiezia Blume 1827] H88
    |    |  i. s.: D. luzoniense Merrill 1910 H88
    |    |--D. sect. Prosartes (Don) Jones 1951 [=Prosartes Don 1839] H88
    |    |    |--D. (sect *Prosartes) lanuginosum H88
    |    |    `--+--D. maculatum H88
    |    |       `--+--D. hookeri H88
    |    |          `--+--D. smithii H88
    |    |             `--D. trachycarpum H88
    |    `--+--D. sect. Disporum H88
    |       |--D. sect. Ovalia Hara 1988 nec Ovalia Latreille in Griffith & Pidgeon 1833 (ICZN) nec Nalivkin 1937 (ICZN) H88
    |       |    `--D. (sect. *Ovalia) ovale Ohwi 1931 [=Streptopus ovalis (Ohwi) Wang & Tang 1978] H88
    |       |         |--D. o. f. ovale H88
    |       |         `--D. o. f. albiflorum (Lee & Lee) Hara 1988 [=D. ovale var. albiflorum Lee & Lee ex Lee 1979] H88
    |       `--D. sect. Paradisporum Hara 1988 H88
    |            `--D. (sect. *Paradisporum) acuminatum Wright 1929 H88
    `--Lilium CD07
         |--L. candidum Y98
         |--L. formosanum Wallace 1891 HE80
         |--L. hansonii D37
         |--L. lancifolium Thunberg 1794 HE80
         |--L. × maculatum HE80
         |--L. martagon D37
         |--L. nanum O88
         |    |--L. n. f. nanum O88
         |    `--L. n. f. flavidum O88
         |--L. oxypetalum O88
         |--L. pyrenaicum C55
         |--L. regale Wilson 1913 CD07
         |--L. superbum Linnaeus 1762 CD07
         |--L. tigrinum Ker-Gawler 1809 HE80
         `--L. tyrinum GM96

Tricyrtis esquirolii (Léveillé) Hara 1988 [=Disporum esquirolii Léveillé 1907; incl. T. bakeri Koidzumi 1924, T. puberula Nakai & Kitagawa 1934] H88

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255–260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

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Last updated: 5 July 2017.

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