Viper's bugloss Echium vulgare, copyright Emily Kloosterman.

Belongs within: Boraginaceae.

The Lithospermeae are a clade of plants in the Boraginaceae which have the style usually divided, and nutlets with a broad basal attachment scar (Långström & Chase 2002). This group includes the viper's buglosses of the genus Echium, some of which are widely grown as ornamentals though a few have become invasive species in some parts of the world.

Characters (from Långström & Chase 2002): Style usually divided at apex, with two to four stigmas; pollen colporate, heteropolar or prolate; nutlets with broad basal attachment scar, flat gynobase.

    |--Buglossoides purpureo-caeruleum LC02 [=Lithospermum purpureocaeruleum H91]
    `--+--Cystostemon heliocaris LC02
       |--Lithodora diffusa LC02
       |--Cerinthe [Cerintheae] LC02
       |    `--C. major LC02
       |--Lithospermum LC02
       |    |--L. arvense LC02
       |    |--L. cobrense BT72
       |    |--L. incrassatum C55b
       |    |--L. officinale C55b
       |    `--L. prostratum C55a
       `--Echieae LC02
            |--Lobostemon fruticosus LC02
            |--Megacaryon LC02
            |--Zwackhia LC02
            `--Echium LC02
                 |--E. arenarium PT98
                 |--E. italicum BR65
                 |--E. maritimum C55b
                 |--E. pininana V09
                 |--E. plantagineum BR65
                 |--E. pyramidatum C55a
                 |--E. violaceum BR65
                 `--E. vulgare LC02

Lithospermeae incertae sedis:
  Alkanna LC02
    |--A. graeca Boissier & Spruner 1844 PL04
    |    |--A. g. ssp. graeca PL04
    |    `--A. g. ssp. baeotica (de Candolle) Nyman 1881 PL04
    `--A. tinctoria C74
  Ancistrocarya LC02
  Arnebia LC02
    |--A. euchroma O88
    `--A. nepalensis O88
  Choriantha LC02
  Colsmannia LC02
  Halacsya LC02
  Lasiarrhenum LC02
  Macromeria LC02
  Macrotomia LC02
  Maharanga emodi LC02, O88
  Meratia LC02
  Onosmodium LC02
  Pentalophus LC02
  Stenosolenium LC02
  Onosma LC02
    |--O. bracteatum O88
    |--O. fruticosum D30
    `--O. hookeri O88

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BT72] Baker, E. W., & D. M. Tuttle. 1972. New species and further notes on the Tetranychoidea mostly from the southwestern United States (Acarina: Tetranychidae and Tenuipalpidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 116: 1–37.

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C74] Coineau, Y. 1974. Éléments pour une monographie morphologique, écologique et biologique des Caeculidae (Acariens). Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, nouvelle série, Série A, Zoologie 81: 1–299, 224 pls.

[D30] Druce, G. C. 1930. Account of a botanical tour in Cyprus. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 141: 50–52.

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255–260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[LC02] Långström, E., & M. W. Chase. 2002. Tribes of Boraginoideae (Boraginaceae) and placement of Antiphytum, Echiochilon, Ogastemma and Sericostoma: A phylogenetic analysis based on atpB plastid DNA sequence data. Plant Systematics and Evolution 234: 137–153.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: Flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209–223.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

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