Slipper orchid Cryptostylis ovata, from here.

Belongs within: Liliidae.
Contains: Ophrys, Cypripedioideae, Orchidoideae, Epidendroideae.

The Orchidaceae, orchids, are a diverse and distinctive group of plants in which the flowers commonly have the lower petal differentiated into a distinctive lip. Pollination often involves complex specialisations, attracting pollinators using visual and/or odour cues rather than by offering a nectar reward.

Characters (from Moore & Edgar 1970): Perennial, terrestrial, epiphytic or saprophytic herbs with rhizomes, tubers or thickened rootstocks. Aerial stem often swollen at base into pseudobulb, and often with adventitious or aerial roots. Leaves usually entire, often distichous, sheathing at base, sometimes reduced to scales. Flowers bisexual, zygomorphic, in spikes, racemes or panicles, or solitary. Perianth mostly petaloid, of six segments in two whorls, free or variously connate, occasionally joined to form a tube; the middle segment in each whorl usually different from the two lateral ones, the middle petal or labellum often differing greatly in size, shape or outgrowths (calli) from the others and usually directed downwards; nectary sometimes contained within a spur or sac from one or more of the perianth segments. Anthers and stigmas borne on a more or less erect, usually fleshy structure, the column. Anthers 1 or 2, bilocular, introrse, opening by longitudinal slits; pollen grains rarely free, usually aggregated in tetrads or larger groups (pollinia) that are mealy, waxy or quite hard and sometimes terminate in a sterile caudicle. Ovary inferior, unilocular with three parietal placentae (rarely trilocular); stigma borne on part of column facing labellum, of three or two lobes, the medium lobe sometimes represented by a small process, the rostellum, between the stigma and the anther; viscid areas (viscidia) sometimes associated with rostellum and to these pollinia become attached either directly or by a connecting strip of non-viscid rostellar or columnar tissue known as the stipe. Fruit usually a capsule dehiscing by three or six longitudinal slites. Seeds very numerous, minute, often elongated, without endosperm or differentiated embryo.

<==Orchidaceae [Diandrae, Orchidineae]
    |--Apostasioideae FR99
    |    |--Apostasia FR99
    |    `--Neuwiedia [Neuwiedioideae] FR99
    |         `--N. veratrifolia DS04
    `--+--Cypripedioideae FR99
       `--Monandrae [Neottieae] FR99
            |--+--Orchidoideae FR99
            |  `--+--Epidendroideae FR99
            |     `--Cryptostylis FR99
            |          |--C. leptochila G84
            |          |--C. ovata GK00
            |          `--C. subulata HE80
            `--Vanilloideae RG07
                 |  i. s.: Isotria verticillata DS04
                 |--+--Pogoniinae FR99
                 |  `--Cleistes RG07
                 `--Vanilleae FR99
                      |--Vanilla FR99
                      `--+--Epistephium FR99
                         `--Lecanorchis FR99

Orchidaceae incertae sedis:
  Cycnoches YY22
  Oecoclades maculata [=Angraecum maculatum; incl. A. monophyllum] C55
  Grammatophyllum speciosum Par03
  Spathoglottis Par03
    |--S. ixioides O88
    `--S. plicata Par03
  Arundina graminifolia Par03
  Phaius tankervilleae Par03
  Galeola Par03
    |--G. kuhlii Par03
    `--G. nudifolia Par03
  Pholidota Par03
    |--P. articulata Par03
    `--P. imbricata Par03
  Thrixspermum merguense Par03
  Acanthephippium parviflorum Par03
  Geodorum Par03
    |--G. citrinum P88
    `--G. densiflorum Par03
  Macodes petola Par03
  Oberonia Par03
    |--O. helferi Hooker 1888 BP03
    `--O. monstruosa Par03
  Peristylus Par03
    |--P. goodyeroides Par03
    |--P. gracilis Par03
    `--P. grandis Par03
  Taeniophyllum obtusum Par03, P88
  Trichotosia annulata Par03
  Vrydagzynea albida Par03
  Corymbis veratrifolia Par03
  Tainia P88
  Diphylax urceolata O88
  Galearis O88
    |--G. spathulata O88
    `--G. stracheyi O88
  Herminium O88
    |--H. duthiei O88
    |--H. josephii O88
    |--‘Ophrys’ lancea [=Spiranthes lancea] ME70
    |--H. macrophyllum O88
    |--H. monorchis O88
    `--H. pugioniforme O88
  Neottianthe calcicola O88
  Ponerorchis chusua O88
  Dactylorchis maculata HE80
  Ophrys PT98
  Anacamptis pyramidalis PT98
  Serapias vomeracea PT98
    |--S. v. ssp. vomeracea PT98
    `--S. v. ssp. laxiflora PT98
  Isabelia Barbosa-Rodrigues 1877 FT93
  Oligochaetochilus OS04
    |--O. muticus G04b
    |--O. pictus G04a
    |--O. sanguineus OS04
    |--O. sargentii G04b
    `--O. vittatus OS04
  Cyanicula OS04
    |--C. amplexans G04b
    |--C. deformis OS04
    `--C. sericea OS04
  Elythranthera OS04
    |--E. brunonis OS04
    `--E. emarginata GK00
  Leporella fimbriata OS04
  Cyrtostylis GK00
    |--C. huegelii GK00
    `--C. robusta GK00
  Gastrochilus flabelliformis [=Saccolabium flabelliformis Blatt. & McCann 1932] SBY02
  Pachystoma senile (Lindley) Reichenbach 1958 [=Apathuria senilis Lindley 1831] SBY02
  Leptoceras menziesii GK00
  Pyrorchis nigricans GK00
  Drakaea GK00
    |--D. glyptodon GK00
    `--D. livida GK00
  Paracaleana nigrita GK00
  Doritis FR99
  Pteroceras FR99
  Rimacola Rupp 1942 H49
    `--*R. ellipticus [=Lyperanthus ellipticus Brown 1810] H49
  Rhynchostylis retusa BB07
  Cleisostoma SR07
    |--C. duplicilobium (Smith) Garay 1972 (see below for synonymy) PO06
    `--C. tenuifolium SR07
  Cheirostylis chinensis BP05
    |--C. c. var. chinensis BP05
    `--C. c. var. glabra Bhaumik & Pathak 2005 BP05
  Limodorum abortivum H91
  Himantoglossum hircinum H91
  Luisia teratifolia Pau03
  Micropera Lindley 1832 [incl. Camarotis Lindley 1833] P06
    |--*M. pallida (Roxburgh) Lindley 1832 (see below for synonymy) P06
    |--M. mannii (Hooker) Tang & Wang 1951 (see below for synonymy) P06
    |--M. obtusa (Lindley) Tang & Wang 1951 (see below for synonymy) P06
    `--M. rostratum (Roxb.) Balakr. 1970 (see below for synonymy) P06
  Smithsonia P06
    |--*S. straminea P06
    `--‘Micropera’ maculata P06
  Odontoglossum H04
    |--O. naevium H04
    |--O. ramosissimum H04
    |--O. schroederianum H04
    `--O. wattianum H04
  Paphinia rugosa H04

Nomen nudum: Cyanicula gemmata Gibson & Keighery 2000 GK00

Cleisostoma duplicilobium (Smith) Garay 1972 [=Sarcanthus duplicilobium Smith 1907; incl. S. carinatus Rolfe ex Downnie 1925, Cleisostoma carinatum (Rolfe) Garay 1972] PO06

Micropera mannii (Hooker) Tang & Wang 1951 [=Sarochilus mannii Hooker 1890, Camarotis mannii (Hooker) King & Pantling 1898] P06

Micropera obtusa (Lindley) Tang & Wang 1951 [=Camarotis obtusa Lindley 1844, Sarcochilus obtusus (Lindley) Benth. ex Hooker 1890] P06

*Micropera pallida (Roxburgh) Lindley 1832 [=Aerides pallida Roxburgh 1814 (n. n.); incl. Camarotis apiculata Rchb.f. 1857, Micropera apiculata (Rchb.f.) Garay 1972, Sarcanthus apiculatus (Rchb.f.) Smith 1905, C. cochinchinensis Rchb.f. 1876, Micropera cochinchinensis (Rchb.f.) Tang & Wang 1951, Sarcochilus cochinchinensis (Rchb.f.) Nicols 1886, Saccolabium flaveolens Ridl. 1896, Sarcanthus roxburghii Hooker 1890, Saccolabium saxicolum Ridl. 1893] P06

Micropera rostratum (Roxb.) Balakr. 1970 [=Aerides rostratum Roxb. 1814 (n. n.), Camarotis rostratum (Roxb.) Rchb.f. 1864; incl. C. pallida (Lindl.) Lindl. 1859, C. purpurea Lindl. 1833, Micropera purpurea (Lindl.) Pradhan 1979, Sarcochilus purpureus (Lindl.) Benth. ex Hooker 1890] P06

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BB07] Baishya, A. K. & P. J. Bora. 2007. Cross community ethno-medico botany of Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve, Assam. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 121-154.

[BP03] Bhaumik, M. & M. K. Pathak. 2003. Oberonia helferi Hook. f. (Orchidaceae)—a new record for India from Dibang Valley, Arunachal Pradesh. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1-4): 217-220.

[BP05] Bhaumik, M. & M. K. Pathak. 2005. A new variety of Cheirostylis chinensis Rolfe var. glabra (Orchidaceae) from Dibang Valley, Arunachal Pradesh, India. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1-4): 183-184.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467-510.

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i-viii, 1-351.

[FR99] Freudenstein, J. V., & F. N. Rasmussen. 1999. What does morphology tell us about orchid relationships? – a cladistic analysis. American Journal of Botany 86: 225-248.

[G84] Gauld, I. D. 1984. An Introduction to the Ichneumonidae of Australia. British Museum (Natural History).

[G04a] Gibson, N. 2004a. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35-47.

[G04b] Gibson, N. 2004b. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49-62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323-402.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899-1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[H49] Hatch, E. D. 1949. Lyperanthus antarcticus Hook. f. and the New Zealand forms of Gastrodia R. Br. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (2): 230-233.

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. III. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255-260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[ME70] Moore, L. B. & E. Edgar. 1970. Flora of New Zealand vol. 2. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Monocotyledones except Gramineae. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19-28.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: Flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95-116.

[Par03] Partomihardjo, T. 2003. Colonisation of orchids on the Krakatau Islands. Telopea 10 (1): 299-310.

[Pau03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1-4): 121-142.

[P06] Phukan, S. 2006. The genus Micropera Lindl. (Orchidaceae) in India. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 48 (1-4): 165-174.

[PO06] Phukan, S. & N. Odyuo. 2006. Addition to Indian orchid flora—Cleistostoma duplicilobum (J. J. Sm.) Garay from Nagaland. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 48 (1-4): 219-222.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[RG07] Ramírez, S. R., B. Gravendeel, R. B. Singer, C. R. Marshall & N. E. Pierce. 2007. Dating the origin of the Orchidaceae from a fossil orchid with its pollinator. Nature 448: 1042-1045.

[SR07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 165-172.

[SBY02] Sardesai, M. M., M. P. Bachulkar & S. R. Yadav. 2002. Additions to the orchid flora of Maharashtra. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 564-566.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="http://www.fieldofscience.com/">FoS</a> = FoS