Caelifera

Hooded pygmy grasshopper Paratettix cucullatus, copyright Stephen Cresswell.


Belongs within: Panelcanida.
Contains: Eumastacoidea, Pyrgomorphidae, Acridoidea, Tridactyloidea.

The Caelifera, including the short-horned grasshoppers, are a clade of orthopterans characterised by the reduction of the antennae. As well as the true grasshoppers of the Acridomorpha, this clade includes the pygmy grasshoppers of the Tetrigidae, small and camouflaged grasshoppers characterised by the posterior extension of the pronotum to the extent that it overlaps with the dorsal surface of the abdomen (Rentz 1996).

Characters (from Rentz 1996): Antennae rather robust, thread-like, rarely with more than 30 segments, usually shorter than body length. Mandibles chewing-type, usually symmetrical, with greatly enlarged, heavy molar teeth. Thoracic segments generally not concealed by pronotum. Tarsi typically with three or fewer segments; fore tibiae lacking auditory receptors. Fan of hind wing confined to anal lobe. Base of abdomen with lateral auditory tympana. Ovipositor short, usually stout, composed of four main independent valves. Male subgenital plate formed from ninth sternum, lacking styles; phallic structures including aedeagus. Three pairs of gastric caeca present at junction of fore- and mid-gut.

<==Caelifera [Acridina]
    |  i. s.: Eolocustopsis Riek 1976 BN02
    |         Gomphocerippus rufus K09
    |--+--Acridomorpha E00
    |  |    |  i. s.: Omalotettix E00
    |  |    |--Eumastacoidea E00
    |  |    `--+--Tanaoceridae [Tanaoceroidea] E00
    |  |       |--Trigonopterygoidea E00
    |  |       |    |--Trigonopterygidae GE05
    |  |       |    `--Xyronotidae GE05
    |  |       |         |--Xyronotus aztecus E00
    |  |       |         `--Azyronotus cantralli E00
    |  |       `--+--Pneumoridae [Pneumoroidea] E00
    |  |          `--+--Pyrgomorphidae E00
    |  |             `--Acridoidea GR02
    |  |--Locustopsoidea GR02
    |  |    |--Locustavidae GR02
    |  |    |    |--Mesacridites Riek 1954 BR05
    |  |    |    |    `--*M. elongata Riek 1954 BR05
    |  |    |    |--Locustavus Sharov 1968 BR05
    |  |    |    `--Ferganopsis Sharov 1968 BR05
    |  |    |         `--F. lanceolatus Sharov 1968 BR05
    |  |    `--Locustopsidae GR02
    |  |         |  i. s.: Araripelocustinae GR02
    |  |         |--Praelocustopsis mirabilis Sharov 1968 BN02
    |  |         `--+--Plesioschwinzia thalassophila Zessin 1988 BN02
    |  |            `--Locustopsis [Locustopsinae] BN02
    |  |                 `--L. karatavica Sharov 1968 BN02
    |  `--Tetrigidae [Tetrigoidea] GR02
    |       |  i. s.: Prototetrix reducta GR02
    |       |--Cladonotinae R96
    |       |--Scelimeninae R96
    |       |--Metrodorinae R96
    |       |--Batrachideinae P03
    |       |    |--Tettigidea P03
    |       |    |    |--T. hancocki Bruner 1910 R18
    |       |    |    `--T. lateralis P03
    |       |    `--Saussurella Bolivar 1887 [incl. Cassitettix Yin 1984, Cassitettinae, Cassitettini] P03
    |       |         |--S. cucullifera P03
    |       |         |--S. inelevata P03
    |       |         `--*Cassitettix’ longiptera Yin 1984 P03
    |       `--Tetriginae P03
    |            |--Mishtshenkotetrix transsylvanica P03
    |            |--Coptotettix gibbus R96
    |            |--Tetrix P03
    |            |    |--T. ornata P03
    |            |    |--T. subulata [incl. Acrydium granulatum] P03
    |            |    |--T. tenuicornis K09
    |            |    `--T. undulata K08
    |            `--Paratettix P03
    |                 |--P. albolimbatus R96
    |                 |--P. cucullatus P03
    |                 |--P. femoralis Z94
    |                 |--P. nigrescens K90
    |                 `--P. texanus D51
    `--+--Dzhajloutshellidae GR02
       `--Tridactyloidea GR02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BN02] Béthoux, O., & A. Nel. 2002. Venation pattern and revision of Orthoptera sensu nov. and sister groups. Phylogeny of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Orthoptera sensu nov. Zootaxa 96: 1-88.

[BR05] Béthoux, O. & A. J. Ross. 2005. Mesacridites Riek, 1954 (Middle Triassic; Australia) transferred from Protorthoptera to Orthoptera: Locustavidae. Journal of Paleontology 79 (3): 607-610.

[D51] Dobzhansky, T. 1951. Genetics and the Origin of Species, 3rd ed. Columbia University Press: New York.

[E00] Eades, D. C. 2000. Evolutionary relationships of phallic structures of Acridomorpha (Orthoptera). Journal of Orthoptera Research 9: 181-210.

[GR02] Gorochov, A. V., & A. P. Rasnitsyn. 2002. Superorder Gryllidea Laicharting, 1781 (=Orthopteroidea Handlirsch, 1903). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 293-303. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[K90] Key, K. H. L. 1990. Host relations and distribution of species of Caeculisoma (Acarina: Erythraeidae) parasitising grasshoppers in Australia, with supplementary information for the genus Trombella (Trombellidae). Australian Journal of Zoology 38: 11-18.

[K08] Köhler, G. 2008. Populationsstudien aus Gemeinen Grashüpfer, Chorthippus parallelus (Zetterstedt), entlang eines Höhengradienten im Mittleren Erzgebirge. Mauritiana 20 (2): 349-370.

[K09] Köhler, G. 2009. Heuschrecken (Saltatoria) und Ohrwürmner (Dermaptera) im Immissionsgebiet des Düngemittelwerkes Steudnitz/Thüringen—eine Langzeitstudie (1978–2001). Mauritiana 20 (3): 601-646.

[P03] Podgornaya, L. I. 2003. Morphology of the male genitalia in tetrigids (Orthoptera, Tetrigidae) and change of rank of the subfamily Cassitettinae Yin, 1984. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 82 (1): 86-89 (transl. Entomological Review 83 (1): 1-3).

[R18] Rehn, J. A. G. 1918. On a collection of Orthoptera from the State of Pará, Brazil. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 144-236, pls 141-142.

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[Z94] Zhang, Z.-Q. 1994. Neothrombiidae (Acari: Trombidioidea) of the world: systematic review with a phylogenetic analysis and descriptions of two new genera. Oriental Insects 28: 205-237.

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