Three-toothed orchid Orchis tridentata, copyright Marco Klüber.

Belongs within: Orchidoideae.

The Orchidinae are a group of terrestrial orchids found primarily in the Northern Hemisphere, particularly around the Mediterranean and eastern Asia.

Characters (from Dressler 1993): Terrestrial, rarely saprophytic, generally with root-stem tuberoids, roots without velamen; stem slender. Leaves spiral, scattered or basal and clustered, convolute, soft herbaceous, nonarticulate. Inflorescence terminal, simple, of few to many spiral flowers. Flowers small to medium-large, resupinate; lip usually with a basal spur; column short or moderately long; anther erect, basally firmly united with column; two or four pollinia, sectile, with two basal, interlocular caudicles attached to two or one basal viscidia; exine of pollen grains variable; stigma entire, concave.

Orchidinae [Orchideae]
    |--Gymnadenia DO05
    |    |--G. conopsea DO05
    |    `--G. orchidis O88
    |--Platanthera RG07
    |    |--P. clavigera O88
    |    |--P. exelliana O88
    |    |--P. latilabris O88
    |    |--P. leptocaulon O88
    |    `--P. replicata RG07
    |--Dactylorhiza DO05
    |    |--D. aristata DO05
    |    |--D. incarnata DO05
    |    |--D. praetermissa DO05
    |    `--+--+--D. foliosa DO05
    |       |  `--D. maculata DO05
    |       `--+--D. fuchsii DO05
    |          `--D. saccifera DO05
    `--Orchis PT98
         |--O. anatolica PT98
         |--O. globosa C55
         |--O. militaris C55
         |--O. morio PT98
         |    |--O. m. ssp. morio PT98
         |    `--O. m. ssp. picta PT98
         |--O. sancta PT98
         `--O. tridentata H91

*Type species of generic name indicated


[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[DO05] Devos, N., S.-H. Oh, O. Raspé, A.-L. Jacquemart & P. S. Manos. 2005. Nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence variation and evolution of spotted marsh-orchids (Dactylorhiza maculata group). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 568-580.

Dressler, R. L. 1993. Phylogeny and Classification of the Orchid Family. Cambridge University Press.

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255-260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: Flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95-116.

[RG07] Ramírez, S. R., B. Gravendeel, R. B. Singer, C. R. Marshall & N. E. Pierce. 2007. Dating the origin of the Orchidaceae from a fossil orchid with its pollinator. Nature 448: 1042-1045.

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