Rhaphidophoridae

Ceuthophilus conicaudus, copyright James C. Cokendolpher.


Belongs within: Ensifera.

The Rhaphidophoridae, including the camel crickets and cave weta, are a group of wingless orthopterans. Members of this group often have markedly long legs and antennae, though they also include short-legged forms such as the genus Gammarotettix (Gorochov 2001).

Characters (from Gorochov 2001): Wings always absent. Tarsi usually with four segments, very rarely with three, with non-widened pulvilli, first segment with only one pulvillus unless two proximal segments fused. Femoro-abdominal stridulatory apparatus absent. Ovipositor always developed, with lower part of upper valvae partly (sometimes almost completely) covering lower valvae on outside.

<==Rhaphidophoridae
    |--Macropathinae G01
    |    |--Heteromallus G01
    |    |--Macropathus [Macropathini] G01
    |    |    `--M. filifer G01
    |    |--Talitopsis [Talitropsini] G01
    |    |    `--T. crassicruris G01
    |    |--Pallidotettix nullarborensis R96
    |    |--Cavernotettix wyanbenensis R96
    |    `--Australotettix R96
    `--+--+--Protroglophilinae G01
       |  |    |--Protroglophilus G01
       |  |    `--Prorhaphidophora G01
       |  |--+--Troglophilus [Troglophilinae] G01
       |  |  `--Dolichopoda araneiformis (Burmeister 1838) G01, UO05
       |  `--+--Aemodogryllinae G01
       |     |    |  i. s.: Diestrammena G01
       |     |    |--Aemodogryllini G01
       |     |    `--Diestramima [Diestramimini] G01
       |     `--Rhaphidophorinae G01
       |          |--Stonychophora G01
       |          |--Eurhaphidophora G01
       |          |--Pararhaphidophora G01
       |          `--Neorhaphidophora G01
       `--+--Gammarotettix [Gammarotettiginae] G01
          |    `--G. bovis G01
          `--Ceuthophilinae G01
               |  i. s.: Macrobaenetes velgum G01, C90
               |         Geotettix G01
               |--Pristoceutophilini G01
               |--Argyrtes [Argyrtini] G01
               |--Daihinia [Daihiniini] G01
               |    `--D. brevipes G01
               |--Hadenoecus [Hadenoecini] G01
               |    `--H. subterraneus HR01
               `--Ceuthophilus [Ceuthophilini] G01
                    |--C. carlsbadensis Z94
                    |--C. conicaudus Z94
                    |--C. fusiformis BM76
                    |--C. guttulosus E70
                    |    |--C. g. guttulosus E70
                    |    |--C. g. angulosus E70
                    |    `--C. g. thomasi E70
                    |--C. longipes Z94
                    |--C. paucispinosus Z94
                    |--C. pima Z94
                    |--C. utahensis TW05
                    `--C. variegatus C90

Rhaphidophoridae incertae sedis:
  Anoplophilinae G01
    |--Anoplophilus G01
    `--Alpinanoplophilus G01
  Gymnoplectron G01
    |--G. edwardsi M01
    |--G. giganteum S01
    `--G. longipes S01
  Gigantettix G01
  Tropidischia [Tropidischiinae] G01
  Daihinibaenetes arizonensis W01
  Pallidoplectron turneri R60
  Daihinoides larvale C90

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM76] Bohart, R. M. & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[C90] Crawford, C. S. 1990. Scorpiones, Solifugae, and associated desert taxa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 421-475. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[E70] Eades, D. C. 1970. Theoretical and procedural aspects of numerical phyletics. Systematic Zoology 19 (2): 142-171.

[G01] Gorochov, A. V. 2001. The higher classification, phylogeny and evolution of the superfamily Stenopelmatoidea. In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 3-33. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[HR01] Hale, R. J., & D. C. F. Rentz. 2001. The Gryllacrididae: An overview of the world fauna with emphasis on Australian examples. In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 95-110. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[M01] McIntyre, M. 2001. The ecology of some large weta species in New Zealand. In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 225-242. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[R60] Richards, A. M. 1960. Observations on the New Zealand glow-worm Arachnocampa luminosa (Skuse) 1890. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 559-574.

[S01] Sherley, G. 2001. Conservation of threatened species of weta (Orthoptera: Anastostomatidae) in New Zealand. In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 521-527. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240-257.

[UO05] Ubick, D., & R. Ozimec. 2005. On the harvestman genus Lola Kratochvíl (Opiliones: Laniatores). Natura Croatica 14 (3): 161-174.

[W01] Weissman, D. B. 2001. Communication and reproductive behaviour in Noth American Jerusalem crickets (Stenopelmatus) (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae). In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 351-375. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[Z94] Zhang, Z.-Q. 1994. Neothrombiidae (Acari: Trombidioidea) of the world: systematic review with a phylogenetic analysis and descriptions of two new genera. Oriental Insects 28: 205-237.

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