Ornithogalum

Star of Bethlehem Ornithogalum umbellatum, from here.


Belongs within: Hyacinthaceae.

Ornithogalum is a genus of about 200 species of bulbous plant found in Africa and southern Asia. Species of Ornithogalum have previously been divided between a number of genera whose reciprocal monophyly has not been supported by molecular analysis, with characters previously separating genera representing floral specialisations to different pollinators (Manning et al. 2004).

Characters (from Manning et al. 2004): Deciduous or rarely evergreen; bulb subterranean or epigeal, subglobose or rarely poorly developed and rootstock rhizomatous, tunics sometimes scale-like or loosely overlapping, rarely fragmenting into wedge-shaped segments, usually white but rarely pinkish; outer bulb tunics membranous, papery or leathery. Leaves 1 to several, green or dry at flowering, erect or spreading, linear to oblong or filiform, sometimes very succulent, usually glabrous but sometimes pubescent or glandular-pubescent, margins smooth, ciliate, fringed, or hyaline, sheaths sometimes persistent and forming a papery or weakly to strongly fibrous, sometimes horizontally barred sheath around base of stem. Inflorescence a several- to many-flowered raceme, sometimes subcorymbose with shortened axis, or secund, usually solitary but sometimes more than one; peduncle rarely papillate; bracts membranous or leafy, small or large, not spurred; bracteoles usually lacking but sometimes thread-like and borne on alternate sides of pedicels at base; pedicels short or long. Flowers white, yellow, orange, or yellowish green, with or without darker keels, scented or unscented, sometimes closing at night or more rarely nocturnal, suberect, patent or nodding, rotate, campanulate or more or less tubular, rarely weakly zygomorphic; tepals ovate to narrowly lanceolate, persistent, more or less shortly united at base or less commonly united into a distinct tube, spreading to erect, sometimes with tips reflexed, sometimes weakly to markedly dimorphic, the inner sometimes erect and more or less connivent around stamens and style and cupped or hooded and papillate at tips or developing a fleshy apical knob or flap that can be conspicuously hinged, the outer sometimes with a caudate apical appendage; stamens suberect or lightly spreading, filaments free or rarely united below, fused to base of tepals or inserted at top of tube, filiform to lanceolate, all similar or inner usually broader, both whorls or more usually inner variously expanded or toothed below, rarely membranous and closely appressed to perianth when anthers apparently sessile; anthers of outer stamens sometimes smaller or vestigial or absent; ovary ovoid to globose or turbinate, sometimes shortly stipitate, rarely with 3 apical knobs, smooth or with distinct paraseptal crests; ovules few to many per locule; style vestigial to long, cylindrical and sometimes slightly deflexed or subcylindrical or more or less trigonous or prismatic and then strongly papillate; stigma small and 3-lobed or -angled or pyramidal to large and capitate and then distinctly papillate and sometimes fringed with longer papillae. Capsule fusiform, ovoid to globose, more or less 3-angled or -lobed, membranous or leathery, enclosed in dry perianth or exposed, dehiscing loculicidally; seeds few to many per locule, flattened or angled to discoid, sometimes stacked tightly one on top of another, black, testa tightly adhering. x = 9, other base numbers 12, 11, 8, 7, 6, 4.

Ornithogalum Linnaeus 1753 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
    |--‘Eliokarmos’ flexuosum MGF04
    |--O. longibracteatum (see below for synonymy) MGF04
    |--‘Cathissa’ reverchonii MGF04
    |--O. sordidum MGF04
    |--O. tenuifolium Delaroche 1811 [=Stellarioides tenuifolium; incl. O. acuminatum Baker 1870] MGF04
    |--O. umbellatum Linnaeus 1753 MGF04, HE80 [incl. O. corymbosum Gaterau 1789 MGF04]
    |--+--O. etesiogaripense (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
    |  `--‘Stellarioides’ unifolium MGF04
    |--+--O. graminifolium [=Eliokarmos graminifolium; incl. O. brevifolium] MGF04
    |  `--‘Eliokarmos’ sardienii MGF04
    |--+--‘Stellarioides’ seinerii MGF04
    |  `--O. stapfii (see below for synonymy) MGF04
    |--+--O. filicaule Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
    |  |--O. rotatum [=Stellarioides rotatum] MGF04
    |  `--O. uitenhagense (Schönland) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
    |--+--O. xanthochlorum [=Zahariadia xanthochlorum] MGF04
    |  `--+--O. candicans (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
    |     `--+--O. saundersiae [=Zahariadia saundersiae] MGF04
    |        `--O. viridiflorum (Verd.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
    |--+--O. clavatum (Mast.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
    |  `--+--O. serotinum (Linnaeus) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
    |     `--+--O. magnum (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
    |        `--+--O. dipcadioides [incl. Dipcadi gracillimum non O. gracillimum Fries 1927] MGF04
    |           `--O. viride (Linnaeus) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
    |--+--‘Eliokarmos’ bicornutum MGF04
    |  |--‘Eliokarmos’ conicum MGF04
    |  |--‘Eliokarmos’ constrictum MGF04
    |  |--‘Eliokarmos’ fimbrimarginatum MGF04
    |  |--‘Eliokarmos’ hispidum MGF04
    |  `--‘Eliokarmos’ pruinosum MGF04
    `--+--+--O. abyssinicum (Jacq.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
       |  `--O. amboense [=Albuca amboensis] MGF04
       `--+--O. subg. Osmyne [=Coilonox] MGF04
          |    |--‘Coilonox’ inapertum MGF04
          |    |--O. polyphyllum Jacq. 1795 [=Coilonox polyphyllum] MGF04
          |    `--O. suaveolens [=Coilonox suaveolens; incl. Anthericum albucoides, *C. albucoides] MGF04
          `--+--O. setosum (Jacq.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
             `--+-- O. tortile Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
                `--+--O. clanwilliamae-gloria (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
                   `--O. shawii (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04

Ornithogalum incertae sedis:
  *O. arabicum [=*Melomphis arabica] MGF04
  O. acutum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. albanense Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. angolense Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. aristatum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. auratum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. bakerianum (Bolus) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. battenianum (Hilliard & Burtt) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. baurii (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca baurii Baker 1897] MGF04
  O. bifoliatum (Dyer) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. boucheanum GR98
  O. bulbilliferum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. candidum CV06
  O. circinatum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. collinum Guss. 1825 MGF04
  O. comosum H91
  O. concanense (Dalzell) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. concinnum [=*Cathissa concinna] MGF04
  O. convallarioides [=*Avonsera convallarioides] MGF04
  O. cooperi (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. cowanii (Perrier) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. cremnophilum (Van Jaarsv. & van Wyk) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. crinifolium (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. crispum (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. crudenii (Archibald) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. dalyae (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca dalyae Baker 1903] MGF04
  O. decipiens (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. desertorum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. diphyllum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. divergens [incl. O. proliferum Jord. & Fourr. 1866] MGF04
  O. dividens Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. drakensbergense Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. dubium [incl. O. aureum Curtis 1792] MGF04
  O. durandianum (Schinz) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. echinospermum (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. englerianum (Krause & Dinter) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. erythraeum (Webb & Berthel.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. exuviatum (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. falcatum (Lewis) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. fastigiatum (Dryand.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. fimbriatum [incl. O. ciliare Fischer ex Graham 1831] MGF04
  O. fimbrifolium Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. flaccidum (Jacq.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. fleckii (Schinz) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. foetidum (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. fragrans (Jacq.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. glanduliferum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. glandulosum Oberm. 1978 MGF04
  O. glaucescens Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. goswinii (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. gracillimum Fries 1927 MGF04
  O. hallii (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. hereroense (Schinz) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. hesquaspoortense (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. heterocuspe (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. humile (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca humilis Baker 1895] MGF04
  O. hyacinthiflorum Bergius ex Schltdl. 1826 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. hyacinthoides (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. imbricatum (Leight.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. juncifolium Jacq. 1797 [=Eliokarmos juncifolium; incl. O. tortuosum Baker 1897] MGF04
  O. karasmontanum Monng & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. kirkii [=Albuca kirkii] MGF04
  O. lanatum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. leucanthum (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. longifolium (Lindley) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. longipes (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. macowanii (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. maharashtrense (Deb & Dasgupta) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. marlothii Leight. 1945 MGF04
  O. maximum (Burm.f.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. minor (Hooker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Dipcadi minor Hooker 1892] MGF04
  O. monophyllum Baker 1897 MGF04
  O. montanum Ten. 1810 [incl. O. platyphyllum Boiss. 1844] MGF04
  O. monticola Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. moylei Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. namaquense (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. namibiense Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. narbonense PT98
  O. nelsonii (Br.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca nelsonii Br. 1880] MGF04
  O. nematophyllum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. nutans [=*Honorius nutans] MGF04
  O. oligophyllum [incl. O. bifolium Koch 1847] MGF04
  O. papillatum (Oberm.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. papyraceum (Manning & Goldblatt) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. parvum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. patersoniae (Schönland) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. pendulum (Mathew) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. pilosum [incl. O. affine Schult.f. 1830] MGF04
  O. planifolium Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. princeps (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. pyramidale H91
  O. pyrenaicum [=*Loncomelos pyrenaicus] MGF04
  O. rautanenii CV06
  O. readii (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. regale (Hilliard & Burtt) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. reidii (Deb & Dasgupta) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. rigidifolium (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. robertsonianum (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. rogersii Baker 1897 MGF04
  O. rupestre Linnaeus 1782 MGF04
  O. saxatilis Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. saxorum (Blatt.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. schlechteri (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. schoenlandii (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. simile Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. sphaerocarpum PT98
  O. tenuis (Knudtzon) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. teretifolium Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. thermarum (Van Jaarsv.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. thyrsoides [=*Eliokarmos thyrsoides] MGF04
  O. trachyphyllum (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. transvaalense (Mogg) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. tubiforme CV06
  O. turbinatum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
    |--O. t. var. turbinatum MGF04
    `--O. t. var. madrasicum (Barnes & Fischer) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. ursulae (Blatt.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
    |--O. u. var. ursulae MGF04
    `--O. u. var. longiracemosum (Deb & Dasgupta) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. vaginatum (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. viscosum (Linnaeus) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. weberlingiorum (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. wilsonii Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
  O. xanthocodon (Hilliard & Burtt) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy) MGF04

Ornithogalum Linnaeus 1753 [incl. Albuca Linnaeus 1762, Avonsera Speta 1998, Cathissa Salisb. 1866, Coilonox Raf. 1837, Dipcadi Medik. 1790, Eliokarmos Raf. 1837, Galtonia Decaisne 1880, Honorius Gray 1821, Lindneria Durand & Lubbers 1899, Loncomelos Raf. 1837, Melomphis Raf. 1837 (nom. illeg.), Neopatersonia Schönland 1912, Pseudogaltonia (Kuntze) Engl. in Engl. & Prantl 1888, Stellarioides Medik. 1790, Zahariadia Speta in Kubitzki 1998 (nom. inv.); Dipcadieae, Ornithogaleae, Ornithogaloideae] MGF04

Ornithogalum abyssinicum (Jacq.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca abyssinica Jacq. 1783] MGF04

Ornithogalum acutum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca acuminata Baker 1903 non O. acuminatum Baker 1870] MGF04

Ornithogalum albanense Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca longifolia Baker 1903 non O. longifolium (Lindley) Manning & Goldblatt 2004] MGF04

Ornithogalum angolense Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca monophylla Baker 1878 non O. monophyllum Baker 1897] MGF04

Ornithogalum aristatum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca caudata Jacq. 1791 non O. caudatum Aiton 1789] MGF04

Ornithogalum auratum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca aurea Jacq. 1791 non O. aureum Curtis 1792] MGF04

Ornithogalum bakerianum (Bolus) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Dipcadi bakerianum Bolus 1881] MGF04

Ornithogalum battenianum (Hilliard & Burtt) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca batteniana Hilliard & Burtt 1985] MGF04

Ornithogalum bifoliatum (Dyer) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca bifoliata Dyer 1931] MGF04

Ornithogalum bulbilliferum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca prolifera Wilson 1898 non O. proliferum Jord. & Fourr. 1866] MGF04

Ornithogalum candicans (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Hyacinthus candicans Baker in Saunders 1870, Galtonia candicans (Baker) Decaisne 1880] MGF04

Ornithogalum circinatum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca spiralis Linnaeus 1782 non O. spirale Schinz 1896] MGF04

Ornithogalum clanwilliamae-gloria (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca clanwilliamae-gloria Müll.-Doblies 1995] MGF04

Ornithogalum clavatum (Mast.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Galtonia clavata Mast. 1884, Lindneria clavata (Mast.) Speta 1985, Pseudogaltonia clavata (Mast.) Phillips 1935; incl. *Lindneria fibrillosa, Hyacinthus pechuelii, *P. pechuelii] MGF04

Ornithogalum concanense (Dalzell) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Uropetalon concanense Dalzell 1850, Dipcadi concanense (Dalzell) Baker 1871] MGF04

Ornithogalum cooperi (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca cooperi Baker 1874] MGF04

Ornithogalum cowanii (Perrier) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Dipcadi cowanii Perrier 1935] MGF04

Ornithogalum cremnophilum (Van Jaarsv. & van Wyk) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca cremnophila Van Jaarsv. & van Wyk 1999] MGF04

Ornithogalum crinifolium (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca crinifolia Bakder 1897] MGF04

Ornithogalum crispum (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Dipcadi crispum Baker 1871] MGF04

Ornithogalum crudenii (Archibald) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca crudenii Archibald 1956] MGF04

Ornithogalum decipiens (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca decipiens Müll.-Doblies 1995] MGF04

Ornithogalum desertorum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca reflexa Dinter & Krause 1914 non O. reflexum Freyn & Sint. 1894] MGF04

Ornithogalum diphyllum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca bifolia Baker 1903 non O. bifolium Koch 1847] MGF04

Ornithogalum dividens Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca paradoxa Dinter 1923 non O. paradoxum Jacq. 1796] MGF04

Ornithogalum drakensbergense Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca rupestris Hilliard & Burtt 1985 non O. rupestre Linnaeus 1782] MGF04

Ornithogalum durandianum (Schinz) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Dipcadi durandianum Schinz in Durand & Schinz 1895; incl. D. marlothii Engl. 1889 non O. marlothii Leight. 1945] MGF04

Ornithogalum echinospermum (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca echinosperma Müll.-Doblies 1994] MGF04

Ornithogalum englerianum (Krause & Dinter) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca engleriana Krause & Dinter 1910] MGF04

Ornithogalum erythraeum (Webb & Berthel.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Dipcadi erythraeum Webb & Berthel. 1848] MGF04

Ornithogalum etesiogaripense (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca etesiogaripensis Müll.-Doblies 1995, Stellarioides etesiogaripensis] MGF04

Ornithogalum exuviatum (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca exuviata Baker 1897] MGF04

Ornithogalum falcatum (Lewis) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Neopatersonia falcata Lewis 1952] MGF04

Ornithogalum fastigiatum (Dryand.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca fastigiata Dryand. 1784] MGF04

Ornithogalum filicaule Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Neopatersonia namaquensis Lewis 1952 non O. namaquense (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt 2004] MGF04

Ornithogalum fimbrifolium Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca ciliaris Müll.-Doblies 1994 non O. ciliare Fischer ex Graham 1831; incl. A. navicula Müll.-Doblies 1994] MGF04

Ornithogalum flaccidum (Jacq.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca flaccida Jacq. 1791] MGF04

Ornithogalum fleckii (Schinz) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca fleckii Schinz 1896] MGF04

Ornithogalum foetidum (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca foetida Müll.-Doblies 1995] MGF04

Ornithogalum fragrans (Jacq.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca fragrans Jacq. 1797] MGF04

Ornithogalum glanduliferum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca glandulosa Baker 1875 non O. glandulosum Oberm. 1978] MGF04

Ornithogalum glaucescens Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca glauca Baker 1904 non O. glaucum Dethard. ex Schult.f. 1702] MGF04

Ornithogalum goswinii (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca goswinii Müll.-Doblies 1995] MGF04

Ornithogalum hallii (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca hallii Müll.-Doblies 1994] MGF04

Ornithogalum hereroense (Schinz) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca hereroensis Schinz 1896] MGF04

Ornithogalum hesquaspoortense (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca hesquaspoortensis Müll.-Doblies 1995] MGF04

Ornithogalum heterocuspe (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Dipcadi heterocuspe Baker 1883] MGF04

Ornithogalum hyacinthiflorum Bergius ex Schltdl. 1826 [incl. Hyacinthus brevifolius Thunberg 1794 non O. brevifolium, Dipcadi brevifolium (Thunberg) Fourc. 1932] MGF04

Ornithogalum hyacinthoides (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Dipcadi hyacinthoides Baker 1871] MGF04

Ornithogalum imbricatum (Leight.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca imbricata Leight. 1947; incl. A. juncifolia Baker 1876 non Ornithogalum juncifolium Jacq. 1797] MGF04

Ornithogalum karasmontanum Monng & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca karasbergensis Glover 1915 non O. karasbergense Glover 1915] MGF04

Ornithogalum lanatum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca villosa Müll.-Doblies 1994 non O. villosum Kitton 1863] MGF04

Ornithogalum leucanthum (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca leucantha Müll.-Doblies 1994] MGF04

Ornithogalum longibracteatum [=Stellarioides longibracteatum; incl. *S. canaliculata, Ornithogalum caudatum Aiton 1789, O. massonii Gmel. 1791] MGF04

Ornithogalum longifolium (Lindley) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Uropetalon longifolium Lindley 1826, Dipcadi longifolium (Lindley) Baker 1870] MGF04

Ornithogalum longipes (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca longipes Baker 1903] MGF04

Ornithogalum macowanii (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca macowanii Baker 1897] MGF04

Ornithogalum magnum (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Dipcadi magnum Baker 1898; incl. Uropetalon glaucum Burch. ex Ker Gawl. 1816 non Ornithogalum glaucum Dethard. ex Schult.f. 1702, D. glaucum (Burch.) Baker 1871] MGF04

Ornithogalum maharashtrense (Deb & Dasgupta) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Dipcadi maharashtrensis Deb & Dasgupta 1975, D. maharashtrense] MGF04

Ornithogalum maximum (Burm.f.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca maxima Burm.f. 1768; incl. *A. major] MGF04

Ornithogalum monticola Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca collina Baker 1897 non O. collinum Guss. 1825] MGF04

Ornithogalum moylei Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca rogersii Schönland 1914 non O. rogersii Baker 1897] MGF04

Ornithogalum namaquense (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca namaquensis Baker 1897] MGF04

Ornithogalum namibiense Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca dinteri Müll.-Doblies 1995 non O. dinteri Baker 1901] MGF04

Ornithogalum nematophyllum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca tenuifolia Baker in Saunders 1872 non O. tenuifolium Delaroche 1811] MGF04

Ornithogalum papillatum (Oberm.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Dipcadi papillatum Oberm. 1964] MGF04

Ornithogalum papyraceum (Manning & Goldblatt) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca papyracea Manning & Goldblatt 2000] MGF04

Ornithogalum parvum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca nana Schönland 1912 non O. nanum (Burm.f.) Thunberg 1794] MGF04

Ornithogalum patersoniae (Schönland) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca patersoniae Schönland 1910] MGF04

Ornithogalum pendulum (Mathew) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca pendula Mathew 1994] MGF04

Ornithogalum planifolium Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Dipcadi platyphyllum Baker 1898 non O. platyphyllum Boiss. 1844] MGF04

Ornithogalum princeps (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Hyacinthus princeps Baker in Saunders 1870, *Galtonia princeps (Baker) Decaisne 1880] MGF04

Ornithogalum readii (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Dipcadi setosum var. readii Baker 1871, D. readii (Baker) Baker 1897; incl. D. ciliare (Zeyh. ex Harv.) Baker 1871 non Ornithogalum ciliare Fischer ex Graham 1831] MGF04

Ornithogalum regale (Hilliard & Burtt) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Galtonia regalis Hilliard & Burtt 1986] MGF04

Ornithogalum reidii (Deb & Dasgupta) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Dipcadi reidii Deb & Dasgupta 1978] MGF04

Ornithogalum rigidifolium (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Dipcadi rigidifolium Baker 1871] MGF04

Ornithogalum robertsonianum (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca robertsoniana Müll.-Doblies 1995] MGF04

Ornithogalum saxatilis Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca massonii Baker 1886 non O. massonii Gmel. 1791] MGF04

Ornithogalum saxorum (Blatt.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Dipcadi saxorum Blatt. 1928] MGF04

Ornithogalum schlechteri (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca schlechteri Baker 1903] MGF04

Ornithogalum schoenlandii (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca schoenlandii Baker 1903] MGF04

Ornithogalum serotinum (Linnaeus) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Hyacinthus serotinus Linnaeus 1753, Dipcadi serotinum (Linnaeus) Medik. 1790] MGF04

Ornithogalum setosum (Jacq.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca setosa Jacq. 1797] MGF04

Ornithogalum shawii (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca shawii Baker 1874] MGF04

Ornithogalum simile Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca affinis Baker 1903 non O. affine Schult.f. 1830] MGF04

Ornithogalum stapfii [=Stellarioides stapfii; incl. O. dinteri Baker 1901, O. karasbergense Glover 1915, O. spirale Schinz 1896] MGF04

Ornithogalum tenuis (Knudtzon) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca tenuis Knudtzon 1986] MGF04

Ornithogalum teretifolium Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca polyphylla Baker 1874 non O. polyphyllum Jacq. 1795] MGF04

Ornithogalum thermarum (Van Jaarsv.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca thermarum Van Jaarsv. 2003] MGF04

Ornithogalum tortile Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca tortuosa Baker 1897 non O. tortuosum Baker 1897] MGF04

Ornithogalum trachyphyllum (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca trachyphylla Müll.-Doblies 1994] MGF04

Ornithogalum transvaalense (Mogg) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca transvaalensis Mogg 1947] MGF04

Ornithogalum turbinatum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Uropetalon montanum Dalzell 1850 non O. montanum Ten. 1810, Dipcadi montanum (Dalzell) Baker 1871] MGF04

Ornithogalum turbinatum var. madrasicum (Barnes & Fischer) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Dipcadi madrasicum Barnes & Fischer 1941, D. montanum var. madrasicum (Barnes & Fischer) Deb & Dasgupta 1978] MGF04

Ornithogalum uitenhagense (Schönland) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Neopatersonia uitenhagensis Schönland 1912] MGF04

Ornithogalum ursulae (Blatt.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Dipcadi ursulae Blatt. 1928] MGF04

Ornithogalum ursulae var. longiracemosum (Deb & Dasgupta) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Dipcadi ursulae var. longiracemosae Deb & Dasgupta 1975, D. ursulae var. longiracemosum] MGF04

Ornithogalum vaginatum (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Dipcadi vaginatum Baker 1898] MGF04

Ornithogalum viride (Linnaeus) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Hyacinthus viridis Linnaeus 1762, Dipcadi viride (Linnaeus) Moench 1802] MGF04

Ornithogalum viridiflorum (Verd.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Galtonia viridiflora Verd. 1955] MGF04

Ornithogalum viscosum (Linnaeus) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca viscosa Linnaeus 1782] MGF04

Ornithogalum weberlingiorum (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca weberlingiorum Müll.-Doblies 1995] MGF04

Ornithogalum wilsonii Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca corymbosa Baker 1886 non O. corymbosum Gaterau 1789] MGF04

Ornithogalum xanthocodon (Hilliard & Burtt) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca xanthocodon Hilliard & Burtt 1985] MGF04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175-189.

[GR98] Greuter, W., & T. Raus (eds.) 1998. Med-Checklist Notulae, 17. Willdenowia 28: 163-174.

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. III. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255-260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[MGF04] Manning, J. C., P. Goldblatt & M. F. Fay. 2004. A revised generic synopsis of Hyacinthaceae in sub-Saharan Africa, based on molecular evidence, including new combinations and the new tribe Pseudoprospereae. Edinburgh Journal of Botany 60 (3): 533-568.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: Flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95-116.

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