Nemestrinidae

Individual of Prosoeca sp. feeding on flower of Babiana praemorsa, from Harald W. Krenn.


Belongs within: Brachycera.

The Nemestrinidae are a group of medium to large, compact, usually hairy flies with parasitic larvae. Eggs are laid in cracks and crevices in wood, with the mobile first-instar larvae seeking a suitable host. Most develop as endoparasites of beetle larvae or pupae; some are parasites of locusts (Askew 1971).

Characters (from Colless & McAlpine 1991): Antennal segment 3 simple and styliform, or terminating in a slender, simple or three-segmented style; veins R4+5 and M1+2 fused to form a strong composite oblque vein; tibiae without apical spurs; empodium pulvilliform; cerci of female unsegmented, sometimes conspicuously long.

<==Nemestrinidae
    |--Archinemestriinae BLM02
    |--Nemestrininae BLM02
    `--Hirmoneura GE05 [Hirmoneurinae BLM02]
         `--H. elenae GE05

Nemestrinidae incertae sedis:
  Protonemestrius rohdendorfi GE05, BLM02
  Trichopsidea [incl. Symmictus] A71
    `--T. clausa A71
  Neorhyncocephalus sackenii M90
  Prohirmoneura jurassica GE05
  Florinemestrius GE05
  Sinonemestrius GE05
  Iberomosca ponomarenkoi GE05
  Prosoeca H61
    |--P. accincta (Wiedemann 1830) [=Nemestrina accincta] H61
    |--P. caffraria Lichtwardt 1910 H61
    |--P. saxea GE05
    `--P. umbrosa H61
  Nemestrius incertus GE05
  Moegistorrhynchus longirostris GE05
  Atriadops vespertilio (Loew 1858) [=Colax vespertilio] H61
  Trichophthalma WT11

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BLM02] Blagoderov, V. A., E. D. Lukashevich & M. B. Mostovski. 2002. Order Diptera Linné, 1758. The true flies (=Muscida Laicharting, 1781). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 227-240. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia, pp. 717-786. Melbourne University Press.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H61] Hull, F. M. 1961. Diptera (Brachycera): Nemestrinidae. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebeck. South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 413-414. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211-1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690-5695.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="http://www.fieldofscience.com/">FoS</a> = FoS