Nemestrinidae

Neorhynchocephalus sackenii, copyright Robert A. Behrstock.


Belongs within: Orthorrhapha.

The Nemestrinidae are a group of medium to large, compact, usually hairy flies with parasitic larvae. Eggs are laid in cracks and crevices in wood, with the first-instar larvae often mobile and able to actively seek a suitable host. Where known, larvae of Trichopsideinae develop as parasites of grasshoppers whereas Hirmoneura attack the larvae of scarabaeid beetles. Larvae of Trichopsideinae reside in the haemocoel of their host, connected to the outside world via a respiratory tube (Teskey 1981).

Characters (from Colless & McAlpine 1991): Antennal segment 3 simple and styliform, or terminating in a slender, simple or three-segmented style; veins R4+5 and M1+2 fused to form a strong composite oblque vein; tibiae without apical spurs; empodium pulvilliform; cerci of female unsegmented, sometimes conspicuously long.

Nemestrinidae
    |--Archinemestriinae BLM02
    |--Nemestrinus Latreille 1802 L02 [Nemestrininae T81]
    |    `--*N. reticulatus L02
    |--Hirmoneura W09 [Hirmoneurinae T81]
    |    |--H. elenae GE05
    |    `--H. obscura W09
    |--Atriadops [Atriadopsinae] W09
    |    |--A. macula W09
    |    `--A. vespertilio (Loew 1858) [=Colax vespertilio] H61
    `--Trichopsideinae T81
         |--Fallenia W09
         |--Trichopsidea [incl. Symmictus] T81
         |    |--T. clausa T81
         |    `--T. oestracea CM91
         `--Neorhynchocephalus T81
              |--N. sackenii T81
              `--N. volaticus W09

Nemestrinidae incertae sedis:
  Protonemestrius rohdendorfi GE05, BLM02
  Prohirmoneura jurassica GE05
  Florinemestrius GE05
  Sinonemestrius GE05
  Iberomosca ponomarenkoi GE05
  Prosoeca H61
    |--P. accincta (Wiedemann 1830) [=Nemestrina accincta] H61
    |--P. caffraria Lichtwardt 1910 H61
    |--P. saxea GE05
    `--P. umbrosa H61
  Nemestrius incertus GE05
  Moegistorrhynchus longirostris GE05
  Trichophthalma laetilinea CM91
  Hyrmophlaebini W09
    |--Hirmoneuropsis W09
    `--Hyrmophlaeba W09
         |--H. brevirostris W09
         |--H. texana [=Hirmoneura texana] W09
         `--H. vicarians W09
  Neohirmoneura psilotes W09
  Cyclopsidea CM91

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BLM02] Blagoderov, V. A., E. D. Lukashevich & M. B. Mostovski. 2002. Order Diptera Linné, 1758. The true flies (=Muscida Laicharting, 1781). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 227–240. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H61] Hull, F. M. 1961. Diptera (Brachycera): Nemestrinidae. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebeck (eds) South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 413–414. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[T81] Teskey, H. J. 1981. Nemestrinidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 585–588. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[W09] Woodley, N. E. 2009. Nemestrinidae (tangle-veined flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 557–560. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

Last updated: 7 May 2018.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="http://www.fieldofscience.com/">FoS</a> = FoS