Mating pair of Nymphomyia, from here.

Belongs within: Panorpoidea.
Contains: Tipulomorpha, Neoneura.

The Diptera, flies, are a diverse group of insects characterised by the reduction of the hind pair of wings to small sensory knobs called halteres. Molecular analysis supports recognition of the genus Deuterophlebia, the mountain midges, as sister taxon to the remaining flies (Wiegmann et al. 2011). Deuterophlebia species live as larvae in fast-flowing streams in scattered north temperate regions of Eurasia and North America, with a single questional record from Chile (Kennedy 1981). The adult males are characterised by the possession of remarkably long antennae. Also associated with fast-flowing streams are the Nymphomyiidae, whose species have strap-like wings with reduced venation and a long fringe. These wings are shed after mating, allowing the coupled individuals to crawl underwater so the females can lay. Similar habits have been inferred for the Jurassic Strashilidae, which have been found in the fossil record as both alate and coupled dealate individuals (Huang et al. 2013).

Synapomorphies (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Pro- and metathorax reduced; hind wings reduced to halteres; labial palps fused into labellum; mandibles reduced; male abdominal spiracle 8 lost; sperm pump present.

<==Diptera (see below for synonymy)
    |--Deuterophlebia [Deuterophlebiidae, Deuterophlebioidea, Deuterophlebiomorpha] WT11
    |    |--D. coloradensis WT11
    |    |--D. inyoensis K81
    |    |--D. nielsoni M81
    |    `--D. nipponica Kitakami 1938 I92
    `--+--+--Tipulomorpha WT11
       |  `--+--Psychotipinae BLM02
       |     `--Neoneura WT11
       `--+--Strashilidae [Nakridletia, Vosilidae] HN13
          |    |--Vosila sinensis Vršanský, Ren & Shih 2010 [incl. Parazila saurica Vršanský, Ren & Shih 2010] HN13
          |    `--Strashila Rasnitsyn 1992 HN13
          |         |--*S. incredibilis HN13
          |         `--S. daohugouensis Huang, Nel et al. 2013 HN13
          `--Nymphomyiidae [Nymphomyioidea, Nymphomyiomorpha] WT11
               |--Palaeodipteron walkeri M81
               |--Felicitomyia KC81
               `--Nymphomyia HN13
                    |--*N. alba KC81
                    |--N. dolichopeza WT11
                    |--N. levanidovae KC81
                    |--N. succina HN13
                    `--N. walkeri HN13

Diptera incertae sedis:
  Protendipes O81 [Protendipedidae BLM02]
    `--P. huabeiensis Zhang 1986 RJ93
  Gracilitipula RJ93 [Gracilitipulidae BLM02]
    `--G. asiatica Hong & Wang 1990 RJ93
  Zhangobiidae BLM02
  Eretmopodites A71
  Odontosoma Townsend 1916 C92
  Arocera longirostris T27
  Antiopa Meigen 1800 BR05
  Purpurella Robineau-Desvoidy 1853 BR05
  Volvula Gistl 1848 BR05
  Pycnosoma rufifacies B88
  ‘Eatonia’ Meunier 1905 nec Hall 1857 nec Smith 1875 S61
  Megathon zwicki GE05
  Ansorgius GE05 [Ansorgiidae BLM02]
  Sinotendipes RJ93 [Sinotendipedidae BLM02]
    `--S. tuanwangensis Hong & Wang 1990 RJ93
  Speiserella Kishida 1931 TYM08
  Sericocera E12
    |--S. algira Macquart 1847 E12
    `--S. fuscipennis Macquart 1847 E12
  Physegaster Macquart 1847 E12
    `--P. maculatus Macquart 1847 E12
  Amictus pulchellus Macquart 1847 E12
  Bayeriola salicariae MB93
  Dicranophora Macquart 1834 LT61
  Aphaereta aotea N91
  ‘Helea’ Meigen 1800 (nom. rej.) non Latreille 1804 MB08
  Camptorhynchus Fischer 1808 Z94
  Horaia Tonnoir 1930 LB08
  Asiochaoborus [Asiochaoboridae] RJ93
    `--A. tenuous Hong & Wang 1990 RJ93
  Dictyodipteridae RJ93
  Diplopolyneuridae RJ93
  Dyspolyneuridae RJ93
  Eomyiidae RJ93
  Eopleciidae RJ93
    |--Eoplecia primitiva RJ93
    `--Eomycetophila asymmetrica Kovalev 1990 RJ93
  Eopolyneuridae RJ93
  Eostratiomyiidae RJ93
  Hyperpolyneuridae RJ93
  Luanpingites [Luanpingitidae] RJ93
    `--L. flavus Zhang 1986 RJ93
  Mesophantasmatidae RJ93
  Musidoromimidae RJ93
  Palaeolimnobia [Palaeolimnobiidae] RJ93
    `--P. laiyangensis Zhang et al. 1986 RJ93
  Palaeophoridae RJ93
  Palaeopleciidae RJ93
  Stratiomyopsis [Palaeostratiomyiidae, Palaeostriomyiidae] RJ93
    `--S. robusta Hong & Wang 1990 RJ93
  Paraxymyiidae RJ93
  Phragmoligoneuridae RJ93
  Pleciodictyidae RJ93
  Pleciomimella [Pleciomimidae, Sinemediidae] RJ93
    `--P. perbella Zhang et al. 1986 RJ93
  Proneottiophilum [Proneottiophilidae] RJ93
    `--P. extinctum RJ93
  Mesomphrale [Protomphralidae] RJ93
    `--M. asiatica Hong & Wang 1990 RJ93
  Protoligoneuridae RJ93
  Siberhyphus [Siberhyphidae] RJ93
    `--S. lebedevi Kovalev in Kalugina & Kovalev 1985 RJ93
  Tanyderophryneidae RJ93
  Tipulodictyidae RJ93
  Tipulopleciidae RJ93
  Palpina Malloch 1927 K18
  Erethmoptera browni R13
  Zonosoma meigenii R13
  Anistoma cinnamomea KC01
  Rhyphus fuscatus G20
  Anisomera obscura G20
  Nematocera bicolor G20
  Tethepomyia Grimaldi & Cumming 1999 GC99
    `--*T. thauma Grimaldi & Cumming 1999 GC99

Diptera [Antliata, Archidiptera, Blephariceroidea, Blephariceromorpha, Eudiptera, Muscida, Nematocera, Polyneura, Tipulariae]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BLM02] Blagoderov, V. A., E. D. Lukashevich & M. B. Mostovski. 2002. Order Diptera Linné, 1758. The true flies (=Muscida Laicharting, 1781). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 227–240. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[C92] Crawford, R. L. 1992. Catalogue of the genera and type species of the harvestman superfamily Phalangioidea (Arachnida). Burke Museum Contributions in Anthropology and Natural History 8: 1–60.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GC99] Grimaldi, D., & J. Cumming. 1999. Brachyceran Diptera in Cretaceous ambers and Mesozoic diversification of the Eremoneura. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 239: 1–124.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HN13] Huang, D., A. Nel, C. Cai, Q. Lin & M. S. Engel. 2013. Amphibious flies and paedomorphism in the Jurassic period. Nature 495: 94–97.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[K81] Kennedy, H. D. 1981. Deuterophlebiidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 199–202. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[KC81] Kevan, D. K. McE., & F. E. A. Cutten. 1981. Nymphomyiidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 203–207. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[K18] Kury, A. B. 2018. Familial nomina in harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones). Bionomina 13: 1–27.

[LB08] Lelej, A. S., & D. J. Brothers. 2008. The genus-group names of Mutillidae (Hymenoptera) and their type species, with a new genus, new name, new synonymies, new combinations and lectotypifications. Zootaxa 1889: 1–79.

[LT61] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1961. Remarks on the systematics of the Sarkodina (Protozoa), renamed homonyms and new and validated genera. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 213–234.

[MB93] Malecki, R. A., B. Blossey, S. D. Hight, D. Schroeder, L. T. Kok & J. R. Coulson. 1993. Biological control of purple loosestrife. BioScience 43 (10): 680–686.

[MB08] Matthews, E. G., & P. Bouchard. 2008. Tenebrionid Beetles of Australia: Descriptions of tribes, keys to genera, catalogue of species. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[M81] McAlpine, J. F. 1981. Key to families—adults. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 89–124. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[N91] Naumann, I. D. 1991. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants, sawflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 916–1000. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[O81] Oliver, D. R. 1981. Chironomidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 423–458. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S61] Southcott, R. V. 1961. Studies on the systematics and biology of the Erythraeoidea (Acarina), with a critical revision of the genera and subfamilies. Australian Journal of Zoology 9: 367–610.

[TYM08] Tennent, W. J., M. Yasuda & K. Morimoto. 2008. Lansania Journal of arachnology and zoology—a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal. Archives of Natural History 35 (2): 252–280.

[T27] Thomson, G. M. 1927. The pollination of New Zealand flowers by birds and insects. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 106–125.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

[Z94] Zimmerman, E. C. 1994. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 2. Brentidae, Eurhynchidae, Apionidae and a chapter on immature stages by Brenda May. CSIRO Australia.

Last updated: 7 February 2021.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="http://www.fieldofscience.com/">FoS</a> = FoS