Diptera

Mating pair of Nymphomyia, from here.


Belongs within: Panorpoidea.
Contains: Neoneura, Tipulidae, Trichoceridae.

The Diptera, flies, are a diverse group of insects characterised by the reduction of the hind pair of wings to small sensory knobs called halteres. Molecular analysis supports recognition of the genus Deuterophlebia, the mountain midges, as sister taxon to the remaining flies (Wiegmann et al. 2011). Deuterophlebia species live as larvae in fast-flowing streams in western North America; the adult males are characterised by the possession of remarkably long antennae. Also associated with fast-flowing streams are the Nymphomyiidae, whose species have strap-like wings with reduced venation and a long fringe. These wings are shed after mating, allowing the coupled individuals to crawl underwater so the females can lay. Similar habits have been inferred for the Jurassic Strashilidae, which have been found in the fossil record as both alate and coupled dealate individuals (Huang et al. 2013).

Synapomorphies (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Pro- and metathorax reduced; hind wings reduced to halteres; labial palps fused into labellum; mandibles reduced; male abdominal spiracle 8 lost; sperm pump present.

<==Diptera [Archidiptera, Blephariceroidea, Blephariceromorpha, Muscida, Nematocera, Tipulariae]
    |--Deuterophlebia [Deuterophlebiidae, Deuterophlebioidea] WT11
    |    |--D. coloradensis WT11
    |    |--D. inyoensis K81
    |    |--D. nielsoni M81
    |    `--D. nipponica Kitakami 1938 Iw92
    `--+--+--+--Psychotipinae BLM02
       |  |  `--Neoneura WT11
       |  `--Tipulomorpha WT11
       |       |--Vladiptera [Vladipteridae] BLM02
       |       |    `--V. kovalevi BLM02
       |       `--+--Tipulidae WT11
       |          `--+--Gnomuscidae GE05
       |             `--Trichoceridae WT11
       `--+--Strashilidae [Nakridletia, Vosilidae] HN13
          |    |--Vosila sinensis Vršanský, Ren & Shih 2010 [incl. Parazila saurica Vršanský, Ren & Shih 2010] HN13
          |    `--Strashila Rasnitsyn 1992 HN13
          |         |--*S. incredibilis HN13
          |         `--S. daohugouensis Huang, Nel et al. 2013 HN13
          `--Nymphomyiidae [Nymphomyioidea, Nymphomyiomorpha] WT11
               |--Palaeodipteron walkeri M81
               |--Felicitomyia KC81
               `--Nymphomyia WT11
                    |--*N. alba KC81
                    |--N. dolichopeza WT11
                    |--N. levanidovae KC81
                    |--N. succina GE05
                    `--N. walkeri HN13

Diptera incertae sedis:
  Parapsocus R02
  Protendipes O81 [Protendipedidae BLM02]
  Gracilitipulidae BLM02
  Zhangobiidae BLM02
  Eretmopodites A71
  Odontosoma Townsend 1916 C92
  Dasyneura mali H74
  Arocera longirostris T27
  Antiopa Meigen 1800 BR05
  Purpurella Robineau-Desvoidy 1853 BR05
  Volvula Gistl 1848 BR05
  Pycnosoma rufifacies B88
  ‘Eatonia’ Meunier 1905 nec Hall 1857 nec Smith 1875 S61
  Megathon zwicki GE05
  Ansorgius GE05 [Ansorgiidae BLM02]
  Sinotendipedidae BLM02
  Speiserella Kishida 1931 TYM08
  Sericocera E12
    |--S. algira Macquart 1849 E12
    `--S. fuscipennis Macquart 1849 E12
  Psilopus algirus Macquart 1849 E12
  Physegaster Macquart 1849 E12
    `--P. maculatus Macquart 1849 E12
  Amictus pulchellus Macquart 1849 E12
  Bayeriola salicariae MB93
  Scopeuma stercorarium Im92
  Oscinosoma frit S94
  Dicranophora Macquart 1834 LT61
  Aphaereta aotea N91
  Platyptera Meigen 1803 H27
  ‘Helea’ Meigen 1800 (nom. rej.) non Latreille 1804 MB08
  Camptorhynchus Fischer 1808 Z94

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BLM02] Blagoderov, V. A., E. D. Lukashevich & M. B. Mostovski. 2002. Order Diptera Linné, 1758. The true flies (=Muscida Laicharting, 1781). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 227–240. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[C92] Crawford, R. L. 1992. Catalogue of the genera and type species of the harvestman superfamily Phalangioidea (Arachnida). Burke Museum Contributions in Anthropology and Natural History 8: 1–60.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H74] Helson, G. A. H. 1974. Insect Pests: Identification, life history, and control of pests of farms, horticulture, gardens, and public health. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[H27] Herre, A. W. 1927. Gobies of the Philippines and the China Sea. Bureau of Printing: Manila.

[HN13] Huang, D., A. Nel, C. Cai, Q. Lin & M. S. Engel. 2013. Amphibious flies and paedomorphism in the Jurassic period. Nature 495: 94–97.

[Im92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[Iw92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[K81] Kennedy, H. D. 1981. Deuterophlebiidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 199–202. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[KC81] Kevan, D. K. McE., & F. E. A. Cutten. 1981. Nymphomyiidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 203–207. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[LT61] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1961. Remarks on the systematics of the Sarkodina (Protozoa), renamed homonyms and new and validated genera. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 213–234.

[MB93] Malecki, R. A., B. Blossey, S. D. Hight, D. Schroeder, L. T. Kok & J. R. Coulson. 1993. Biological control of purple loosestrife. BioScience 43 (10): 680–686.

[MB08] Matthews, E. G., & P. Bouchard. 2008. Tenebrionid Beetles of Australia: Descriptions of tribes, keys to genera, catalogue of species. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[M81] McAlpine, J. F. 1981. Key to families—adults. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 89–124. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[N91] Naumann, I. D. 1991. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants, sawflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 916–1000. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[O81] Oliver, D. R. 1981. Chironomidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 423–458. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[R02] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002. Superorder Psocidea Leach, 1815. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 125–133. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[S61] Southcott, R. V. 1961. Studies on the systematics and biology of the Erythraeoidea (Acarina), with a critical revision of the genera and subfamilies. Australian Journal of Zoology 9: 367–610.

[S94] Southcott, R. V. 1994. Revision of the larvae of the Microtrombidiinae (Acarina, Microtrombidiidae), with notes on life histories. Zoologica 48 (2): 1–155.

[TYM08] Tennent, W. J., M. Yasuda & K. Morimoto. 2008. Lansania Journal of arachnology and zoology—a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal. Archives of Natural History 35 (2): 252–280.

[T27] Thomson, G. M. 1927. The pollination of New Zealand flowers by birds and insects. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 106–125.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

[Z94] Zimmerman, E. C. 1994. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 2. Brentidae, Eurhynchidae, Apionidae and a chapter on immature stages by Brenda May. CSIRO Australia.

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