Keroplatidae

Male fungus gnat, probably Macrocera, photographed by Tony DeSantis.


Belongs within: Sciaroidea.
Contains: Platyura.

The Keroplatidae is a group of fungus gnats whose larvae live in webs. Larvae of at least some species feed on small animals caught in the web; notable examples include the glowworms Arachnocampa of Australia and New Zealand which produce light to lure prey.

Characters (from Vockeroth 2009): Body length 2.3–8.8 mm. Colour yellow to brown or black, often patterned. Usually three ocelli, middle ocellus small or rarely absent. Antenna with fourteen flagellomeres. Scutum uniformly setose or with bare longitudinal stripes; scutellum with posterior row of setae or with dorsal surface extensively setose. Scutellum sometimes with large membranous triangular basal area. Mediotergite bare. Pleural sclerites and prosternum variously haired or bare. Wing with Sc ending in C; R2+3 present, ending in R1 or C; base of M strong, weak or absent; Rs and M briefly fused at about one-third wing length. Foretibia with one apical spur, other tibiae with one or two spurs.

<==Keroplatidae
    |--Arachnocampa Edwards 1924 TE27 [Arachnocampinae V09]
    |    |--*A. luminosa (Skuse 1891) [=Bolitophila luminosa] TE27
    |    |--A. flava WT11
    |    `--A. tasmaniensis N70
    |--Macrocerinae GE05
    |    |--Paramacrocera Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |    |    `--*P. brevicornis Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |    `--Macrocera V81
    |         |--M. annulata Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         |--M. antennalis Marshall 1894 TE27
    |         |--M. campbelli Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         |--M. centralis JP76
    |         |--M. fenestrata Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         |--M. fusca Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         |--M. glabrata Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         |--M. gourlayi Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         |--M. hudsoni Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         |--M. inconspicua Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         |--M. magna P76
    |         |--M. mastersi O98
    |         |--M. milligani Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         |--M. montana Marshall 1896 [incl. M. howletti Marshall 1896] TE27
    |         |--M. ngaireae Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         |--M. obsoleta Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         |--M. parva P76
    |         |--M. pulchra Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         |--M. ruficollis Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         |--M. scoparia Marshall 1896 TE27
    |         |--M. unipunctata Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         `--M. variola V81
    `--Keroplatinae [Ceroplatinae] V81
         |  i. s.: Planarivora insignis V81
         |         Euceroplatus V81
         |           |--E. gressitti O98
         |           `--E. incolumis V81
         |         Hesperodes johnsoni V81
         |         Robsonomyia reducta V81
         |         Macrorrhyncha coxalis V81
         |         Asindulum montanum V81
         |         Paleoplatyura johnsoni V81
         |         Cerotelion V81
         |           |--C. bimaculatus Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |           |--C. dendyi (Marshall 1896) [=Ceroplatus dendyi] TE27
         |           |--C. hudsoni (Marshall 1896) [=Ceroplatus hudsoni] TE27
         |           |--C. johannseni V81
         |           |--C. leucoceras (Marshall 1896) [=Ceroplatus leucoceras] TE27
         |           |--C. niger Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |           |--C. tapleyi Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |           `--C. vitripennis Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |         Platyura V81
         |--Keroplatini V09
         |    |--Placoceratias V09
         |    |--Setostylus V09
         |    |--Ctenoceridion V09
         |    |--Heteropterna cressoni V09, V81
         |    |--Neoceroplatus V09
         |    `--Keroplatus V81
         |         |--K. clausus V81
         |         |--K. mangalorensis Edwards 1929 G60
         |         |--K. mastersi Skuse 1888 G60
         |         `--K. tipuloides L02
         `--Orfeliini V09
              |--Micrapemon V09
              |--Lapyruta V09
              |--Proceroplatus V09
              |--Pseudoplatyura truncata Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 V09, TE27
              |--Isoneuromyia V09
              |--Neoplatyura V09
              |--Pyrtaula fenestralis V09, O98
              |--Xenoplatyura V09
              |--Plautyra V09
              |--Lyprauta V09
              |--Apyrtula V09
              |--Orfelia V81
              |    |--O. fenestralis CM91
              |    |--O. genualis V81
              |    `--O. nemoralis TC04 [=Platyura nemoralis M83]
              `--Neoditomyia V09
                   |--N. spinosa L88
                   `--+--N. andina L88
                      `--N. troglophila L88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[G60] Gatenby, J. B. 1960. The Australasian mycetophilid glowworms. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 577–593.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[JP76] Joost, W., & E. Plassmann. 1976. Mycetophiliden aus dem Zentralkaukasus (Diptera: Mycetophilidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1–3): 67–68.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L88] Liebherr, J. K. 1988. General patterns in West Indian insects, and graphical biogeographic analysis of some circum-Caribbean Platynus beetles (Carabidae). Systematic Zoology 37 (4): 385–409.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[N70] Norris, K. R. 1970. General biology. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 107–140. Melbourne University Press.

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[P76] Plassmann, E. 1976. Vierter Nachtrag zu der Mycetophiliden-Sammlung des Senckenberg-Museums Frankfurt am Main (Diptera; Mycetophilidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1–3): 77–79.

[TC04] Toft, R. J., & P. J. Chandler. 2004. Three introduced species of Mycetophilidae (Diptera: Sciaroidea) established in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 43–49.

[TE27] Tonnoir, A. L., & F. W. Edwards. 1927. New Zealand fungus gnats (Diptera, Mycetophilidae). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 747–878.

[V81] Vockeroth, J. R. 1981. Mycetophilidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 223–246. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[V09] Vockeroth, J. R. 2009. Keroplatidae (predaceous fungus gnats). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 259–263. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

Last updated: 18 June 2018.

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