Mycetophilidae

Mycetophilid larvae, probably Epicypta, with a protective covering of faecal material, photographed by Kim Fleming.


Belongs within: Sciaroidea.
Contains: Sciophilini, Tetragoneurini, Gnoristini, Mycomya, Mycetophila, Zygomyia, Exechia, Allodia.

The Mycetophilidae are a family of fungus gnats characterised by having the wing veins M and CuA connected, if at all, near the level of crossvein h (Vockeroth 2009). They may be divided between the subfamilies Sciophilinae, in which the wings (if developed) have microtrichia irregularly arranged or absent, and Mycetophilinae, in which wings have microtrichia arranged in more or less regular longitudinal lines (Vockeroth 1981).

Characters (from Vockeroth 2009): Body length 1.8–8.7 mm. Colour yellow to brown or black, often patterned. Ocelli usually three, middle ocellus sometimes small or absent. Antenna no longer than body, with scape, pedicel and usually 14 flagellomeres. Palpus usually with basal palpifer and four palpal segments, the latter sometimes 1–3 in number. Hairs and bristles present on pronotum, scutum and scutellum; pleural sclerites and prosternum bare or with varied vestiture. Wing membrane with either or both macrotrichia and microtrichia. Male and female terminalia various, but with sclerites generally as in other nematocerous families. Female with tergite 10 sometimes weak or absent; cercus articulated with last sclerotised tergite, one- or two-segmented; two unsclerotised spermathecae apparently always present.

<==Mycetophilidae [Fungivoridae]
    |--Sciophilinae [Sciophilide] V81
    |    |  i. s.: Docosia Winnertz 1863 V81, P86
    |    |           |--D. dichroa V81
    |    |           |--D. moravica P76c
    |    |           |--D. muelleri Plassmann 1986 P86
    |    |           |--D. nigra Landrock 1928 P86
    |    |           `--D. setosa Landrock 1916 P86
    |    |         Aphrastomyia V81
    |    |         Boletina Staeger 1840 V81, P86
    |    |           |--B. dissipata Plassmann 1986 P86
    |    |           |--B. flaviventris P76c
    |    |           |--B. joosti Plassmann 1986 P86
    |    |           |--B. nigrofusca P76c
    |    |           |--B. oviducta V81
    |    |           |--B. plana Walker 1856 P86
    |    |           |--B. polaris P76c
    |    |           `--B. trivittata (Meigen 1818) P86
    |    |         Adicroneura biocellata V81
    |    |         Coelophthinia curta V81
    |    |         Coelosia Winnertz 1863 V81, P86
    |    |           |--C. bicornis Stackelberg 1969 P86
    |    |           |--C. limpida Plassmann 1986 P86
    |    |           |--C. tenella V81
    |    |           `--C. truncata Lundstroem 1909 P86
    |    |         Garrettella shermani V81
    |    |         Drepanocercus ensifer V81
    |    |         Aglaomyia gatineau V81
    |    |         Acomoptera plexipus V81
    |    |         Saigusaia cincta V81
    |    |         Dziedzickia V81
    |    |           |--D. marginata P76c
    |    |           `--D. vittata V81
    |    |         Speolepta leptogaster V81, P76c
    |    |         Apolephthisa subincana V81, JP76
    |    |         Rondaniella dimidiata V81
    |    |         Greenomyia joculator V81
    |    |         Megophthalmidia occidentalis V81
    |    |         Acadia polypori V81
    |    |         Hadroneura rutila V81
    |    |         Procycloneura V09
    |    |         Leiella V09
    |    |         Allactoneura CM70
    |    |--Sciophilini V81
    |    |--Tetragoneurini V81
    |    |--Gnoristini V81
    |    `--Mycomyini V81
    |         |--Mycomya V81
    |         `--Neoempheria V81
    |              |--N. balioptera V81
    |              `--N. stubbsi Chandler & Ribeiro 2003 F05
    `--Mycetophilinae V81
         |  i. s.: Neallodia V09
         |--Mycetophilini V81
         |    |--Mycetophila P86
         |    |--Dynatosoma V81
         |    |--Macrobrachius productus V81
         |    |--Zygomyia V81
         |    |--Sceptonia johannseni V81
         |    |--Epicypta V81 [incl. Delopsis CM91, Neoaphelomera V09, Platurocypta V81]
         |    |    |--E. dilatata Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |    |    |--E. immaculata Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |    |    `--E. scatophora V81
         |    |--Trichonta V81
         |    |    |--T. conjugens P76c
         |    |    |--T. falcata P76c
         |    |    |--T. mediastinalis P76c
         |    |    `--T. vulcani V81
         |    `--Phronia V81
         |         |--P. braueri V81
         |         |--P. cordata V81
         |         |--P. cornuta P76c
         |         |--P. egregia P76c
         |         |--P. mutabilis P76c
         |         `--P. tenuis JP76
         `--Exechiini V81
              |--Exechia V81
              |--Stigmatomeria crassicornis V81
              |--Pseudobrachypeza bulbosa V81
              |--Brachypeza radiata V81, G60
              |--Allodiopsis V81
              |--Tarnania tarnanii V81
              |--Brevicornu Marshall 1896 V81, TE27
              |--Allodia V81
              |--Cordyla V81
              |    |--C. fusca P76c
              |    `--C. sixi P76c
              |--Anatella V81
              |    |--A. ciliata V81
              |    |--A. dampfi P76c
              |    |--A. novata P76c
              |    |--A. simpatica P76c
              |    `--A. turi P76c
              `--Rymosia Winnertz 1863 V81, P86
                   |--R. (Rymosia) adventicia Plassmann 1986 P86
                   |--R. bifida Edwards 1924 P86
                   |--R. caucasia Plassmann 1976 P76a
                   |--R. cretensis P76c
                   |--R. dziedzickii P76c
                   |--R. guttata P76c
                   |--R. sagulata Plassmann 1976 P76b
                   |--R. spinipes Winnertz 1863 P86
                   `--R. triangularis V81

Mycetophilidae incertae sedis:
  Platyroptilon TE27
  Messala JP76
    |--M. cinerea JP76
    `--M. tenella JP76
  Parallodia lugens JP76
  Syndocosia V81
  Antlemon V81
  Paramorganiella V81
  Rhynchoplatyura V81
  Metanepsia V81
  Echinopodium V81
  Dolichodactyla V81
  Palaeodocosia V81
  Neoantlemon CM91
  Antriadophila CM91
  Nicholsonomyia CM91
  Pseudalyssiinia CM91
  Eumanota CM91
  Stenophragma CM91
  Paraleia CM70

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CM70] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1970. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 656–740. Melbourne University Press.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[G60] Gatenby, J. B. 1960. The Australasian mycetophilid glowworms. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 577–593.

[JP76] Joost, W., & E. Plassmann. 1976. Mycetophiliden aus dem Zentralkaukasus (Diptera: Mycetophilidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1–3): 67–68.

[P76a] Plassmann, E. 1976a. Zwei neue Pilzmücken aus dem Kaukasus (Diptera: Mycetophilidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1–3): 69–70.

[P76b] Plassmann, E. 1976b. Vier neue Mycetophiliden aus der ökologischen Station Messaure/Schweden (Diptera: Mycetophilidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1–3): 73–76.

[P76c] Plassmann, E. 1976c. Vierter Nachtrag zu der Mycetophiliden-Sammlung des Senckenberg-Museums Frankfurt am Main (Diptera; Mycetophilidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1–3): 77–79.

[P86] Plassmann, E. 1986. Neun neue Pilzmücken aus der Westpaläarktis (Diptera, Nematocera, Mycetophilidae). Spixiana 9 (2): 143–150.

[TE27] Tonnoir, A. L., & F. W. Edwards. 1927. New Zealand fungus gnats (Diptera, Mycetophilidae). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 747–878.

[V81] Vockeroth, J. R. 1981. Mycetophilidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 223–246. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[V09] Vockeroth, J. R. 2009. Mycetophilidae (fungus gnats). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 267–278. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

Last updated: 18 June 2018.

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