Mycetophilidae

Mycetophilid larvae, probably Epicypta, with a protective covering of faecal material, photographed by Kim Fleming.


Belongs within: Sciaroidea.
Contains: Mycetophila, Zygomyia, Allodia, Exechia, Sciophilini, Leiini, Mycomya.

The Mycetophilidae are a family of fungus gnats characterised by having the wing veins M and CuA connected, if at all, near the level of crossvein h (Vockeroth 2009).

Characters (from Vockeroth 2009): Body length 1.8–8.7 mm. Colour yellow to brown or black, often patterned. Ocelli usually three, middle ocellus sometimes small or absent. Antenna no longer than body, with scape, pedicel and usually 14 flagellomeres. Palpus usually with basal palpifer and four palpal segments, the latter sometimes 1–3 in number. Hairs and bristles present on pronotum, scutum and scutellum; pleural sclerites and prosternum bare or with varied vestiture. Wing membrane with either or both macrotrichia and microtrichia. Male and female terminalia various, but with sclerites generally as in other nematocerous families. Female with tergite 10 sometimes weak or absent; cercus articulated with last sclerotised tergite, one- or two-segmented; two unsclerotised spermathecae apparently always present.

<==Mycetophilidae
    |--Mycetophilinae TE27
    |    |--Mycetophila P86
    |    |--Zygomyia TE27
    |    |--Allodia TE27
    |    |--Exechia TE27
    |    `--Epicypta TE27
    |         |--E. dilatata Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         `--E. immaculata Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    `--Sciophilinae TE27
         |--Sciophilini TE27
         |--Leiini TE27
         |--Mycomya TE27
         `--Synapha [Gnoristini] TE27
              |--S. apicalis Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
              |--S. cawthroni Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
              |--S. claripennis Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
              |--S. gracilis Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
              |--S. parva Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
              |--S. pulchella Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
              `--S. similis Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27

Mycetophilidae incertae sedis:
  Platyroptilon TE27
  Paratinia montana Plassmann 1976 P76a
  Rymosia Winnertz 1863 P86
    |--R. (Rymosia) adventicia Plassmann 1986 P86
    |--R. bifida Edwards 1924 P86
    |--R. caucasia Plassmann 1976 P76a
    |--R. cretensis P76c
    |--R. dziedzickii P76c
    |--R. guttata P76c
    |--R. sagulata Plassmann 1976 P76b
    `--R. spinipes Winnertz 1863 P86
  Messala JP76
    |--M. cinerea JP76
    `--M. tenella JP76
  Dziedzickia marginata P76c
  Apolephthisa subincana JP76
  Boletina Staeger 1840 P86
    |--B. dissipata Plassmann 1986 P86
    |--B. flaviventris P76c
    |--B. joosti Plassmann 1986 P86
    |--B. nigrofusca P76c
    |--B. plana Walker 1856 P86
    |--B. polaris P76c
    `--B. trivittata (Meigen 1818) P86
  Parallodia lugens JP76
  Trichonta P76c
    |--T. conjugens P76c
    |--T. falcata P76c
    `--T. mediastinalis P76c
  Phronia P76c
    |--P. cornuta P76c
    |--P. egregia P76c
    |--P. mutabilis P76c
    `--P. tenuis JP76
  Ectrepesthoneura P76b
    |--E. messaurensis P76c
    `--E. referta Plassmann 1976 P76b
  Speolepta leptogaster P76c
  Syntemna P76c
    |--S. hungarica P76c
    `--S. nitidula P76c
  Docosia Winnertz 1863 P86
    |--D. moravica P76c
    |--D. muelleri Plassmann 1986 P86
    |--D. nigra Landrock 1928 P86
    `--D. setosa Landrock 1916 P86
  Anatella P76c
    |--A. dampfi P76c
    |--A. novata P76c
    |--A. simpatica P76c
    `--A. turi P76c
  Cordyla P76c
    |--C. fusca P76c
    `--C. sixi P76c
  Coelosia Winnertz 1863 P86
    |--C. bicornis Stackelberg 1969 P86
    |--C. limpida Plassmann 1986 P86
    `--C. truncata Lundstroem 1909 P86
  Exechiopsis Tuomikoski 1966 P86
    |--E. januarii Lundstroem 1913 P86
    |--E. (Exechiopsis) perita Plassmann 1986 P86
    `--E. pseudopulchella Lundstroem 1912 P86
  Planarivora AY04
  Brachypeza radiata G60
  Pseudobrachypeza bulbosa WT11
  Neoempheria stubbsi Chandler & Ribeiro 2003 F05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects 'Down Under' - diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216-234.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261-282.

[G60] Gatenby, J. B. 1960. The Australasian mycetophilid glowworms. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 577-593.

[JP76] Joost, W., & E. Plassmann. 1976. Mycetophiliden aus dem Zentralkaukasus (Diptera: Mycetophilidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1-3): 67-68.

[P76a] Plassmann, E. 1976a. Zwei neue Pilzmücken aus dem Kaukasus (Diptera: Mycetophilidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1-3): 69-70.

[P76b] Plassmann, E. 1976b. Vier neue Mycetophiliden aus der ökologischen Station Messaure/Schweden (Diptera: Mycetophilidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1-3): 73-76.

[P76c] Plassmann, E. 1976c. Vierter Nachtrag zu der Mycetophiliden-Sammlung des Senckenberg-Museums Frankfurt am Main (Diptera; Mycetophilidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1-3): 77-79.

[P86] Plassmann, E. 1986. Neun neue Pilzmücken aus der Westpaläarktis (Diptera, Nematocera, Mycetophilidae). Spixiana 9 (2): 143-150.

[TE27] Tonnoir, A. L., & F. W. Edwards. 1927. New Zealand fungus gnats (Diptera, Mycetophilidae). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 747-878.

Vockeroth, J. R. 2009. Mycetophilidae (fungus gnats). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1, pp. 267-278. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690-5695.

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